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Lymphatic System.

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Presentation on theme: "Lymphatic System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lymphatic System

2 Lymphatic 1 : a : of, relating to, or produced by lymph, lymphoid tissue, or lymphocytes b : conveying lymph 2 : lacking physical or mental energy : sluggish Lymph is a pale liquid in the body that helps maintain fluid balance and removes bacteria from tissues. Today, we understand that lymph plays an important role in the body's immune system. In the past, however, it was commonly believed that an excess of lymph caused sluggishness — hence the "sluggish" meaning of "lymphatic." The word "lymph" comes from Latin "lympha" ("water" or "water goddess"), which itself may be a modification of the Greek word "nymphē," meaning "nymph." Both "lymph" and its related adjective "lymphatic" have been used in English since the mid-17th century.

3 LYMPHATIC VESSELS You have a whole network of arteries
You have a whole network of veins You have a whole network of lymph vessels LYMPHATIC VESSELS: look like thin-walled veins; have valves. LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES: like regular capillaries; has endothelium and clefts.

4 Lymph Capillaries Figure 20.2a, b

5 Lymph System The lymph system retrieves excess tissue fluid (plasma that leaks out of the blood vessels) and filters it and cleans it and returns it to the blood. This plasma is now called lymphatic fluid. It is sent through the lymph nodes throughout the body. There are thousands of lymph nodes in the body, occurring in clusters. Each lymph node filters the lymph fluid to get rid of bacteria and viruses, and returns the fluid back into the blood.


7 The distribution of nodes is not uniform
The distribution of nodes is not uniform. There are large clusters in the axilla, neck, inguinal region, and deep in the abdomen. Medical personnel such as nurses, etc, need to know the lymphatic drainage pattern.

8 Lymph Nodes The lymph that filters the breast area will drain into the nodes in the axillary region, so that is where breast cancer would spread first. It is detected by lymph node biopsy. If cancer is found, the surgeon will have to remove all the lymph nodes from the axilla, and afterwards, there is no lymph drainage for that arm, and there will be problems with swelling.

9 Edema in the Right Arm What surgery might this lady have had that caused this?

10 Lymph System Imagine a pipe of water pouring out from the ceiling of this room, and a drain on the floor. Will all of the water drain out? No. Not all of the interstitial fluid goes back into the blood; only 90% does. What happens to the other 10%?

There’s another capillary bed within an arterial-venous capillary bed = LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES. They are closed-ended, and begin in the capillary bed. They are thin walled, and pick up the interstitial fluid (called LYMPH). The lymph travels in vessels called lymphatic vessels. Eventually they dump the lymph back into the blood.

12 How does lymph move? All of the following mechanisms help move lymph through the lymphatic vessels Body movements during exercise Contraction of skeletal muscles Contractions of smooth muscle in the wall of the lymph vessels.

13 Characteristics of lymphatics
Their wall contains three layers, just like blood vessels. Lymph capillaries are highly permeable. They contain valves. Connecting vessels are NOT easily identified in dissection.

14 Lymph capillaries differ from blood capillaries in all of the following ways:
They are blind ended, more permeable, carry lymph instead of blood. However, they are similar to blood capillaries in that their walls consist of endothelial cells.

15 Network of lymph vessels
Lymph vessels drain into the right thoracic duct near the clavicle.

16 The capillary bed is a good place to protect the body from bacteria; that’s why the lymph vessels start there. We need structures to help kill off bacteria: LYMPH NODES. There are hundreds of lymph nodes in the body. Each one clears bacteria and viruses, and they occur in clusters. They have valves in them so it is always flowing one way; lymph can never back up.

17 Lymph Nodes with Valves

18 Lymph Node Figure 20.4a


20 Lymph Nodes Figure 20.3

21 GIANT LYMPH NODES Considered as lymph organs 1. TONSILS and ADENOIDS

22 GIANT LYMPH NODES Considered as lymph organs
TONSILS (Palatine tonsils): on either side of the uvula; they can be removed if they are chronically infected. ADENOIDS (Pharyngeal tonsils): located at the back of the nasal airway, they provide defense against inhaled substances. Adenoids Palatine Tonsils

23 GIANT LYMPH NODES Considered as lymph organs
THYMUS: In a baby, is the length of the sternum, and then it shrinks with age. PAYER’S PATCHES: lymph nodes in intestines APPENDIX: in the cecum of the large intestine; contains lymph tissue.

