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First Aid Click to add subtle Written by Jodi Braswell.

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1 First Aid Click to add subtle Written by Jodi Braswell

2 Immediate care given to the victim of an accident or illness to minimize the effect of injury or illness until experts can take overImmediate care given to the victim of an accident or illness to minimize the effect of injury or illness until experts can take over Reasons for providing correct first aidReasons for providing correct first aid

3 Basic Principles of Providing First Aid Remain calm and avoid panicRemain calm and avoid panic Evaluate situation thoroughlyEvaluate situation thoroughly Have a reason for anything you doHave a reason for anything you do Treatment you provide will vary depending on type of injury or illness, environment, others present, equipment or supplies on hand, and availability of medical helpTreatment you provide will vary depending on type of injury or illness, environment, others present, equipment or supplies on hand, and availability of medical help

4 First Steps Recognize that an emergency existsRecognize that an emergency exists Use all senses to detect problemsUse all senses to detect problems Sometimes signs of emergency are obvious and at other times they are less obviousSometimes signs of emergency are obvious and at other times they are less obvious

5 Next Steps Check the scene and make sure it is safe to approachCheck the scene and make sure it is safe to approach What to observeWhat to observe If not safe, call for medical helpIf not safe, call for medical help If safe, approach the victimIf safe, approach the victim Call emergency medical services (EMS) as soon as possibleCall emergency medical services (EMS) as soon as possible

6 Next Steps (continued) If possible, obtain the victim’s permission before providing any careIf possible, obtain the victim’s permission before providing any care Triage if necessaryTriage if necessary Check for other injuriesCheck for other injuries Obtain as much information as possible before you proceedObtain as much information as possible before you proceed

7 Obtain qualified helpObtain qualified help Avoid any unnecessary movement of the victimAvoid any unnecessary movement of the victim Reassure the victimReassure the victim Use a confident, calm attitude to help relieve victim’s anxietyUse a confident, calm attitude to help relieve victim’s anxiety Avoid giving the victim anything to eat or drinkAvoid giving the victim anything to eat or drink

8 (continued) Protect the victim from cold or chilling, but avoid overheatingProtect the victim from cold or chilling, but avoid overheating Work quickly in an organized and efficient mannerWork quickly in an organized and efficient manner Do not make a diagnosis or discuss condition with observers at sceneDo not make a diagnosis or discuss condition with observers at scene

9 (continued) Maintain confidentiality and protect the victim’s right to privacy while providing treatmentMaintain confidentiality and protect the victim’s right to privacy while providing treatment Make every attempt to avoid further injury or harmMake every attempt to avoid further injury or harm Provide only the treatment you are qualified to provideProvide only the treatment you are qualified to provide

10 Open Wounds AbrasionAbrasion IncisionIncision LacerationLaceration PuncturePuncture AvulsionAvulsion AmputationAmputation

11 Controlling Bleeding First priority because victim can bleed to death quicklyFirst priority because victim can bleed to death quickly Bleeding can come from arteries, veins, or capillariesBleeding can come from arteries, veins, or capillaries Observe standard precautionsObserve standard precautions

12 Controlling Bleeding (continued) Direct pressureDirect pressure ElevationElevation Pressure bandagesPressure bandages Pressure on pressure pointsPressure on pressure points Do not disturb clotsDo not disturb clots Do not remove dressingsDo not remove dressings Do not clean woundDo not clean wound

13 Controlling Bleeding

14 Minor Wounds First priority – prevention of infectionFirst priority – prevention of infection Wash your hands thoroughly before caring for woundWash your hands thoroughly before caring for wound Put on glovesPut on gloves Wash the wound with soap and waterWash the wound with soap and water Rinse the woundRinse the wound Use sterile suppliesUse sterile supplies

15 Signs of Infection SwellingSwelling HeatHeat RednessRedness PainPain FeverFever PusPus Red streaksRed streaks

16 Signs of Infection

17 Objects Embedded in Wound Examples such as splinters, pieces of glass, or small stonesExamples such as splinters, pieces of glass, or small stones If superficial, gently removeIf superficial, gently remove Objects embedded in tissues should be left and removed by physicianObjects embedded in tissues should be left and removed by physician

18 Embedded Object

19 Closed Wounds Can occur anywhere on bodyCan occur anywhere on body If bruise, apply cold application to reduce swellingIf bruise, apply cold application to reduce swelling Observe for signs of internal bleedingObserve for signs of internal bleeding Get medical helpGet medical help Check breathing and treat for shockCheck breathing and treat for shock Avoid unnecessary movementAvoid unnecessary movement No food or fluidsNo food or fluids

