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 Specialized process where trained professional uses psychological methods  Differing forms of psychotherapy have differing methods › Psychoanalytic:

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Presentation on theme: " Specialized process where trained professional uses psychological methods  Differing forms of psychotherapy have differing methods › Psychoanalytic:"— Presentation transcript:


2  Specialized process where trained professional uses psychological methods  Differing forms of psychotherapy have differing methods › Psychoanalytic: focuses on gaining insight › Humanistic: focuses on gaining insight › Social learning or behavior therapy: uses forms of teaching Therapies

3  Relationship involves power of therapist, emotional patient divulging personal data  Ethical Standards › Goals of treatment understood/agreed to by client; in best interest of client and society › Careful consideration given to alternatives › Therapist treats only within limits of expertise Therapies

4  Ethical Standards › Effectiveness of treatment must be evaluated › Rules and laws of confidentiality followed › No abuse of therapist-client relationship › Therapist must treat all humans with dignity; respecting all genders, races, sexual orientation, and other sociocultural factors Therapies

5  Psychoanalysis – founded by Freud › Root of all problems is in unconscious conflicts › Imbalance in id, ego, and superego › Conscious insight can resolve conflicts › Special therapy techniques may be used  Free association  Dream interpretation  Interpretation of resistance (from vague forms to specific resistance) Therapies

6  Psychoanalysis › Transference – therapist-client relationship takes form of client’s relationships with own parents and other authority figures › Catharsis – emotional experience or temporary relief from discomfort (some insight gained) › Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression  Emerged from psychoanalytic tradition  Identifies sources of depression and goals for therapy process; very successful outcomes Therapies

7  Humanistic psychology – Carl Rogers › People not born with unconscious mind › Client-centered therapy or person- centered  Emphasis on client’s ability to help self – feels emotionally safe enough to explore own hidden emotions  Therapist creates unconditional atmosphere (warmth, genuine positive regard, empathy) › Reflection – therapist makes statements to clarify client’s feelings and emotions Therapies

8  Gestalt therapy – founded by F. Perls › Humanistic psychotherapy approach › Meanings of sensations organized into whole perceptions › Goal: create therapeutic experience helping client achieve greater self- awareness › Emotional atmosphere: therapists often deal in confrontive, challenging manner necessary to loosen denied feelings Therapies

9  Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) › Abnormal behavior learned from inappropriate experiences through  Classical conditioning  Operant conditioning  Modeling › Learning is central goal of therapy; therapist is teacher and client learns adaptive behaviors › Cognitions less important Therapies

10  Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) › Fear reduction methods using  Graded exposure - series of increasingly fearful situations experienced for gradual mastery  Use of modern technology - computer- generated virtual reality  Treats obsessive-compulsive disorders when used with other methods Therapies

11  Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) › Social skills training  Shaping and positive reinforcement used in role playing  Teach use of adaptive skills enough to handle real-life situations  Focus on social skill problem of unassertiveness Therapies

12  Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) › Cognitive restructuring  Assumes faulty cognitions – maladaptive beliefs, expectations, and thinking  Effective for treating anxiety, depression  Cannot modify clients’ existing behaviors because of inaccurate ways of thinking about themselves Therapies

13  Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) › Cognitive restructuring  Patterns of cognition contributing to emotional distress Therapies –Selective abstraction –Overgeneralization –Arbitrary interference –Magnification and minimization –Personalization –Absolutistic thinking

14 10 0 15 20 25 30 35 5 Allocation Initial3 wks3 mos6 mos9 mos Self-help booklet CBT Untreated What works best?

15  Group therapy › Carried out with groups of 4 to 8 clients; sees experience more effective than individual therapy techniques  Receives encouragement from others  Sees problem experienced by others  Learn from others’ advice  Learn new ways to interact with others  Format of group therapy varies widely Therapies

16  Family therapy › Group composed of family members › Therapist trained in psychoanalytic, humanistic, and behavioral approaches › Beliefs  Family issues at root of problem  Dynamics of family system need analysis – function of each need to be understood Therapies

17  Family therapy › Therapists’ goals to resolve problems by improving functioning of family system  Give family members insights and correct family dysfunctions  Increase warmth and intimacy in family  Improve family member communication  Help members establish reasonable set of rules for family regulation Therapies

18  Ethnic, gender, and sexual issues in mental health › U.S. has one of most advanced mental health system in world – does not cover all citizens  Hispanics - less outpatient care than whites  African Americans – more likely than whites to be committed to psychiatric hospitals (often involuntarily) Therapies

19  Ethnic, gender, and sexual issues › U.S. mental health system  Fewer women receive mental health services than men  Gender of therapist does not appear to influence outcomes › Feminist psychotherapy – radical approach  Women treated as second-class citizens and Barbie dolls Therapies

20  Goals of Feminist Psychotherapy › Advocates equal relationship in therapy › Encourage women to see how society limited them to dependent roles › Encourage women to become aware of their anger; find constructive ways of expressing › Have women define selves as independent › Women encouraged to consider own needs › Women should develop nontraditional skills Therapies

21  Drug therapy › Widely used to treat abnormal behavior › Commonly used psychiatric drugs › Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) › Transcranial stimulation  Magnetic field used on frontal cortex Therapies Effexor Paxil Prozac Zorloft Xanax Geodon Haldol Navane Risperdal Zyprexa Depakote Epilim

22  Psychosurgery › Trephining › Prefrontal labotomy › Modern names for labotomy surgeries conducted today  Capuslotomy  Cingulotomy Therapies

23 Trephining operations were apparently performed in the Middle Ages to treat abnormal behavior

24 Therapies

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