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Chapter 17 Sudden Illnesses. Heart Attack Clot in coronary artery blocks blood supply. Blood supply to part of the heart muscle is reduced or stopped.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Sudden Illnesses. Heart Attack Clot in coronary artery blocks blood supply. Blood supply to part of the heart muscle is reduced or stopped."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 Sudden Illnesses

2 Heart Attack Clot in coronary artery blocks blood supply. Blood supply to part of the heart muscle is reduced or stopped. Heart muscle tissue dies. Cardiac arrest Heart stops if electrical system of heart is affected.

3 Recognizing Heart Attack (1 of 2) Chest pressure, squeezing, or pain that lasts longer than a few minutes or goes away and comes back Pain spreading to shoulders, neck, or arms Dizziness, sweating, nausea Shortness of breath

4 Recognizing Heart Attack (2 of 2) Not all warning signs occur with every heart attack. Some victims — as many as one third — have no chest pain. Prompt action is important. Hospital can administer clot-dissolving drugs (thrombolytics). The sooner this is done, the better.

5 Care for a Heart Attack (1 of 2) Call Monitor breathing. Give CPR if necessary. Help victim into comfortable position. If victim has nitroglycerin, assist them in taking it.

6 Care for a Heart Attack (2 of 2) Nitroglycerin Can relieve chest pain from angina but not heart attack. Dilates coronary arteries, increasing blood flow to heart muscle. Lowers blood pressure Caution: Victim should lie down once nitro is taken.

7 Angina Chest pain from coronary heart disease Heart muscle does not get enough blood Brought on by physical activity, cold exposure, emotional stress Seldom lasts longer than 10 minutes Relieved by nitroglycerin

8 Recognizing Angina Signs are similar to heart attack Crushing, squeezing pain Pain like someone is standing on victim’s chest Lasts 3 to 10 minutes Shortness of breath, nausea, sweating Victim feels anxious

9 Care for Angina If victim has nitroglycerin, help the victim use it. If pain lasts longer than 10 minutes, suspect a heart attack, and call Other causes of chest pain: Exercise or injury Respiratory infections Indigestion

10 Risk Factors of Heart Disease Cannot be changed Heredity Sex Age Can be changed Smoking High blood pressure High cholesterol Diabetes Obesity Inactivity Stress

11 Stroke (Brain Attack) (1 of 4) Part of blood flow to brain is cut off Blocked or ruptured blood vessel Nerve cells die within minutes One quarter of victims die; third leading cause of death

12 Stroke (Brain Attack) (2 of 4) Risk factors Age older than 50 Use of birth control pill, age older than 30 Overweight Hypertension High cholesterol Diabetes Heart disease Sickle cell disease Substance abuse Family history of strokes or TIAs

13 Stroke (Brain Attack) (3 of 4) Most common type is ischemic: Clot forms in artery in brain Travels from heart to brain Blood vessel may rupture Other causes: tumors, vessel spasms, aneurysms

14 Stroke (Brain Attack) (4 of 4) TIA has similar signs as stroke Symptoms last several minutes to several hours Neurologic function returns Warning sign of potential stroke Signs and symptoms should be reported to physician

15 Recognizing Stroke Weakness, numbness, or paralysis of face or one side of body Blurred or decreased vision Problems speaking or understanding Dizziness or loss of balance Sudden, severe headache Pupils not equal or not reactive to light

16 Care for Stroke (1 of 2) Call Seek medical care. If responsive, lay patient on back with head and shoulders slightly elevated. If unresponsive, open airway, check breathing. Give CPR if needed. If unresponsive patient is breathing, place in recovery position. Do not give anything to eat or drink.

17 Care for Stroke (2 of 2) Los Angeles Stroke Screen quickly identifies stroke victims with three tests: Arm strength Facial smile Hand grip

18 Asthma (1 of 2) Chronic inflammatory lung disease Oversensitivity of air passages Attacks: Air passages get narrower, breathing becomes difficult Common in children, young adults

19 Asthma (2 of 2) Asthma triggers: Respiratory tract infection Temperature extremes Strong odors Occupational exposures Certain drugs Exercise Emotional stress Allergens Air pollution

20 Recognizing Asthma Coughing Cyanosis (bluish skin) Pause when speaking to catch breath Nostrils flaring with breath Difficulty breathing, wheezing

21 Care for Asthma Position of comfort Monitor breathing. Assist with asthma inhaler. If victim does not respond or attack is extreme, seek medical care.