20 Proving First Aid for Shock Also called hypoperfusionAlso called hypoperfusion Shock: clinical set of signs and symptoms that are associated with an inadequate supply of blood to body organs, especially brain and heartShock: clinical set of signs and symptoms that are associated with an inadequate supply of blood to body organs, especially brain and heart Causes of shockCauses of shock

21 Signs and Symptoms of Shock Skin is pale or bluish-gray and cool or cold to the touchSkin is pale or bluish-gray and cool or cold to the touch DiaphoresisDiaphoresis Rapid and weak pulseRapid and weak pulse Respirations rapid, shallow, and may be irregularRespirations rapid, shallow, and may be irregular Blood pressure very low or unobtainableBlood pressure very low or unobtainable

22 Signs and Symptoms of Shock (continued) General weaknessGeneral weakness Anxiety and extreme restlessnessAnxiety and extreme restlessness Excessive thirstExcessive thirst Nausea and/ or vomitingNausea and/ or vomiting Blurred vision or changes in appearance of eyesBlurred vision or changes in appearance of eyes

23 Treatment for Shock Goals of treatmentGoals of treatment Positioning of victimPositioning of victim Maintain body temperatureMaintain body temperature Avoid food or drinkAvoid food or drink Other principles of careOther principles of care

24 Providing First Aid for Poisoning Can happen to anyoneCan happen to anyone Poison: any substance that causes a harmful reaction to the outside or inside of the bodyPoison: any substance that causes a harmful reaction to the outside or inside of the body Immediate action is neededImmediate action is needed First aid varies depending on type of poison, injury involved, and the method of contactFirst aid varies depending on type of poison, injury involved, and the method of contact

25 Ways Poisoning Occurs Ingesting various substancesIngesting various substances Inhaling poisonous gasesInhaling poisonous gases Injecting substancesInjecting substances Skin contact with poisonSkin contact with poison

26 First Aid for Poisoning If poison has been swallowedIf poison has been swallowed –Methods to induce vomiting If poisoning by inhalation of gasesIf poisoning by inhalation of gases If poisoning by contact with skinIf poisoning by contact with skin Contact with poisonous plantsContact with poisonous plants If poisoning by injectionIf poisoning by injection

27 Providing First Aid for Burns Injury caused by fire, heat, chemical agents, radiation, and/ or electricityInjury caused by fire, heat, chemical agents, radiation, and/ or electricity Classifications of burnsClassifications of burns –Superficial –Partial-thickness –Full-thickness

28 Superficial Burn

29 Partial Thickness Burn

30 Full Thickness Burn

31 Treatment Remove source of heatRemove source of heat Cool the skinCool the skin Cover the burnCover the burn Relieve painRelieve pain Observe for and treat shockObserve for and treat shock Prevent infectionsPrevent infections

32 Treatment Usually not required for superficial and mild partial-thickness burnsUsually not required for superficial and mild partial-thickness burns Rules for when to treatRules for when to treat All full-thickness burns require medical treatmentAll full-thickness burns require medical treatment How to treat superficial and mild partial- thickness burnsHow to treat superficial and mild partial- thickness burns

33 Treatment (continued) How to treat severe partial- or full- thickness burnsHow to treat severe partial- or full- thickness burns How to treat when chemicals splashed on skinHow to treat when chemicals splashed on skin How to treat eyes burned by chemicals or irritating gasesHow to treat eyes burned by chemicals or irritating gases

34 Providing First Aid for Heat Exposure Overexposure to heat may cause a chemical imbalance in the bodyOverexposure to heat may cause a chemical imbalance in the body Occurs when water and salt are lost through perspirationOccurs when water and salt are lost through perspiration Also occurs when body cannot eliminate excess heatAlso occurs when body cannot eliminate excess heat

35 Heat Cramps Muscle pains and spasmsMuscle pains and spasms Caused by exposure to heatCaused by exposure to heat Loss of water and saltLoss of water and salt Apply firm pressure on cramped muscle to provide reliefApply firm pressure on cramped muscle to provide relief Provide rest and move to cooler areaProvide rest and move to cooler area Small sips of water or electrolyte solution (e.g. sports drink)Small sips of water or electrolyte solution (e.g. sports drink)

36 Heat Exhaustion Occurs when exposed to heat with loss of fluids through sweatingOccurs when exposed to heat with loss of fluids through sweating Signs and symptomsSigns and symptoms First aid careFirst aid care

37 Heat Stroke Prolonged exposure to higher than normal temperaturesProlonged exposure to higher than normal temperatures Medical emergency- needs immediate care and attentionMedical emergency- needs immediate care and attention Body unable to eliminate excess heatBody unable to eliminate excess heat Signs and symptomsSigns and symptoms First aid careFirst aid care

