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First Aid Program Mrs. Sapana Bhattarai RN, BSN, MSN (Student) Organized by Kent-NSA (Nepalese Student Association at Kent State University, OH, USA) Jan.

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Presentation on theme: "First Aid Program Mrs. Sapana Bhattarai RN, BSN, MSN (Student) Organized by Kent-NSA (Nepalese Student Association at Kent State University, OH, USA) Jan."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Aid Program Mrs. Sapana Bhattarai RN, BSN, MSN (Student) Organized by Kent-NSA (Nepalese Student Association at Kent State University, OH, USA) Jan 6, 2007

2 What is First Aid? First Aid- immediate care given to injured or suddenly ill person

3 First Aid for Sprains & Strains Sprain- overstretching or tearing a ligament, tendon, muscle Strain- overstretched or overexerted muscle or tendon Pain and swelling

4 Sprains & Strains Continued… First Aid Apply R.I.C.E. - rest, ice, compression, elevation R- Rest for 24 to 48 hours I- Ice area for 5 to 20 minutes hourly for 48 to 72 hours C-Compress area by wrapping tightly with elastic bandage for 30 minutes, then unwrap for 15 minutes E- Elevate area to reduce swelling. Elevate it while you sleep

5 Sprains & Strains Continued… Aspirin, ibuprofen to reduce inflammation and pain Acetaminophen (Tylenol) to reduce pain Once injured area begins to heal, do M.S.A. (movement, strength, alternate activities)

6 First Aid for Broken Bones Type of broken bones (Fractures):  Simple or closed fractures: no b roken bone visible through skin, no skin wound near fracture site  Compound or open fracture: partially or completely separated bone, skin wound. Can protrude broken bone through the skin

7 Broken Bones Continued… Sign and symptoms: Swelling, deformity, pain, tenderness Swelling, deformity, pain, tenderness Inability to use injured part Inability to use injured part If severe bleeding from open fracture: Monitor for shock, breathing and pulse Monitor for shock, breathing and pulse Have victim lie flat Have victim lie flat Elevate victim's feet 8 to 12 inches Elevate victim's feet 8 to 12 inches Cover victim with blanket to keep warm Cover victim with blanket to keep warm

8 Broken Bones Continued… Remove clothing covering wound. Cut clothing away Remove clothing covering wound. Cut clothing away Don’t move injured area Don’t move injured area Use plastic bag or many layers of gauze pads to apply direct pressure to wound to stop bleeding Use plastic bag or many layers of gauze pads to apply direct pressure to wound to stop bleeding Cover wounded area with clean cloth or dressing Cover wounded area with clean cloth or dressing Continue to apply pressure as long as wound bleeds Continue to apply pressure as long as wound bleeds Add new dressings over existing ones Add new dressings over existing ones

9 Broken Bones Continued… Immobilize injured area using splint. Make splints from rolled-up newspapers, magazines, blankets Immobilize injured area using splint. Make splints from rolled-up newspapers, magazines, blankets Place splint above and below fracture hold in place with strip of cloth Place splint above and below fracture hold in place with strip of cloth

10 Broken Bones Continued… Broken arm- make a sling with triangular piece of cloth. Place forearm in it and tie ends around neck so arm is resting at 90 degree Broken arm- make a sling with triangular piece of cloth. Place forearm in it and tie ends around neck so arm is resting at 90 degree Check pulse, swelling, numbness, If no pulse, splint is too tight and must be loosened Check pulse, swelling, numbness, If no pulse, splint is too tight and must be loosened Take aspirin, ibuprofen or Tylenol Take aspirin, ibuprofen or Tylenol

11 First Aid for Burns Burns result from: dry heat-fire moist heat- steam, hot liquids electricity Chemicals Radiation- sunlight

12 Burns Continued… First degree burns: Mild sunburn, brief contact with heat source - hot iron Affect only outer skin layer Area appears dry, red, mildly swollen Painful and sensitive to touch

13 Burns Continued… First Aid Immediately place affected area in container of cold water or under cold running water for minutes Do not apply ice or cold water for long time Keep area uncovered, elevated. Apply dry dressing Do not use butter or other ointments. Call your doctor if infection (fever, chills, redness, swelling, pus) Take aspirin, Tylenol, ibuprofen