22 Hyperventilation Fast, deep breathing Common during emotional stress Also caused by: Untreated diabetes Severe shock Certain poisons Brain swelling

23 Recognizing Hyperventilation Dizziness, lightheadedness Numbness Tingling of hands and feet Shortness of breath Breathing faster than 40 breaths/min

24 Care for Hyperventilation Calm and reassure Have person breathe slowly. Inhale through nose. Hold several seconds. Exhale slowly. Do not breathe into paper bag.

25 COPD (1 of 2) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, lung diseases Hard to breathe; air flow obstructed Affects older adults

26 COPD (2 of 2) Chronic bronchitis Caused by chronic infection Symptoms: Cough, difficulty breathing, sputum Emphysema Often occurs with chronic bronchitis Alveoli partially destroyed Symptoms: Cough, wheezing, shortness of breath

27 Recognizing COPD Wheezing Coughing Shortness of breath Artificially supplied oxygen

28 Care for COPD Assist with prescribed medications. Place in position of comfort. Encourage to cough up secretions. Encourage to drink fluids. If acute, seek medical care. Administer oxygen.

29 Fainting Sudden brief loss of responsiveness Also called syncope or psychogenic shock Decreased blood flow to the brain Can result from physical or emotional causes

30 Recognizing Fainting Dizziness Weakness Seeing spots Visual blurring Nausea Pale skin Sweating

31 Care for Fainting (1 of 3) If about to faint: Prevent person from falling. Help person lie down with legs raised 6 to 12 inches. Loosen tight clothing at neck and waist. Stay with victim.

32 Care for Fainting (2 of 3) If fainting occurred: Monitor breathing. Loosen tight clothing and belts. Raise legs 6 to 12 inches. Have victim sit, drink cool, sweetened liquids. Fresh air, cold wet cloth

33 Care for Fainting (3 of 3) Seek medical care if victim: Has repeated fainting episodes Does not quickly regain consciousness Loses consciousness while sitting or lying down Faints for no apparent reason

34 Seizures (1 of 2) Caused by medical conditions Epilepsy, heatstroke, poisoning, electric shock, hypoglycemia, high fever, brain injury, tumor, stroke, alcohol withdrawal, or drug overdose Four types Generalized tonic-clonic Focal motor Complex partial Absence

35 Seizures (2 of 2) Typical sequence for tonic-clonic: aura, loss of consciousness, muscle contractions for 2 to 5 minutes. Obtain the following information: Is there a history of seizures? What did the seizure look like? How long did it last? Alcohol/drug involvement? Recent fever, headache, stiff neck? History of diabetes, heart disease, stroke?

36 Recognizing Seizures Generalized tonic-clonic: Loss of consciousness, muscle contraction, coma/drowsiness Focal motor: One part of body twitches Complex partial: Altered personality state, dizziness, metallic taste in mouth Absence: Brief loss of consciousness, usually in children

37 Care for a Seizure (1 of 2) Protect from injury. Loosen restrictive clothing. Place in recovery position. Look for medical tag. Call if: Unknown reason or longer than 5 minutes Slow to recover, second seizure, or difficulty breathing Pregnant or medical condition Signs of illness or injury

38 Care for a Seizure (2 of 2) Status epilepticus Two or more seizures without an intervening period of consciousness Emergency situation Can lead to aspiration, brain damage, fractures, severe dehydration

39 Diabetic Emergencies Diabetes: Insulin is lacking or ineffective Excess sugar remains in blood Type I juvenile-onset (insulin-dependent) Type II adult-onset (non-insulin dependent) Too much insulin, not enough blood sugar = low blood sugar, possible insulin shock Too much sugar, not enough insulin = high blood sugar, possible diabetic coma

40 Low Blood Sugar Hypoglycemia or insulin reaction: Very low blood sugar Causes: too much insulin, too little or delayed food intake, exercise, alcohol

41 Recognizing Low Blood Sugar Sudden onset Poor coordination Anger Pale skin Confusion Sudden hunger Excessive sweating Trembling, unresponsiveness

42 Care for Low Blood Sugar Give 15 grams sugar. If condition does not improve in 15 minutes, give 15 more grams sugar. If still no improvement, seek medical care.