38 Providing First Aid for Cold Exposure Exposure to cold temperatures can cause body tissues to freeze and body processes to slow downExposure to cold temperatures can cause body tissues to freeze and body processes to slow down Needs immediate attentionNeeds immediate attention Degree of injury affected by wind velocity, amount of humidity, and length of exposure to coldDegree of injury affected by wind velocity, amount of humidity, and length of exposure to cold

39 Hypothermia When body temperature is less than 95°F (35°C)When body temperature is less than 95°F (35°C) Caused by prolonged exposure to coldCaused by prolonged exposure to cold Signs and symptomsSigns and symptoms Death can occur if body processes become too slowed downDeath can occur if body processes become too slowed down First aid careFirst aid care

40 Frostbite Freezing of tissue fluids with damage to the skin and underlying tissuesFreezing of tissue fluids with damage to the skin and underlying tissues Caused by overexposure to freezing or below-freezing temperaturesCaused by overexposure to freezing or below-freezing temperatures Early signs and symptomsEarly signs and symptoms Other signs and symptoms as frostbite progressesOther signs and symptoms as frostbite progresses

41 Frostbite (continued) Objectives of first aidObjectives of first aid Common sites: fingers, toes, ears, nose and cheeksCommon sites: fingers, toes, ears, nose and cheeks First aid careFirst aid care Assess for signs and symptoms of shock and treat as neededAssess for signs and symptoms of shock and treat as needed

42 Frostbite

43 Providing First Aid for Bone and Joint Injuries Frequently occur during accidents or falls with variety of injuriesFrequently occur during accidents or falls with variety of injuries Examples: fractures, dislocations, sprains and strainsExamples: fractures, dislocations, sprains and strains May have more than one type of injury to bones and joints at the same timeMay have more than one type of injury to bones and joints at the same time

44 Fracture Break in the boneBreak in the bone Closed or simple fractureClosed or simple fracture Compound or open fractureCompound or open fracture Signs and symptomsSigns and symptoms Objectives of first aidObjectives of first aid

45 Open Compound Fracture

46 Compound Fracture

47 Spiral Fracture

48 Dislocation When the end of the bone is displaced from a joint or moved out of its normal position within a jointWhen the end of the bone is displaced from a joint or moved out of its normal position within a joint Tearing or stretching of ligaments, muscles, and other soft tissues also frequently occursTearing or stretching of ligaments, muscles, and other soft tissues also frequently occurs Signs and symptomsSigns and symptoms First aid careFirst aid care

49 Dislocation

50 Sprain Injury to tissues surrounding a jointInjury to tissues surrounding a joint Common sites: ankles and wristsCommon sites: ankles and wrists Signs and symptomsSigns and symptoms Sprains frequently resemble fractures or dislocations – treat as fracture if any doubtSprains frequently resemble fractures or dislocations – treat as fracture if any doubt First aid careFirst aid care

51 Strain Overstretching of a muscleOverstretching of a muscle Caused by overexertion or by liftingCaused by overexertion or by lifting Frequent site: backFrequent site: back Signs and symptomsSigns and symptoms First aid symptomsFirst aid symptoms

52 Splints Devices to immobilize injured partsDevices to immobilize injured parts Types of splintsTypes of splints –Pneumatic or air splints –Padded boards –Traction splints Splints can also be made from cardboard, newspapers, pillows, boards, etcSplints can also be made from cardboard, newspapers, pillows, boards, etc

53 Splints (continued) Need to be long enough to immobilize the joint abode and below the injured area to prevent movementNeed to be long enough to immobilize the joint abode and below the injured area to prevent movement Should be paddedShould be padded Tied in placeTied in place Apply so as not to create pressure on affected areaApply so as not to create pressure on affected area If open wound, control bleeding before applying splintIf open wound, control bleeding before applying splint

54 Splints (continued) Never attempt to reposition boneNever attempt to reposition bone Splint before moving victimSplint before moving victim Observe precautions when using pneumatic splintsObserve precautions when using pneumatic splints Traction splintsTraction splints

55 Splints

56 Circulation Check After Splint Verify that the splints are not too tightVerify that the splints are not too tight Check skin temperatureCheck skin temperature Check colorCheck color Note swelling or edemaNote swelling or edema Numbness or tinglingNumbness or tingling Check pulseCheck pulse If circulation impaired, immediately loosen the tiesIf circulation impaired, immediately loosen the ties

57 Slings Commercial slingsCommercial slings Triangular bandagesTriangular bandages Uses: support arm, hand, forearm, and shoulderUses: support arm, hand, forearm, and shoulder Positioning of slingPositioning of sling Check circulationCheck circulation Limit movement of limbLimit movement of limb

58 Slings (continued) If using knotsIf using knots –Placement –Padding Considerations for shoulder injuryConsiderations for shoulder injury

