2Heart Attack Clot in coronary artery blocks blood supply. Blood supply to part of the heart muscle is reduced or stopped.Heart muscle tissue dies.Cardiac arrestHeart stops if electrical system of heart is affected.
3Recognizing Heart Attack (1 of 2) Chest pressure, squeezing, or pain that lasts longer than a few minutes or goes away and comes backPain spreading to shoulders, neck, or armsDizziness, sweating, nauseaShortness of breath
4Recognizing Heart Attack (2 of 2) Not all warning signs occur with every heart attack.Some victims — as many as one third — have no chest pain.Prompt action is important.Hospital can administer clot-dissolving drugs (thrombolytics).The sooner this is done, the better.
5Care for a Heart Attack (1 of 2) CallMonitor breathing. Give CPR if necessary.Help victim into comfortable position.If victim has nitroglycerin, assist them in taking it.
6Care for a Heart Attack (2 of 2) NitroglycerinCan relieve chest pain from angina but not heart attack.Dilates coronary arteries, increasing blood flow to heart muscle.Lowers blood pressureCaution: Victim should lie down once nitro is taken.
7Angina Chest pain from coronary heart disease Heart muscle does not get enough bloodBrought on by physical activity, cold exposure, emotional stressSeldom lasts longer than 10 minutesRelieved by nitroglycerin
8Recognizing Angina Signs are similar to heart attack Crushing, squeezing painPain like someone is standing on victim’s chestLasts 3 to 10 minutesShortness of breath, nausea, sweatingVictim feels anxious
9Care for Angina If victim has nitroglycerin, help the victim use it. If pain lasts longer than 10 minutes, suspect a heart attack, and callOther causes of chest pain:Exercise or injuryRespiratory infectionsIndigestion
10Risk Factors of Heart Disease Cannot be changedHereditySexAgeCan be changedSmokingHigh blood pressureHigh cholesterolDiabetesObesityInactivityStress
11Stroke (Brain Attack) (1 of 4) Part of blood flow to brain is cut offBlocked or ruptured blood vesselNerve cells die within minutesOne quarter of victims die; third leading cause of death
12Stroke (Brain Attack) (2 of 4) Risk factorsAge older than 50Use of birth control pill, age older than 30OverweightHypertensionHigh cholesterolDiabetesHeart diseaseSickle cell diseaseSubstance abuseFamily history of strokes or TIAs
13Stroke (Brain Attack) (3 of 4) Most common type is ischemic:Clot forms in artery in brainTravels from heart to brainBlood vessel may ruptureOther causes: tumors, vessel spasms, aneurysms
14Stroke (Brain Attack) (4 of 4) TIA has similar signs as strokeSymptoms last several minutes to several hoursNeurologic function returnsWarning sign of potential strokeSigns and symptoms should be reported to physician
15Recognizing StrokeWeakness, numbness, or paralysis of face or one side of bodyBlurred or decreased visionProblems speaking or understandingDizziness or loss of balanceSudden, severe headachePupils not equal or not reactive to light
16Care for Stroke (1 of 2) Call 9-1-1. Seek medical care. If responsive, lay patient on back with head and shoulders slightly elevated.If unresponsive, open airway, check breathing. Give CPR if needed.If unresponsive patient is breathing, place in recovery position.Do not give anything to eat or drink.
17Care for Stroke (2 of 2)Los Angeles Stroke Screen quickly identifies stroke victims with three tests:Arm strengthFacial smileHand grip
18Asthma (1 of 2) Chronic inflammatory lung disease Oversensitivity of air passagesAttacks: Air passages get narrower, breathing becomes difficultCommon in children, young adults
19Asthma (2 of 2) Asthma triggers: Respiratory tract infection Temperature extremesStrong odorsOccupational exposuresCertain drugsExerciseEmotional stressAllergensAir pollution
20Recognizing Asthma Coughing Cyanosis (bluish skin) Pause when speaking to catch breathNostrils flaring with breathDifficulty breathing, wheezing
21Care for Asthma Position of comfort Monitor breathing. Assist with asthma inhaler.If victim does not respond or attack is extreme, seek medical care.
22Hyperventilation Fast, deep breathing Common during emotional stress Also caused by:Untreated diabetesSevere shockCertain poisonsBrain swelling
23Recognizing Hyperventilation Dizziness, lightheadednessNumbnessTingling of hands and feetShortness of breathBreathing faster than 40 breaths/min
24Care for Hyperventilation Calm and reassureHave person breathe slowly.Inhale through nose.Hold several seconds.Exhale slowly.Do not breathe into paper bag.
25COPD (1 of 2) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, lung diseasesHard to breathe; air flow obstructedAffects older adults
26COPD (2 of 2) Chronic bronchitis Caused by chronic infection Symptoms: Cough, difficulty breathing, sputumEmphysemaOften occurs with chronic bronchitisAlveoli partially destroyedSymptoms: Cough, wheezing, shortness of breath
27Recognizing COPD Wheezing Coughing Shortness of breath Artificially supplied oxygen
28Care for COPD Assist with prescribed medications. Place in position of comfort.Encourage to cough up secretions.Encourage to drink fluids.If acute, seek medical care.Administer oxygen.
31Care for Fainting (1 of 3) If about to faint: Prevent person from falling.Help person lie down with legs raised 6 to 12 inches.Loosen tight clothing at neck and waist.Stay with victim.
