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Dying & Bereavement Chapter 16. Definitions of Death zMany sociocultural variations yEvent, boundary, reward/punishment, image zClinical death yLack of.

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Presentation on theme: "Dying & Bereavement Chapter 16. Definitions of Death zMany sociocultural variations yEvent, boundary, reward/punishment, image zClinical death yLack of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dying & Bereavement Chapter 16

2 Definitions of Death zMany sociocultural variations yEvent, boundary, reward/punishment, image zClinical death yLack of heart beat & respiration (older) yBrain death (rule out other conditions) xno brain activity for 10 minutes xNo respiration for 60 minutes xNo change in 24 hours

3 Ethical Issues zActive Euthanasia yDeliberate ending of someone’s life xExpressed desire of person xDegenerative disease, persistent vegetative state yWide variation in views xDeath with Dignity (1994) in Oregon

4 Ethical Issues zPassive euthanasia (withhold treatment) yChemotherapy yMore likely at later stages of illness yExpressed desire of patient zIntentions yLiving wills (stating wishes regarding life support, etc.) yDurable power of attorney (legal authority)

5 Personal Aspects of Death zFeelings about death change over lifespan yYoung: intense feelings of loss, grief xFormal -> post-formal reduces feelings of immortality & increases sensitivity to emotional consequences of death yMidlife: parents death = realization that you are next generation to die xTime seems to speed up & focus is on time left yOlder: less anxious, more accepting (ego integrity)

6 One’s own death zKubler-Ross (5 stages) yDenial yAnger yBargaining yDepression yAcceptance xStages not fixed or universal xIndividual differences

7 Death Anxiety zSeveral components yPain yNonbeing yInterruption of goals yNegative impact on survivors xPublic xPrivate xNonconscious

8 Death Anxiety zOlder adults lower zEgo integrity, illness, psychological problems -> higher DA in older women zMen fear unknown more zWomen fear death process more

9 Death Anxiety zCoping yLive life to the fullest (increase ego integrity) yDeath education yCreating a final scenario (managing end of life) xLiving will, hospice, etc.

10 Grieving zGrief is an active process involving dramatic changes in life yAcknowledge the reality of the loss yWork through emotional turmoil yAdjust to environment w/o deceased yLoosen ties to deceased xWide individual differences xLong process

11 Risk Factors for Grieving zPersonal attachment yStrong/secure w/ sudden loss harder zMen more likely to die than women zWomen more likely to become depressed zYounger have more health problems zKinship yLoss of child worst, then spouse, then parent

12 Dying Across the Lifespan zChildhood yNot until 5-7 years old do kids understand permanency of death y3 changes impact understanding of death xCognitive-language development (concrete operations) xPsychosocial development (guilt, love) xCoping skills (wishful thinking, regression) yNo long term effects from grieving during childhood

13 Dying Across the Lifespan zDeath of one’s child yIntense mourning (due to attachment) zDeath of one’s parent yLose relationship but also psychological buffer between us and death yWe are now next in line to die

14 Dying Across the Lifespan zDeath of one’s partner yDeep personal loss yLose portion of the self yMourning pressure yQuality of social support critical to recovery yBias recall of relationship


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