59 Slings

60 Neck or Spine Injury Most dangerous types of injuries involving bones and jointsMost dangerous types of injuries involving bones and joints Movement can result in permanent injury resulting in paralysisMovement can result in permanent injury resulting in paralysis Avoid any movement of victim if at all possibleAvoid any movement of victim if at all possible Wait for backboard and adequate help to arrive for transferWait for backboard and adequate help to arrive for transfer

61 C-Collar

62 Providing First Aid for Specific Injuries Treatment for burns, bleeding, wounds, poisoning, and fractures is basically the sameTreatment for burns, bleeding, wounds, poisoning, and fractures is basically the same Injuries to specific body parts require special careInjuries to specific body parts require special care Examples: eyes, ears, nose, brain, chest, abdomen, and genital organsExamples: eyes, ears, nose, brain, chest, abdomen, and genital organs

63 Eye Injuries Always involves danger of vision lossAlways involves danger of vision loss Best to avoid giving major treatmentBest to avoid giving major treatment Obtain help of a specialistObtain help of a specialist Foreign objects in the eyeForeign objects in the eye Blows to the eyeBlows to the eye Penetrating injuries that cut eye tissuePenetrating injuries that cut eye tissue

64 Ear Injuries Can result in rupture or perforation of eardrumCan result in rupture or perforation of eardrum Torn or detached tissueTorn or detached tissue Ruptured or perforated eardrumRuptured or perforated eardrum Clear fluid or blood-tinged fluid draining from earClear fluid or blood-tinged fluid draining from ear

65 Brain Injuries Wounds and blows to head and skull can cause brain injuryWounds and blows to head and skull can cause brain injury Seek medical help as quickly as possibleSeek medical help as quickly as possible Signs and symptomsSigns and symptoms First aid careFirst aid care

66 Chest Injuries Usually medical emergenciesUsually medical emergencies Involve heart, lungs, and major vesselsInvolve heart, lungs, and major vessels Sucking chest woundSucking chest wound Penetrating injuries to the chestPenetrating injuries to the chest Crushing injuries to the chestCrushing injuries to the chest

67 Providing First Aid for Sudden Illness Can be difficult to determine exact illness being experiencedCan be difficult to determine exact illness being experienced Base care on signs and symptomsBase care on signs and symptoms Information from victim if possibleInformation from victim if possible Look for medical alert bracelets or necklaces or medical cardsLook for medical alert bracelets or necklaces or medical cards

68 Heart Attack Known by other names as coronary thrombosis, coronary occlusion, or myocardial infarctionKnown by other names as coronary thrombosis, coronary occlusion, or myocardial infarction Occurs when there is blockage in one or more coronary arteriesOccurs when there is blockage in one or more coronary arteries If heart stops, start CPRIf heart stops, start CPR Signs and symptomsSigns and symptoms First aid careFirst aid care

69 Fainting Temporary reduction in supply of blood to brainTemporary reduction in supply of blood to brain Early signs and treatmentEarly signs and treatment If victim loses consciousness, try to prevent injuryIf victim loses consciousness, try to prevent injury Obtain medical help if recovery not prompt, there are other injuries, or fainting reoccursObtain medical help if recovery not prompt, there are other injuries, or fainting reoccurs

70 Convulsion Type of seizure- strong involuntary contraction of musclesType of seizure- strong involuntary contraction of muscles CausesCauses Progression of a convulsionProgression of a convulsion First aid care is directed at preventing self- injuryFirst aid care is directed at preventing self- injury

71 Diabetes Mellitus Metabolic disorder caused by lack of or insufficient production in insulinMetabolic disorder caused by lack of or insufficient production in insulin Diabetic comaDiabetic coma Insulin shockInsulin shock Differentiate between diabetic coma and insulin shockDifferentiate between diabetic coma and insulin shock

72 Applying Dressings and Bandages Dressings used as sterile covering and to control bleedingDressings used as sterile covering and to control bleeding Materials used in dressingsMaterials used in dressings Dressings can be held in place with tape or a bandageDressings can be held in place with tape or a bandage Bandages used to hold dressings in place, to secure splints, and to support and protect body partsBandages used to hold dressings in place, to secure splints, and to support and protect body parts

73 Applying Dressings and Bandages (continued) Applying bandages snugly to control bleeding and prevent movement of dressing, but not to interfere with circulationApplying bandages snugly to control bleeding and prevent movement of dressing, but not to interfere with circulation Types of bandages consist of:Types of bandages consist of: –Roller gauze –Triangular –Elastic

74 Checkpoints for Circulation Check circulation after applicationCheck circulation after application Signs of poor or impaired circulation:Signs of poor or impaired circulation: –Swelling or edema –Pale or cyanotic color –Coldness to touch –Numbness or tingling –Poor or slow capillary refill Loosen bandage immediatelyLoosen bandage immediately


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