14 Burns Continued… Second degree burns Severe sunburn hot liquids, flash from gasoline Affect skin's lower layers and outer skin Painful, swollen, show redness, blisters Skin develops weepy, watery surface

15 Burns Continued… For Second Degree Burns Immerse affected area in cold (not ice) water until pain subsides. Dip clean cloths in cold water and apply them over and over again to burned area for an hour

16 Burns Continued… Do not break any blisters Avoid applying antiseptic sprays, ointments Dress area with single layer of loose gauze. Hold in place with bandage Change dressing next day and every two days after that

17 Burns Continued… Elevate burnt area higher than body Call your doctor if infection develops Take aspirin, ibuprofen, tylenol

18 Burns Continued… Third degree burns Outer, deeper skin layers, tissue, organs. Appear black and white Swollen skin and exposed underlying tissue Less pain May be no pain at all if destroyed nerve endings Emergency treatment, hospitalization

19 Burns Continued… Turn off electric current, "stop, drop and roll" on floor or ground or douse with cold water or wrap victim in cotton blanket or rug Check breathing, pulse, shock Remove clothing, only if not stick to burned area. Cut unstuck clothing

20 Burns Continued… Remove jewelry, if possible Elevate burned arm or leg above heart level. If face burned, have victim sit up Cool burned skin with cool water Don't use cold water on large, third degree burns. Don't immerse in ice water

21 Burns Continued… Use cold compresses on burns of hands, feet, face for minutes Cover with clean cloth or sterile dressing. Don't apply ointment, cream, butter Don't give victim anything to drink or eat

22 First Aid for Chest Pain Causes of chest pain : Heart attack Chest wall or lung injury Collapsed lung Other causes : Pneumonia or bronchitis Heartburn Anxiety

23 Chest Pain Continued… Symptoms of chest pain due to heart attack Pain that spreads to arm, neck or jaw Feeling of pressure, especially on left side Shortness of breath or trouble breathing Nausea and/or vomiting Sweating irregular pulse or heartbeat Feeling anxious

24 Chest Pain Continued… Ask victim if he uses heart medicine (nitroglycerin). If yes, place tablet under tongue. Give up to 3 tablets in 10 minutes Keep victim in comfortable position Do not have victim lie down, if he has breathing problems Half-sitting position is better with legs up and bent at knees. Put pillow or rolled towel under knees, support back

25 Chest Pain Continued… Reassure victim and stay with him until you get help Loosen any clothing around victim's neck, chest, waist Monitor victim for breathing, pulse

26 First Aid for Choking Adults: Conscious Victim Choking is indicated by Distress Signal (hands clutching throat) Choking is indicated by Distress Signal (hands clutching throat) If victim can speak, cough or breathe, don’t interfere If victim can speak, cough or breathe, don’t interfere If victim can’t speak, cough or breathe, give abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver) If victim can’t speak, cough or breathe, give abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver) Reach around victim's waist. Position one clenched fist above navel and below rib cage. Grasp fist with other hand Reach around victim's waist. Position one clenched fist above navel and below rib cage. Grasp fist with other hand Pull clenched fist sharply and directly backward and upward under rib cage 6 to 10 times quickly Pull clenched fist sharply and directly backward and upward under rib cage 6 to 10 times quickly

27 Choking Continued… In late pregnancy, give chest thrusts. Stand behind victim. Place thumb of left fist against middle of breastbone. Grab fist with right hand. Squeeze chest 4 times quickly In late pregnancy, give chest thrusts. Stand behind victim. Place thumb of left fist against middle of breastbone. Grab fist with right hand. Squeeze chest 4 times quickly Continue uninterrupted until obstruction is relieved or advanced life support is available. Continue uninterrupted until obstruction is relieved or advanced life support is available. Have victim examined by physician Have victim examined by physician

28 Choking Continued… If Victim Becomes Unconscious Position victim on back, arms by side Position victim on back, arms by side Shout for "Help". Call Shout for "Help". Call Perform finger sweep to try to remove foreign body Perform finger sweep to try to remove foreign body Perform rescue breathing. If unsuccessful, give 6-10 abdominal thrusts Perform rescue breathing. If unsuccessful, give 6-10 abdominal thrusts Be on both sides of victim’s thigh Be on both sides of victim’s thigh Put heel of one hand against middle of victim’s abdomen above navel and below sternum’s notch Put heel of one hand against middle of victim’s abdomen above navel and below sternum’s notch