24 GIANT LYMPH NODES Considered as lymph organs
SPLEEN is also a giant lymph node, so it has two functions (the other function is to destroy old red blood cells). There are regions in the spleen where there are sinusoids of discontinuous capillaries. The spleen is on the left side of the body, at the costal margin. If it is enlarged (during an infection), you can palpate it (feel for it). An enlarged spleen is called splenomegaly.

25 What is the purpose of the spleen? Can I live without one?
It is an integral part of your immune system. Its job description includes: filtering out foreign organisms that infect your blood removing your old or damaged platelets and red blood cells storing extra blood and releasing it as needed forming some types of white blood cells

26 Splenectomy In a car accident, the seat belt can break a rib, puncturing the spleen. You can’t stop the bleeding…how can you sew a sponge together to make it stop dripping? The spleen has to be removed. That’s ok; there are hundreds of other nodes, and the liver can take over the function of weeding out the old RBCs.

27 Lymphoid Organs “Payer’s Patches” Figure 20.9

28 Lymph Disorders Hodgkin’s Disease: cancer of lymph node; does NOT feel tender Lymphangitis: inflammation of lymph vessels, usually from infection Mononucleosis: Epstein-Barr virus attacks B-lymphocytes; characterized by inflammation of lymph vessels (lymphangitis). Edema: accumulation of fluid in connective tissue Bubo: infected node with trapped pathogens that are not destroyed

29 Tight Bra’s and Breast Cancer?
It was discovered that women with breast cancer had a history of sporting tighter and longer bra-wearing than did the women who had not (yet) developed the disease. In fact, virtually the entire cancer group wore bras over 12 hours. When a woman wears a tight bra, she subjects her breasts to pressure, closing off the lymphatic pathway from the breast to the nodes.

30 Water 75% of Americans are chronically dehydrated.
In 37% of Americans, the thirst mechanism is so weak that it is mistaken for hunger.   Even MILD dehydration will slow down one's metabolism by 3%.   One glass of water will shut down midnight hunger pangs for almost 100% of the dieters studied in a University of Washington.    Lack of water, the #1 trigger of daytime fatigue.   Preliminary research indicates that 8-10 glasses of water a day could significantly ease back and joint pain for up to 80% of sufferers.   A mere 2% drop in body water can trigger fuzzy short-term memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on  the computer screen or on a printed page.    Drinking 5 glasses of water daily decreases the risk of colon cancer by 45%, plus it can slash the risk of breast cancer by 79%, and one is 50% less likely to develop bladder cancer. Are you drinking the amount of water you should drink every day?  

31 Coca Cola In many states the highway patrol carries  two gallons of Coke in the trunk to remove blood from  the highway after a car accident.   To clean a toilet: Pour a can of Coca-Cola into the  toilet bowl  and let the 'real thing' sit for one hour,  then flush clean. The acid in Coke removes  stains from vitreous china.   To remove rust spots from chrome car bumpers:  Rub the bumper with a rumpled-up piece of Reynolds  Wrap aluminum foil dipped in Coca-Cola.   To clean corrosion from car battery terminals: Pour  a can of Coca-Cola over the terminals to bubble  away the corrosion.   To loosen a rusted bolt: Apply a cloth soaked in Coca-Cola to the rusted bolt for several minutes.   To remove grease from clothes: Empty a can of Coke  into the load of greasy clothes, add detergent, and run  through a regular cycle. The Coca-Cola will help loosen  grease stains. It will also clean road haze from your  windshield.  

32 Coke The active ingredient in Coke is phosphoric acid.
 Phosphoric  acid also leaches calcium from bones and is a major contributor to the rising increase of osteoporosis.    To carry Coca-Cola syrup! (the concentrate) the  commercial trucks must use a hazardous Material place cards reserved for highly corrosive materials.   The distributors of Coke have been using it to clean engines of the trucks for about 20 years!    

33 Woman’s Health Library
Recurrent Yeast Infections: Should You Worry? Transcript What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Transcript Symptoms of ovarian cancer can mimic some GI disorders Unique Concerns for Women and Girls with Epilepsy

34 Free Video Re-Mission Tell them what State you live in and what kind of cancer you want the game to portray. Great for kids with cancer

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