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OB Delivery Complications & Use of the Meconium Aspirator

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Presentation on theme: "OB Delivery Complications & Use of the Meconium Aspirator"— Presentation transcript:

1 OB Delivery Complications & Use of the Meconium Aspirator
Condell Medical Center EMS System April 2008 Site Code # E1208 Prepared by: Sharon Hopkins, RN, BSN, EMT-P

2 Objectives Upon successful completion of this module, the EMS provider should be able to: list physiological changes in pregnancy. identify the stages of labor. describe the assessment of a patient in labor. explain the contents of the OB kit. identify obstetrical emergencies. describe how to care for a prolapsed cord and a breech delivery.

3 Objectives cont’d actively participate in discussion of case presentations. actively participate in hands-on skills of delivery complications. successfully complete the quiz with a score of 80% or better.

4 Physiological Changes in Pregnancy
Reproductive system Increase in size of uterus Increased vulnerability to injury During pregnancy uterus contains 16% of the total blood volume Extremely vascular organ during pregnancy Uterus and fetus insulted if blood flow diminished

5 Normal Fetal Positioning

6 Changes in Pregnancy cont’d
Respiratory system Increase in oxygen demand & consumption 40% increase in tidal volume Amount of air in or out in one breath Only slight increase in respiratory rate Diaphragm pushed upward decreasing lung capacity

7 Changes in Pregnancy cont’d
Cardiovascular system Cardiac output increases Maternal blood volume increases by 45% Heart rate increases by 10 – 15 beats per minute B/P decreases slightly in first 2 trimesters B/P normal in 3rd trimester Supine hypotensive syndrome after 5 months if heavy weight of uterus presses on inferior vena cava (when mother lying on her back)

8 Changes in Pregnancy cont’d
Gastrointestinal system Nausea and vomiting common in 1st trimester From hormone levels and changed carbohydrate needs Delayed gastric emptying Watch for vomiting and airway compromise Hands-on physical abdominal assessment difficult due to compression and shifting of abdominal organs

9 Changes in Pregnancy cont’d
Urinary system Increase in renal blood flow Urinary frequency is common Urinary bladder displaced more forward and higher increasing vulnerability to injury to the urinary bladder Musculoskeletal system Waddling gait due to loosened pelvic joints Low back pain due to change in center of gravity

10 First Stage of Labor Dilatation Stage
Begins with onset of true labor contractions Ends with complete dilatation and thinning of the cervix Cervix dilates from a closed position to 10 cm (approximately 4 inches) Duration about 8 – 10 hours in 1st pregnancy Early contractions mild, last 15 – 20 seconds coming every 10 – 20 minutes End of 1st stage contractions last 60 seconds and are coming every 2 – 3 minutes

11 Second Stage of Labor Begins with complete dilatation of cervix
Ends with delivery of fetus Can last minutes in 1st deliveries Pain felt in the lower back Mother has the urge to push Bag of waters usually rupture in this stage Crowning is evident Definitive sign of imminent delivery

12 Third Stage of Labor Begins immediately after birth of the infant
Ends with delivery of placenta Placenta generally delivers within 5 – 20 minutes Signs of placental separation Gush of blood from vagina Change in size, shape, consistency of uterus Umbilical cord length increases Mother has the urge to push

13 Assessment of the Patient in Labor
Ask expected due date Gravida – number of pregnancies First time deliveries tend to take longer – 16 – 17 hours Labor tends to shorten with subsequent pregnancies Para – number of live births Is it “gravida and para” or “para and gravida”? Note: “G” comes before “P” in the alphabet; you must be pregnant before you can deliver

14 Assessment of the Patient in Labor
Determine how long mother has been in labor Ask how long previous deliveries took Ask if bag of waters is intact or has broken Delivery is quicker once bag of waters has broken Are there any high risk concerns the mother is aware of

15 Assessment of the Patient in Labor
Time duration & frequency of contractions Duration is from the beginning of one contraction to the end of that contraction Frequency is how far apart contractions are Measured from the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next contraction Contractions lasting seconds and coming every 2-3 minutes apart indicate imminent delivery

16 Signs of Imminent Delivery
Crowning Bulging of the fetal head past the vaginal opening during contraction Bulging perineum Presenting part pressing on perineum Urge to push Note: High index of suspicion in female with abdominal pain and cramping (esp in a pattern) and denies pregnancy

17 OB Kit Contents Sterile gloves Drape sheet Gauze sponges
Disposable towels 2 alcohol preps 2 OB towelettes Bulb syringe Receiving blanket 2 umbilical clamps 2 nylon tie-offs Scalpel OB pad Plastic bag Twist ties Infant cap 2 wrist ID bands

18 OB Kit Contents

19 Newborn At Delivery

20 Preventing Hypothermia in a Newborn

21 APGAR Assessment – 1 & 5 minutes
A – appearance Most visible, least helpful Typical for pink trunk and blue distal extremities P – pulse 100 or above is acceptable – stimulation needed <60 – start compressions

22 APGAR cont’d G – grimace (irritability)
Includes coughing, sneezing, crying A – activity Active motion, flexing of extremities R – respiratory effort Strong cry Majority of scores are 7–10 indicating a healthy infant requiring routine care Scores 4-6 indicate moderately depressed infant requiring oxygen & stimulation

23 APGAR Score Criteria 1 2 Appearance Blue or pale Blue hands or feet
1 2 Appearance Blue or pale Blue hands or feet Entirely pink Pulse Absent < 100 >100 Grimace – reflex irritability Grimace Cough, sneeze Activity Limp Some extremity flexion Active motion Respirations Weak cry, hypoventi-lating Strong cry