43 High Blood Sugar Hyperglycemia or diabetic coma: Very high blood sugar Causes: Insufficient insulin, overeating, inactivity, illness, stress

44 Recognizing High Blood Sugar Gradual onset Drowsiness Extreme thirst, frequent urination Flushed skin Vomiting Fruity breath odor Heavy breathing Unresponsiveness

45 Care for High Blood Sugar If you are unsure whether it is high or low blood sugar, provide same care as you would for low blood sugar. If condition does not improve in 15 minutes, seek medical care.

46 Abdominal Complaints Aching, cramping, sharp, or dull pain Constant or can come and go Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea or constipation

47 Abdominal Pain Peritoneum: Thin membrane lining entire abdominal cavity Peritonitis: Inflammation of the peritoneum Many possible causes for abdominal pain

48 Recognizing Abdominal Pain Ask: When did pain start? Where located? Constant, or does it come and go? Nausea, diarrhea, or vomiting? Warm (feverish)? Other victims? Pregnancy? Rigid abdomen?

49 Care for Abdominal Pain (1 of 2) Give only clear fluids. Have victim sip slowly. Give victim an antacid. Place hot-water bottle against victim’s abdomen or soak in warm bath. Be prepared for vomiting. Keep victim on left side.

50 Care for Abdominal Pain (2 of 2) Seek medical care if: Constant pain or more than 6 hours Victim unable to drink fluids Possible pregnancy Rigid, painful abdomen, swollen abdomen More pain when abdomen is pressed Bloody or black stool Fever Pain began around belly button, moved to lower right side

51 Nausea and Vomiting Many potential causes Persistence can signal serious illness If lasts more than 1 or 2 days, dehydration can occur. Young children and elderly more seriously affected

52 Recognizing Nausea and Vomiting Ask: Abdominal pain? Bloody or brown grainy vomit? Diarrhea? Dehydration? Other victims? Recent head injury?

53 Care for Nausea and Vomiting (1 of 2) Give small amounts of clear fluids. If able to keep down, offer carbohydrates Have victim rest, avoid exertion. Recovery position

54 Care for Nausea and Vomiting (2 of 2) Seek medical care if: Bloody or brown, grainy vomit Constant abdominal pain Unable to keep fluids down more than 24 hours Severe, projectile vomiting Recent head injury

55 Recognizing Motion Sickness Nausea Pale skin Cold sweats Vomiting Diarrhea Headache Fatigue

56 Care for Motion Sickness Sit near midsection of vehicle. Do not read. Look onto horizon. Avoid overeating. Try antihistamine 1 hour before traveling.

57 Diarrhea Passage of loose, watery, or unformed stools Causes: Intestinal infection, food poisoning, allergy Dehydration can occur. Must replace fluids

58 Recognizing Diarrhea Ask: Contaminated water or food? Blood or mucus in stool? Signs of dehydration? Cramping? Loss of bowel control? Feverish? Other victims?

59 Care for Diarrhea Have victim drink lots of clear fluids. Give mild foods. Bismuth can help. Seek medical care if: Blood stools No improvement after 24 hours Fever Severe, constant abdominal pain Severely dehydrated

60 Constipation Passage of hard, dry stools Solutions: Diet, fluids, activity, emotional state

61 Recognizing Constipation Bloating Hard, dry stools

62 Care for Constipation Have victim eat more fiber. Have victim drink fluids. Encourage victim to remain active. If no improvement: Milk of magnesia or caffeine Seek medical care if: Severe abdominal pain Swollen or painful abdomen Fever Vomiting

63 Recognizing Pregnancy Emergencies Vaginal bleeding Cramps in lower abdomen Swelling of the face or fingers Severe continuous headache Dizziness or fainting Blurring of vision or seeing spots Uncontrollable vomiting

64 Care for Pregnancy Emergencies Vaginal bleeding or abdominal pain or injury: Keep victim warm. For vaginal bleeding, place sterile pad over opening of vagina. Send blood-soaked pads to hospital with victim. Seek medical care.


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