32Care for Fainting (2 of 3) If fainting occurred: Monitor breathing. Loosen tight clothing and belts.Raise legs 6 to 12 inches.Have victim sit, drink cool, sweetened liquids.Fresh air, cold wet cloth
33Care for Fainting (3 of 3) Seek medical care if victim: Has repeated fainting episodesDoes not quickly regain consciousnessLoses consciousness while sitting or lying downFaints for no apparent reason
34Seizures (1 of 2) Caused by medical conditions Epilepsy, heatstroke, poisoning, electric shock, hypoglycemia, high fever, brain injury, tumor, stroke, alcohol withdrawal, or drug overdoseFour typesGeneralized tonic-clonicFocal motorComplex partialAbsence
35Seizures (2 of 2)Typical sequence for tonic-clonic: aura, loss of consciousness, muscle contractions for 2 to 5 minutes.Obtain the following information:Is there a history of seizures?What did the seizure look like? How long did it last?Alcohol/drug involvement?Recent fever, headache, stiff neck?History of diabetes, heart disease, stroke?
36Recognizing SeizuresGeneralized tonic-clonic: Loss of consciousness, muscle contraction, coma/drowsinessFocal motor: One part of body twitchesComplex partial: Altered personality state, dizziness, metallic taste in mouthAbsence: Brief loss of consciousness, usually in children
37Care for a Seizure (1 of 2) Protect from injury. Loosen restrictive clothing.Place in recovery position.Look for medical tag.Call if:Unknown reason or longer than 5 minutesSlow to recover, second seizure, or difficulty breathingPregnant or medical conditionSigns of illness or injury
38Care for a Seizure (2 of 2) Status epilepticus Two or more seizures without an intervening period of consciousnessEmergency situationCan lead to aspiration, brain damage, fractures, severe dehydration
39Diabetic Emergencies Diabetes: Insulin is lacking or ineffective Excess sugar remains in bloodType I juvenile-onset (insulin-dependent)Type II adult-onset (non-insulin dependent)Too much insulin, not enough blood sugar = low blood sugar, possible insulin shockToo much sugar, not enough insulin = high blood sugar, possible diabetic coma
40Low Blood Sugar Hypoglycemia or insulin reaction: Very low blood sugar Causes: too much insulin, too little or delayed food intake, exercise, alcohol
45Care for High Blood Sugar If you are unsure whether it is high or low blood sugar, provide same care as you would for low blood sugar.If condition does not improve in 15 minutes, seek medical care.
46Abdominal Complaints Aching, cramping, sharp, or dull pain Constant or can come and goNausea and vomitingDiarrhea or constipation
47Abdominal PainPeritoneum: Thin membrane lining entire abdominal cavityPeritonitis: Inflammation of the peritoneumMany possible causes for abdominal pain
48Recognizing Abdominal Pain Ask:When did pain start? Where located?Constant, or does it come and go?Nausea, diarrhea, or vomiting?Warm (feverish)?Other victims?Pregnancy?Rigid abdomen?
49Care for Abdominal Pain (1 of 2) Give only clear fluids.Have victim sip slowly.Give victim an antacid.Place hot-water bottle against victim’s abdomen or soak in warm bath.Be prepared for vomiting.Keep victim on left side.
50Care for Abdominal Pain (2 of 2) Seek medical care if:Constant pain or more than 6 hoursVictim unable to drink fluidsPossible pregnancyRigid, painful abdomen, swollen abdomenMore pain when abdomen is pressedBloody or black stoolFeverPain began around belly button, moved to lower right side
51Nausea and Vomiting Many potential causes Persistence can signal serious illnessIf lasts more than 1 or 2 days, dehydration can occur.Young children and elderly more seriously affected
52Recognizing Nausea and Vomiting Ask:Abdominal pain?Bloody or brown grainy vomit?Diarrhea?Dehydration?Other victims?Recent head injury?
53Care for Nausea and Vomiting (1 of 2) Give small amounts of clear fluids.If able to keep down, offer carbohydratesHave victim rest, avoid exertion.Recovery position
54Care for Nausea and Vomiting (2 of 2) Seek medical care if:Bloody or brown, grainy vomitConstant abdominal painUnable to keep fluids down more than 24 hoursSevere, projectile vomitingRecent head injury
56Care for Motion Sickness Sit near midsection of vehicle.Do not read.Look onto horizon.Avoid overeating.Try antihistamine 1 hour before traveling.
57Diarrhea Passage of loose, watery, or unformed stools Causes: Intestinal infection, food poisoning, allergyDehydration can occur.Must replace fluids
58Recognizing Diarrhea Ask: Contaminated water or food? Blood or mucus in stool?Signs of dehydration?Cramping?Loss of bowel control?Feverish?Other victims?
59Care for Diarrhea Have victim drink lots of clear fluids. Give mild foods.Bismuth can help.Seek medical care if:Blood stoolsNo improvement after 24 hoursFeverSevere, constant abdominal painSeverely dehydrated
60Constipation Passage of hard, dry stools Solutions: Diet, fluids, activity, emotional state
62Care for Constipation Have victim eat more fiber. Have victim drink fluids.Encourage victim to remain active.If no improvement: Milk of magnesia or caffeineSeek medical care if:Severe abdominal painSwollen or painful abdomenFeverVomiting
63Recognizing Pregnancy Emergencies Vaginal bleedingCramps in lower abdomenSwelling of the face or fingersSevere continuous headacheDizziness or faintingBlurring of vision or seeing spotsUncontrollable vomiting
64Care for Pregnancy Emergencies Vaginal bleeding or abdominal pain or injury:Keep victim warm.For vaginal bleeding, place sterile pad over opening of vagina.Send blood-soaked pads to hospital with victim.Seek medical care.