Presentation on theme: "Handling Emergencies Legacy High School Drivers Education."— Presentation transcript:
Handling Emergencies Legacy High School Drivers Education
Tire failure Tries may fail for several reasons. –Poor maintenance Over or under inflation Unbalanced Poor alignment –Abrupt braking –Sharp steering –Poor roadway surfaces Pot holes Tire failure caused by under inflation
Blowout Tire looses pressure suddenly. –Road hazard –Poor maintenance Badly worn Under inflated When a front tire blows out the vehicle pulls in the direction of the deflated tire. When a rear tire blows out, the back of the vehicle can “fishtail” or skid.
If a left front tire blows out, the vehicle might pull toward oncoming traffic
Blowout Take the following actions when a tire blows out: 1.Grip the steering wheel firmly. 2.Ease up on the accelerator. DO NOT BRAKE. Braking can cause the vehicle to go into a skid. 3.Check the traffic as you gain control of the vehicle. 4.Drive off the roadway slowly, braking gently. 5.Drive to a safe location and stop. 6.Turn on hazard flashers.
Changing a tire Most vehicles will have an owners' manual which will tell you where to look for the jack and the spare tire. You should make sure that your spare tire is properly inflated, and you have all the necessary tools before you drive off...just in case you get a flat.
Changing a tire Step 1: Choose your spot well Pull off the road so that you are safely out of the flow of traffic – pull as far to the right as possible Try to stop in a straight part of the road, so that passing traffic can see you from a distance Stop the car on a level spot, it is unsafe to jack up a car on an incline Set your emergency brake. Turn on your Hazard lights
Changing a tire Step 2: Remove tools from vehicle Retrieve the tools and spare tire from the car. Place a block under the tire opposite the flat If desired, put on gloves.
Changing a tire Step 3: Loosen the lug nuts Remove the hubcap, if necessary Some cars won't have hubcaps... consult your owners' manual for proper instructions in removing the hubcaps Using the lug wrench, begin to loosen the lug nuts Sometimes the lug nuts are quite difficult to loosen If you can't loosen them, try stepping on the lug wrench to loosen them Do not remove the lug nuts, only loosen them
Changing a tire Step 4: Jack up the vehicle Consult your owners' manual and find where the jack needs to be positioned Position the jack under the car, and raise the jack until it contacts the frame Make sure the jack is properly positioned and firmly on the ground. Extend the jack until the tire is about 6 inches off the ground. –remember: don't stop raising the car when the flat tire is just off the ground...the spare tire is fully inflated and will require more ground clearance
Changing a tire
Step 5: Remove the flat tire Remove the lug nuts from the bolts, and put them aside Grab the wheel Pull the wheel straight toward you, and off the car
Changing a tire Step 6: Put on the spare tire Position the spare tire directly in front of the wheel well Align the holes in the center of the spare tire with the bolts on the car Lift the spare tire and position it on the threaded bolts Push the tire onto the car until it cannot go any farther Replace the lug nuts on the bolts and tighten them, but not too tight...just enough to hold the tire in place.
Changing a tire Step 7: Lower the vehicle Lower the car with the jack until the car is again resting on all four tires Tighten the lug nuts, starting with one, then moving to the one opposite it, and so on...
Changing a tire Replace or repair the flat tire as soon as possible. If your spare tire is a temporary or compact spare, drive on it only as necessary under the manufacturer’s conditions of its use.
Brake failure Vehicles are required to have a two part braking system. –One system for the front wheels and one system for the back wheels. If one system fails the other system will still stop the vehicle. –The brake warning light signals a brake system failure. –If both systems fail --- you will not have any braking power.
Brake failure If your brakes fail – follow the following steps. 1.Pump the brakes. Pumping might temporarily restore enough brake fluid pressure to stop your vehicle. You will know after 3-4 pumps if your brakes are going to hold If you have a manual transmission, downshift to a lower gear to allow the engine to help slow the vehicle
Brake failure 3.Pull and hold the parking brake. If your parking brake has a button, hold the button in the off position so you can quickly release the brake in the event of a skid.
