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First Aid Wanda Opland Health Careers JAMES VALLEY VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL CENTER
Artificial Respirations Brain Damage Airway Assess Breathing Respirations –Adult –Child / Infant
Bleeding Primary technique to stop bleeding Do you remove a soaked dressing? Pressure Dressing
Elevation Pressure Points –Rt. and Lt. Brachial Artery –Rt. and Lt. Femoral Artery
Pressure on Brachial Artery Put Thumb on outside of arm, fingers on inside of middle upper arm and Squeeze….
Pressure on Femoral Artery Place heel of hand directly over femoral artery (located between upper leg and pubic area), lean forward keeping arm straight and apply pressure.
Tourniquet USE ONLY AS A LAST RESORT !!!!!!!!! Once applied Never loosen Get Help at Once!!
Related Bleeding Emergencies Internal Bleeding –Blood from rectum, mouth, vagina or blood in urine –Bruise or contusion –Rapid pulse –Cool and/or moist skin –Painful, tender or hardspot on abdomen
Penetrating Object –DO NOTREMOVE! Severed Body Part –Control bleeding –Do Not scrub body part –Wrap in clean cloth, place in sealed plastic bag and place in bag containing ice
Poisoning In case of Poisoning, the first thing to be done…. Why… 80% of poison victims under 5y/o
Information for Poison Control Center Age Weight Amount Type How long ago ingested
Should the empty container be kept? Only safe way to induce vomiting Labeled directions for poisoning
Poisoning By Fumes Move victim into Fresh Air
Prevention Beware: poisons can be inhaled, Swallowed and absorbed by the skin - Chemicals - Plants - Fumes Best First Aid is Prevention
Shock A serious weakening of the body causes by the loss of blood pressure or sudden injury Sudden upset of mental or emotional balance
Symptoms Rapid, weak pulse General Weakness Irregular breathing Cold, pale, clammy skin
As Victim Deteriates Eyes appear vacant, sunken Pupils may dilate Listless ** May die from Shock**
Treatment for Shock Positioning and why… Positioning if spinal cord injury suspected…
Positioning with head injury… Positioning if unconscious… Blankets… No Fluids
Classified according to depth or degree of skin damage. First Degree Burn Second Degree Burn Third Degree Burn
First Degree Burn Cause: overexposure to sun –Light contact with hot objects –Scalding by hot water or steam
Signs of First Degree Burns Erythema Mild Swelling & Pain Rapid Healing
First Aid: First Degree Burns Cold Water NOT Ice Water Burn Lotion or Spray Dark Vinegar NO BUTTER OR OINTMENTS
Second Degree Burns Results from a very deep sunburn Contact with hot liquids Flash burns from gasoline etc.
Signs of Second Degree Burns ErythemaSwelling BlistersPain Open Wounds Wet appearance due to loss of plasma through damaged skin layers.
First Aid: Second Degree Burns Immerse in cold water NOT ice water Apply cool conpresses Blot dry & apply sterile guaze or clean cloth for protection DO NOT break blisters or remove tissue
DO NOT use an antiseptic preparation, ointment, spray or home remedy on a severe burn. If arm or legs are affected, keep them elevated.
Third Degree Burns Caused by flame, ingnited clothing, immersion in hot water, contact with hot objects, or electricity.
Signs of Third Degree Burns White or Charred appearance Deep tissue destruction Complete loss of all skin layers Nerve Damage Pain or No Pain
First Aid: Third Degree Burns DO NOT remove pieces of adhered particles of charred clothing. Cover burn with thick, sterile or freshly laundered cloth. If hands or legs involved, elevate.
Face burns to sit up or prop them up. DO NOT immerse or apply ice water to burn area. Transport ASAP. DO NOT apply ointment, commercial preparations, grease, or other home remedies.
Chemical Burns of the Skin First Aid: –Remove clothing –Flush with water ASAP for 15 – 20 minutes –Get name / source of Chemical –Seek Medical Attention ASAP
Burns of the Eyes First Aid: –Flush face, eyelid, & eye for 15 – 20 minutes ASAP –Avoid rubbing eye –Cover eye –Seek medical attention ASAP
Fractures A break or crack in a bone Cause: most commonly a MVA or: –Accident related to a fall & recreational and sports activities
Signs and Symptoms May hear a bone snap Pain & tenderness, difficulty moving injured body part Report of grating sensation Shortening of injured leg/arm Unusual angle or position of body part
First Aid Prevent motion to injured part or adjacent joints (immobilize) Apply splint Elevate involved extremity
Splinting a Fracture Splint body part in position as found Prevent injured area from moving Check for circulation before and after splinting
Head, Neck or Spinal Injury Symptoms: –Change in consciousness –Difficulty breathing –Impaired vision –Tingling or numbness in hands, fingers, feet and/or toes –Loss of balance –Headache & vomiting
First Aid Keep lying down Leave in position found in Call EMS If you do need to move, logroll & support head and neck
Sprains R.I.C.E. R = rest I = ice C = compress E = elevate
Allergic Reaction Anaphylaxis – result of: –Insect bite or bee sting –Severe allergic reaction to something ingested First Aid: –Epinephrine and EMS
Diabetic Too much or too little sugar in the body –Symptoms: cool clammy skin, weak dizzy –First Aid: give sugar in form of candy or drink
Frozen Body Parts Do not attempt to rewarm if a chance the body part may freeze again Needs to be thawed gradually Treat as though body part may break
Heat Related Illness Heat Cramps Heat Exhaustion Heat Stroke
Heat Cramps Symptoms: Painful muscle cramps Moist-cool skin - Heavy sweating First Aid: Move to cool place Massage and stretch muscles
Heat Exhaustion Symptoms: Cold, clammy skin – Weak pulse Heavy sweating – Shallow breathing Nausea – Dizziness – Weakness First Aid: Move to cool place – cool by fanning Elevate legs - Apply cool packs
Heat Stroke Symptoms: Hot, dry, red skin - Confusion or unconsciousness Little or No sweating – Fast weak pulse First Aid: Move to cool place – Call EMS Life Threatening
Dental Emergencies Knocked out tooth: –Place in container of whole milk if tooth can be replaced in 30 min. –Rinse tooth in cold water and place back in socket, then go to dentist ASAP:
Nose Bleeds Position victim in a sitting position Keep head tilted slightly forward Pinch both nostrils
Apply ice to bridge of nose Put pressure on upper lip beneath nose Once controlled DO NOT rub, blow, or pick the nose
Rescue and Transfer Emergency rescue is a procedure for moving a victim from a dangerous location to a place of safety
Indications for Immediate Rescue Fire, danger of explosion Danger of asphyxia due to lack of O2 or gas Serious traffic hazard Risk of drowning Exposure to cold / heat
Possibility of injury from collapsing walls or building Electrical injury or potential injury Pinning by machinery
Procedure Avoid unnecessary disturbances Ensure open airway Control Bleeding Check for Injury Immobilize injured parts before moving Transport
Methods of Transfer Pulling the Victim Lifting the Victim Supporting the Victim Chair Carry Two Man Carry Blanket Lift Three Man Hammock Carry
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First Aid First aid is the immediate and temporary care given to a person who has been injured or becomes suddenly ill. It is important to keep first aid.
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1Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 16 First Aid, Emergency Care, and Disaster Management.
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It is important to learn how to prevent injuries and respond to them when they occur.
* This slide deck was prepared for adaption and local use by units/installation personnel when conducting cold injury and illness prevention training.
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