29 Choking Continued… Press inward and upward using both hands with up to 6-10 abdominal thrusts Press inward and upward using both hands with up to 6-10 abdominal thrusts Repeat sequence: perform finger sweep, rescue breathing, perform abdominal thrusts until successful or advanced life support is available. Repeat sequence: perform finger sweep, rescue breathing, perform abdominal thrusts until successful or advanced life support is available. If successful, have victim examined by doctor If successful, have victim examined by doctor

30 Choking Continued… Conscious Child (Over 1 year old) Abdominal thrusts same as adults Abdominal thrusts same as adults Unconscious Child (Over 1 year old) Abdominal thrusts same as adults. Abdominal thrusts same as adults. But Don’t do blind finger sweep in children up to 8 years old. Do tongue-jaw lift and remove foreign body only if you can see it But Don’t do blind finger sweep in children up to 8 years old. Do tongue-jaw lift and remove foreign body only if you can see it

31 First Aid for Eye Injuries Causes of eye injuries: Physical blow to eye Physical blow to eye Harsh chemicals like bleach and acids can burn eye tissue and damage eyes Harsh chemicals like bleach and acids can burn eye tissue and damage eyes grain of sand, fleck of paint, sliver of metal or splinter of wood- scratch cornea and cause infection grain of sand, fleck of paint, sliver of metal or splinter of wood- scratch cornea and cause infection Insect bites Insect bites

32 Eye Injuries Continued… If foreign body sticking into eye: Do not try to remove object Do not try to remove object Do not press, touch or rub eye Do not press, touch or rub eye Wash hands with soap and water Wash hands with soap and water Cover affected eye with paper cup or other clean object Cover affected eye with paper cup or other clean object Hold paper cup in place with tape without putting pressure Hold paper cup in place with tape without putting pressure

33 Eye Injuries Continued… Gently cover unaffected eye to keep affected eye from moving Gently cover unaffected eye to keep affected eye from moving If alone, do not cover unaffected eye, avoid side to side or up and down eye movement. Phone or yell for help If alone, do not cover unaffected eye, avoid side to side or up and down eye movement. Phone or yell for help

34 Eye Injuries Continued… If severe blow to the eye Close the eye Close the eye Put cold compress over injured area, not directly on eye. Can use ice in plastic bag or bag of frozen vegetables Put cold compress over injured area, not directly on eye. Can use ice in plastic bag or bag of frozen vegetables Do not use firm pressure Do not use firm pressure Keep victim lying down with eyes closed Keep victim lying down with eyes closed If alone, phone or yell for help If alone, phone or yell for help

35 Eye Injuries Continued… If a cut to eye or eyelid Loosely cover both eyes with sterile cloth or pad and gently tape in place Loosely cover both eyes with sterile cloth or pad and gently tape in place Keep victim lying flat on back Keep victim lying flat on back If alone, phone for help If alone, phone for help Loosely cover only affected eye with sterile cloth or pad and keep your other eye from moving Loosely cover only affected eye with sterile cloth or pad and keep your other eye from moving

36 Eye Injuries Continued… If eye exposed with harmful chemical Flush eye with water immediately Flush eye with water immediately Have victim lie down and turn his head to side with affected eye lower than other eye Have victim lie down and turn his head to side with affected eye lower than other eye Hold affected eye open with your thumb and forefinger Hold affected eye open with your thumb and forefinger Pour large quantities of warm water from pitcher or other clean container over entire eye from inside to outside corner Pour large quantities of warm water from pitcher or other clean container over entire eye from inside to outside corner

37 Eye Injuries Continued… Continue pouring water for at least minutes Continue pouring water for at least minutes Loosely bandage eye with sterile cloth and tape Loosely bandage eye with sterile cloth and tape Do not touch eye Do not touch eye If both eyes affected- pour water over both eyes at the same time or quickly alternate from one eye to another If both eyes affected- pour water over both eyes at the same time or quickly alternate from one eye to another Or, place victim's face in sink or container filled with warm water. Have him or her move his or her eyelids up and down Or, place victim's face in sink or container filled with warm water. Have him or her move his or her eyelids up and down