Brake failure 4.Search for an open area. Continue to steer. As a last resort rub your wheels against a curb to reduce speed. If a collision is inevitable – steer for a sideswipe rather than colliding head-on into something solid.
Temporary brake failure Excessive heat may cause brakes to become less effective (brake fade). –Avoid driving with you foot on the brake. –Shift to low gears to help slow a vehicle when traveling down hills or steep grades. Water may cause brakes to become less effective. –Gently use the brakes after traveling through deep water. Friction will help dry the brakes. Test again to determine they are working properly.
Stuck accelerator A stuck accelerator is a critical emergency. –The vehicle continues to accelerate or move at constant speed when the foot is taken off of the accelerator. This may be caused by carpeting or floor mats not allowing the accelerator to release. 1.Kick the accelerator pedal to try and free it. 2.Apply the brakes 3.Choose an escape path 4.Shift to neutral or press in the clutch 5.Turn off the ignition once you are off the roadway Keep the engine running until stopped at it gives power to the brakes.
Stuck accelerator If you are in a light traffic area, you might try to release the stuck accelerator by placing your foot under the pedal. Stop and inspect the accelerator pedal, test it before continuing.
Engine failure If your engine stops, follow these steps. –Shift to neutral –Begin moving out of traffic – do not brake unless is it necessary for safety – barking may leave you stranded in the road way. –Turn on hazard flashers –Try to restart the engine. If successful, shift into a forward gear. If unsuccessful, steer to the curb, braking and steering may become difficult. –Park as far from the roadway as possible, raise the hood indicating your need for help.
Flooded engine An engine becomes “flooded” when there is too much fuel and too little air in the engine. Follow the following steps to start a “flooded” engine 1.Hold the accelerator pedal to the floor to let air in and clear excess fuel from the engine. 2.While holding down the accelerator, turn the ignition switch on for 5 seconds, if the engine does not start, wait several minutes and try again. 3.When the engine starts, release the accelerator gradually to help clear excess fuel from the engine.
Overheated engine Overheating may be caused by poor maintenance, hot weather, stop-and-go traffic, and going up long hills with the air conditioner on. The engine temperature light may go on or the thermometer may show increased engine temperature.
Overheated engine Take these steps if you engine overheats 1.Turn off the air conditioner. 2.Turn on the heater as this takes heat away from the engine. 3.During stops, shift to neutral and press the accelerator gently to increase the fan speed, cooling the engine. 4.If the engine remains hot or the temperature light remains on, stop, raise the hood to allow the engine to cool. Do not remove the radiator cap and add water until the engine has cooled.
Driving off the side of the road If a front tire leaves the roadway, and the shoulder is lower than the roadway, the driver may experience difficulty in returning to the roadway. –Many fatal one-vehicle collisions result when drivers brake and return suddenly to the roadway. The vehicle often rolls over.
Off road recovery You should take the following actions for a safe off- road recovery. 1.Hold the steering wheel tightly, steer straight ahead. Be aware of traffic around you. 2.Let up on the accelerator and brake gently to a speed of 5-10 mph, avoid hard braking. 3.Position your vehicle so it straddles the roadway edge.
Off road recovery 4.Select a place to return where the shoulder level is close to the level of the roadway. 5.Check traffic. Signal, check blind spot and return to the roadway. Turn the steering wheel 1 / 8 to ¼ of a turn toward the roadway – turn sharply to get back on the pavement.
Off road recovery 6.Counter steer sharply the instant the front tire touches the roadway. Counter steer in the opposite direction. 7.Center the vehicle in the center of the lane and reestablish your target. Cancel your signal. Accelerate to match the flow of the traffic.
Power steering failure Power steering failure occurs when: –The engine dies –The power steering fluid is too low –When a power steering belt breaks You will still be able to steer, but you must exert more effort to steer.
