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Pregnancy and Childbirth Chapter 8. Understanding Fertility Conception – Involves the fertilization of a women’s egg by a man’s sperm – Each month a women’s.

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Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy and Childbirth Chapter 8. Understanding Fertility Conception – Involves the fertilization of a women’s egg by a man’s sperm – Each month a women’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pregnancy and Childbirth Chapter 8

2 Understanding Fertility Conception – Involves the fertilization of a women’s egg by a man’s sperm – Each month a women’s ovaries release an egg Disintegrates after 24 hours if not fertilized – 3-4 days: The egg travels through the fallopian tubes – Millions of sperm but only a few reach the uterus – Sperm release an enzyme that softens egg Fraternal twins and identical twins 2

3 3 Figure 8.1 Fertilization and early development of the embryo

4 Infertility Female infertility – One of two key causes Tubal blockage (40%) Failure to ovulate (40%) – Blocked fallopian tubes are commonly caused by (PID) » Chlamydia or gonorrhea » Endometriosis – Age, behavior, and exposure to toxic chemicals or radiation affect ovulation 4

5 Infertility Male infertility – Accounts for about 20% of infertile couples Four main categories – Hypothlamic pituitary disease – Congenital disorders – Testicular disease – Disorders of sperm transport 5

6 Pregnancy 3 periods of about 3 months (13 week trimesters) Tests – Home pregnancy tests – Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) – Can be used two weeks after fertilization Early signs and symptoms – Missed menstrual period – Slight bleeding – Nausea – Breast tenderness – Increased urination – Sleepiness, fatigue and emotional upset 6

7 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 7 Figure 8.2 Physiological changes during pregnancy

8 Continuing Changes in the Women’s Body Uterus size – During the first 3 months, the uterus enlarges to about three times its nonpregnant size – 4 th month – large enough to make abdomen protrude – 7 th -8 th month – pushes up into the rib cage Breast changes – 8 th week – Breasts may tingle or throb Muscles and ligaments loosen Weight gain 8

9 Changes During the Later Stages of Pregnancy Increased needs placed on the mother’s lungs, heart, and kidney Preliminary contractions (Braxton hicks contractions) Lightening Emotional responses to pregnancy 9

10 10 Figure 8.3 The fetus during the third trimester of pregnancy

11 Fetal Development First Trimester – Blastocyst – Fourth day Arrives in uterus – Embryo – End of second week Inner cells divide into three layers Endoderm– gut tube Mesoderm– muscle, bone, blood, kidneys, and sex glands Ectoderm– skin, hair, and nervous tissue – All major body structures are formed between 2nd and 9th week – 2nd Month – Fetus 11

12 Fetal Development Second Trimester – Fetus grows to about 14 inches and 1.5 pounds Third Trimester – Fetus gains protective fat layers, respiratory and digestive organs develop 12

13 13 Figure 8.5 A cross-sectional view of the fetus in the uterus and an enlargement of the placenta

14 Diagnosing Fetal Abnormalities Ultrasonography (Ultrasound) – High frequency sound waves Amniocentesis – Fluid removal from the uterus Chorionic villus sampling – Removal of tiny section of chorionic villi Quadruple marker screen (QMS) – Maternal blood test – Analyzes four hormone levels and compares to appropriate standards 14

15 The Importance of Prenatal Care Regular medical checkups Blood tests Prenatal nutrition Avoiding drugs and other environmental hazards: – Teratogens 1 st trimester Congenital malformations – Alcohol – Tobacco – Caffeine – Drugs – STDs and other infections 15

16 The Importance of Prenatal Care Prenatal activity and exercise – Moderate exercise program 30 minutes most days Cardiovascular exercises – Kegel Exercises – Prenatal exercise classes Preparing for birth 16

17 Complications of Pregnancy and Pregnancy Loss Ectopic pregnancy Spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage Gestational diabetes Preterm labor Low-birth weight (LBW) – Less than 5.5 pounds Infant mortality – SIDS 17

18 Labor and Delivery Entire process 2-36 hours First stage of labor – Average of 13 hours for a first birth – Cervix is completely dilated (10 centimeters) – Hormonal changes – Contractions (30 seconds and occur every minutes) – Mucus plug is expelled and amniotic sac may rupture – Transition: Contractions may last seconds and be 1-3 minutes apart 18

19 Childbirth Second Stage of Labor – Baby slowly pushed into birth canal – Baby squeezes through pelvis – Head is usually delivered first – Umbilical cord is cut Third Stage of Labor – Delivery of the placenta – Stage typically lasts 5-30 minutes Apgar score of the baby – Heart rate – Respiration – Color – Reflexes – Muscle tone – Total score is between 0 and 10 19

20 20 Figure 8.7 Birth: labor and delivery

21 Cesarean Deliveries 2006 about 31.1% of babies born in the U.S. Surgical removal of the baby – Baby’s head too large – Mother has a serious health condition – Mother who is overweight or diabetes – Difficult labor – Fetal distress – Dangerous infections – 90% of cesarean mothers will have subsequent deliveries by cesarean 21

22 Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery Childbirth preparation courses – Breathing and relaxation techniques – Lamaze, Bradley, or hypnosis Epidural Narcotics – Fentanyl or demeral – Provide less pain relief than a epidural 22

23 Postpartum Period 3 months following childbirth Critical family adjustment 6-8 weeks for the mother’s reproductive organs to return to pre-birth condition Breastfeeding – About 74% of mothers breast-feed – Lactation begins about 3 days post-childbirth – Colostrum is produced prior to lactation Postpartum depression 23


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