38 Eye Injuries Continued… To remove foreign object in the eye: Wash your hands Wash your hands Twist piece of tissue, moisten tip with tap water, try to touch small piece with the tip. Twist piece of tissue, moisten tip with tap water, try to touch small piece with the tip. If it is under upper lid, look down and pull upper lid away from eyeball by grabbing eyelashes If it is under upper lid, look down and pull upper lid away from eyeball by grabbing eyelashes Try to touch debris with tip of moistened tissue Try to touch debris with tip of moistened tissue

39 Eye Injuries Continued… Do not rub eye. Never use tweezers Do not rub eye. Never use tweezers Gently wash eye with cool water Gently wash eye with cool water Cover eye with patch for 24 hours to relieve pain Cover eye with patch for 24 hours to relieve pain

40 First Aid for Fainting Brief loss of consciousness for several seconds or up to an hour Causes of fainting: Low blood sugar Low blood sugar Anemia Anemia Rapid loss of blood (internal bleeding or external bleeding) Rapid loss of blood (internal bleeding or external bleeding) Heart attack or stroke. Heart attack or stroke. Heat stroke or heat exhaustion Heat stroke or heat exhaustion

41 Fainting Continued… Just before fainting, person may: Feel a sense of dread Feel a sense of dread Feel dizzy Feel dizzy See spots before his or her eyes See spots before his or her eyes Have nausea Have nausea

42 Fainting Continued… First Aid Catch person before he falls. Catch person before he falls. Have person lie down with head below level of heart. Raise legs 8 to 12 inches. Have person lie down with head below level of heart. Raise legs 8 to 12 inches. If victim is about to faint lies down right away, he may not lose consciousness. If victim is about to faint lies down right away, he may not lose consciousness. Turn victim's head to side so tongue doesn't fall back into throat Turn victim's head to side so tongue doesn't fall back into throat Loosen any tight clothing. Loosen any tight clothing. Apply moist towels to person's face and neck Apply moist towels to person's face and neck

43 Fainting Continued… Keep victim warm Keep victim warm Don't shake anyone who's just fainted. Don't shake anyone who's just fainted. Don't try to give person anything to eat or drink until fully conscious Don't try to give person anything to eat or drink until fully conscious Don't allow person who's fainted to get up until sense of physical weakness passes. Don't allow person who's fainted to get up until sense of physical weakness passes. Watch for few minutes to make sure he doesn't faint again Watch for few minutes to make sure he doesn't faint again

44 Fainting Continued… Self-Care when you feel faint: Sit down, bend forward and put your head between your knees, or Sit down, bend forward and put your head between your knees, or Lie down and elevate both legs 8 to 12 inches Lie down and elevate both legs 8 to 12 inches

45 First Aid for Nosebleeds First Aid minor nosebleeds Sit with your head leaning forward Sit with your head leaning forward Pinch nostrils, using your thumb and forefinger to gently squeeze nasal septum Pinch nostrils, using your thumb and forefinger to gently squeeze nasal septum Hold for 15 minutes, breath through mouth Hold for 15 minutes, breath through mouth

46 Nosebleeds Continued… Apply cold compresses to area around nose Apply cold compresses to area around nose Elevated head above the heart for 24 hours Elevated head above the heart for 24 hours Do not blow nose, lift heavy objects, exercise for 24 hours Do not blow nose, lift heavy objects, exercise for 24 hours

47 Nosebleeds Continued… After nose bleeding stopped: Keep nostrils moist : Keep nostrils moist : cool-mist vaporizer or humidifier in your bedroom, especially in winter. cool-mist vaporizer or humidifier in your bedroom, especially in winter. dab of petroleum jelly inside nostril. dab of petroleum jelly inside nostril. Don't pick or rub nose Don't pick or rub nose Don't smoke, take aspirin or drink very hot or alcoholic beverages for one week Don't smoke, take aspirin or drink very hot or alcoholic beverages for one week

48 Questions…????

49 Thank You


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