Vehicle fire Vehicle fires most commonly occur in the engine compartment. If you see smoke coming from the engine compartment 1.Steer the vehicle off of the roadway to and area clear of buildings or other structures. 2.Keep people at least 100 feet away. 3.Do not open the hood unless the fire is small and you have an appropriate fire extinguisher for oil/gas and electrical fires.
Driver errors Driver errors cause the majority of emergencies. Errors due to inexperience, lack of attention or poor decisions often create driving emergencies. Objectives –Describe how to return to the roadway if your vehicle runs off the roadway. –Explain when to use an emergency swerve.
Emergency swerving Swerving is a last-second means of avoiding a collision. –Swerve only if you believe that braking will not prevent a collision. –At speeds over 30 mph, you can usually swerve to a new path in less distance than the distance you need to stop safely. –When deciding to swerve, be sure no object or vehicle is in the area that you will enter.
Emergency swerving Follow these steps if you decide to swerve. 1.Identify the escape path, must be clear of vehicles or other objects. 2.Grip the steering wheel firmly and turn in the direction of the swerve. 3.Counter steer to straighten the path of your vehicle. 4.Brake appropriately as to not cause a skid.
Roadway hazards Unusual and unexpected roadway hazards can cause you to lose control of your vehicle. Objectives –Describe how to minimize vehicle damage caused by potholes. –Explain what to do if you enter a curve too fast. –Tell how to escape from a vehicle that is sinking in water.
Potholes Potholes are areas where the pavement has become broken and pavement is missing. Potholes often have sharp edges which may severely damage tires or cause other damage to your vehicle. When driving try to avoid potholes.
Sharp curves Slow before entering a curve – follow warning signs. If you enter a curve too fast, do the following: 1.Brake gently --- do not lock the wheels. 2.Look for an exit path if necessary – look for other vehicles and objects to avoid. 3.About halfway through the curve, accelerate gently to help stabilize your vehicle.
Object in the roadway If you see an object in the roadway, choose one of the following options: 1.Steer around – if safe 2.Stop 3.Straddle the object – if it is small and low enough. 4.Hit the object – this might be the best decision if you cannot stop and steering around the object would cause damage or injury to others. This option is a last resort.
Vehicle sinking in deep water Take these actions if your vehicle enters water deeper than the height of the vehicle. 1.Open the highest window – (and easiest to reach) Open windows immediately as electric windows will not operate when flooded. 2.Unfasten your seat belt, have passengers unfasten theirs. 3.Exit through the open window. If the windows will not open attempt to exit through a door. Do not panic.
Collisions Most drivers are involved in a collision at sometime during their driving experiences. Knowing what to do and how to react can lessen the effects of a collision. Objectives –Explain how to avoid or minimize head-on, side- impact, and rear-end collisions. –List the immediate steps to take if a collision occurs. –Describe the follow-up steps needed after a collision.
Collisions If you cannot avoid a collision, do the following: 1.Make a change of speed or direction that will lessen impact. 2.Steer for for an open space or something soft. Be aware of other traffic entering your intended travel area.
Head on collisions 1.Brake hard, but do not lock the wheels. Braking will lessen impact and give more time to react. 2.Blow horn and flash lights to alert the oncoming driver. 3.Steer to the right, if necessary on to the shoulder. Do not steer left into oncoming traffic.
Side impact collision In the event a side impact collision is inevitable. 1.Brake or accelerate to lessen the collision impact. 2.Blow the horn to alert the other driver. 3.Change lanes or swerve away from the impact. Be aware of traffic around you.
Rear end collision If you see a vehicle approaching too fast from the rear, do the following: 1.Repeatedly step on brake pedal to flash brake lights. 2.Move your vehicle forward if possible. 3.Turn out of the path of the oncoming vehicle if possible. 4.Release your brakes just before the collision occurs. 5.Brake immediately after the collision.