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Pregnancy and Childbirth

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Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy and Childbirth"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pregnancy and Childbirth
Chapter 8

2 Understanding Fertility
Conception Involves the fertilization of a women’s egg by a man’s sperm Each month a women’s ovaries release an egg Disintegrates after 24 hours if not fertilized 3-4 days: The egg travels through the fallopian tubes Millions of sperm but only a few reach the uterus Sperm release an enzyme that softens egg Fraternal twins and identical twins

3 Figure 8.1 Fertilization and early development of the embryo

4 Infertility Female infertility One of two key causes
Tubal blockage (40%) Failure to ovulate (40%) Blocked fallopian tubes are commonly caused by (PID) Chlamydia or gonorrhea Endometriosis Age, behavior, and exposure to toxic chemicals or radiation affect ovulation

5 Infertility Male infertility
Accounts for about 20% of infertile couples Four main categories Hypothlamic pituitary disease Congenital disorders Testicular disease Disorders of sperm transport

6 Pregnancy 3 periods of about 3 months (13 week trimesters) Tests
Home pregnancy tests Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) Can be used two weeks after fertilization Early signs and symptoms Missed menstrual period Slight bleeding Nausea Breast tenderness Increased urination Sleepiness, fatigue and emotional upset

7 Figure 8.2 Physiological changes during pregnancy
© 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

8 Continuing Changes in the Women’s Body
Uterus size During the first 3 months, the uterus enlarges to about three times its nonpregnant size 4th month – large enough to make abdomen protrude 7th-8th month – pushes up into the rib cage Breast changes 8th week – Breasts may tingle or throb Muscles and ligaments loosen Weight gain

9 Changes During the Later Stages of Pregnancy
Increased needs placed on the mother’s lungs, heart, and kidney Preliminary contractions (Braxton hicks contractions) Lightening Emotional responses to pregnancy Complications and changes in later pregnancy Backache, fluid retention, leg cramps, heartburn, or constipation Preliminary, or Braxton Hicks, contractions (irregular, short and painless) Lightening is the setting of the fetus into the pelvic cavity

10 Figure 8.3 The fetus during the third trimester of pregnancy

11 Fetal Development First Trimester Blastocyst – Fourth day
Arrives in uterus Embryo – End of second week Inner cells divide into three layers Endoderm– gut tube Mesoderm– muscle, bone, blood, kidneys, and sex glands Ectoderm– skin, hair, and nervous tissue All major body structures are formed between 2nd and 9th week 2nd Month – Fetus

12 Fetal Development Second Trimester Third Trimester
Fetus grows to about 14 inches and 1.5 pounds Third Trimester Fetus gains protective fat layers, respiratory and digestive organs develop

13 Figure 8.5 A cross-sectional view of the fetus in the uterus and an enlargement of the placenta

14 Diagnosing Fetal Abnormalities
Ultrasonography (Ultrasound) High frequency sound waves Amniocentesis Fluid removal from the uterus Chorionic villus sampling Removal of tiny section of chorionic villi Quadruple marker screen (QMS) Maternal blood test Analyzes four hormone levels and compares to appropriate standards

15 The Importance of Prenatal Care
Regular medical checkups Blood tests Prenatal nutrition Avoiding drugs and other environmental hazards: Teratogens 1st trimester Congenital malformations Alcohol Tobacco Caffeine Drugs STDs and other infections

16 The Importance of Prenatal Care
Prenatal activity and exercise Moderate exercise program 30 minutes most days Cardiovascular exercises Kegel Exercises Prenatal exercise classes Preparing for birth

17 Complications of Pregnancy and Pregnancy Loss
Ectopic pregnancy Spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage Gestational diabetes Preterm labor Low-birth weight (LBW) Less than 5.5 pounds Infant mortality SIDS

18 Labor and Delivery Entire process 2-36 hours First stage of labor
Average of 13 hours for a first birth Cervix is completely dilated (10 centimeters) Hormonal changes Contractions (30 seconds and occur every minutes) Mucus plug is expelled and amniotic sac may rupture Transition: Contractions may last seconds and be 1-3 minutes apart

19 Childbirth Second Stage of Labor Third Stage of Labor
Baby slowly pushed into birth canal Baby squeezes through pelvis Head is usually delivered first Umbilical cord is cut Third Stage of Labor Delivery of the placenta Stage typically lasts 5-30 minutes Apgar score of the baby Heart rate Respiration Color Reflexes Muscle tone Total score is between 0 and 10

20 Figure 8.7 Birth: labor and delivery

21 Cesarean Deliveries 2006 about 31.1% of babies born in the U.S.
Surgical removal of the baby Baby’s head too large Mother has a serious health condition Mother who is overweight or diabetes Difficult labor Fetal distress Dangerous infections 90% of cesarean mothers will have subsequent deliveries by cesarean

22 Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery
Childbirth preparation courses Breathing and relaxation techniques Lamaze, Bradley, or hypnosis Epidural Narcotics Fentanyl or demeral Provide less pain relief than a epidural

23 Postpartum Period 3 months following childbirth
Critical family adjustment 6-8 weeks for the mother’s reproductive organs to return to pre-birth condition Breastfeeding About 74% of mothers breast-feed Lactation begins about 3 days post-childbirth Colostrum is produced prior to lactation Postpartum depression

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