24 Inverted Pyramid Drying, warming, positioning
Suction, tactile stimulation Oxygen BVM Chest Compressions Intubation Meds Basic skills Advanced skills

25 OB Complications – Supine Hypotensive Syndrome
Occurs in the 3rd trimester Heavy weight of uterus compresses inferior vena cava when mother in the supine position Interferes with blood flow returning back to the heart Intervention Transport women over 5 months pregnant lying or tilted towards their left side Remember: Lay left

26 OB Complications – Seizures
Consider causes Hypoglycemia – check glucose levels on all patients with altered level of consciousness Epilepsy – check for ID; protect airway Eclampsia – protect airway Intervention For any prolonged seizure activity, need to consider using BVM to support ventilations and provide oxygenation Transport lying/tilted left if over 5 months gestation Valium, if given, has effect on mother & fetus 5 mg IVP over 2 min; titrate; max total 10mg

27 OB Complications – Breech Delivery
Buttocks or feet present first Approximately 4% of all births Increased risk Maternal trauma Prolapse of cord Cord compression Anoxia to the infant Intervention Advanced medical intervention at the hospital Rapid transport important

28 Breech Presentation

29 Breech Delivery cont’d
Intervention As legs deliver, support legs across forearm If cord is accessible, palpate often If able, loosen cord to create slack After torso and shoulders deliver, gently sweep down arms If face down, gently elevate legs & trunk to facilitate delivery of head NEVER PULL INFANT BY LEGS OR TRUNK

30 Breech cont’d If head not delivered within 30 seconds
Reach 2 gloved fingers into vagina to locate baby’s mouth Push vaginal wall away from baby’s mouth to form an airway Keep your fingers in place and transport immediately Keep delivered part of baby warm Cover with a blanket If head delivers, anticipate neonatal distress

31 OB complications – Prolapsed Cord
Perform a visual exam as soon as possible whenever a mother states her bag of waters has ruptured Elevate the mother’s hips or place knee-chest Have patient breath through the contractions so she doesn’t push Placed gloved hand into vagina and raise presenting part to get pressure off cord Keep cord between fingers to monitor for pulsations Cover cord with moist dressing, keep warm

32 Prolapsed Cord

33 OB Complications – Nuchal Cord
Cord wrapped around infant’s neck Increase mother’s O2 to 100% non-rebreather mask Slip fingers around cord and lift over infant’s head Proceed with delivery If unable to reposition cord, place 2 OB clamps, cut cord between clamp, release cord from around neck

34 Nuchal Cord (C-section)

35 Meconium Dark green material found in the intestine of the full-term newborn. It can be expelled during periods of fetal distress (ie: hypoxia) If found in the infant airway, could compromise ventilations

36 Meconium Staining Fetus has passed feces into amniotic fluid
Occurs between 10-30% all deliveries Not unusual to observe in breech delivery In normal head-down delivery indicates fetal hypoxia Hypoxia increases fetal peristalsis and relaxation of anal sphincter The darker the color/staining, higher the risk of fetal morbidity

37 Meconium Stained Baby Airway needs to be cleared to avoid aspiration of meconium Suction and clear airway before infant needs to take that first breath

38 Meconium Staining If meconium is thin and light in color and the infant is vigorous Most meconium can be cleared away with bulb syringe ALWAYS suction mouth then nose, in that order Suctioning the nose stimulates breathing in the newborn Want to clear the mouth 1st so first breath is as clean as possible Limit suction (2 seconds per Region X SOP)

39 Meconium Staining If infant is not vigorous
Respiratory rate decreased Decreased muscle tone Heart rate < 100 Use meconium aspirator to clear airway This will take coordination and best accomplished with 2 persons working as a team

40 Meconium Suctioning Steps include intubation
Most efficient when performed as a 2 person team Time is essential May need to perform 2 intubation insertions Use each ETT once

41 Meconium Aspirator Connect small end of meconium aspirator to suction line connecting tube Turn suction down to 80 mmHg Insert endotracheal tube Don’t anticipate visualizing landmarks – they may be obscured by meconium Connect larger end of aspirator to ETT Place thumb over suction control port and slowly withdraw ETT (< 2 seconds) Discard ETT after one use

42 Meconium Aspirator Aspirator can be used a second time on infant
with new ETT each time Limit suction to <2 seconds

43 Case Study #1 EMS arrives on the scene for OB call
Patient is 24 y/o and states she is in labor What assessment questions specific to an imminent delivery need to be asked? What type of EMS physical assessment needs to be performed?

44 Case Study #1 Assessment questions Gravida? Para? Due date?
High risk concerns? Length of previous labors? Bag of waters intact? Ruptured? Duration and frequency of contractions?

45 Case Study #1 Physical exam – position patient to evaluate Crowning
Evidence of bulging perineum Involuntary pushing Signs of prolapsed cord Evidence of profuse bleeding

46 Do you stay & prepare to deliver or transport?
Case Study #1 History G2P1 EDC in 1 week No complications anticipated Previous labor 12 hours Bag of waters has ruptured Contractions are 5-6 minutes apart and lasting seconds There is no bulging or crowning Do you stay & prepare to deliver or transport?

47 Case Study #1 You could most likely begin transport with OB kit reached out in case labor progresses What stage of labor is the patient in? First stage If the patient delivers, how many run reports need to be written? Two – one for the mother, one for the infant

48 What is your role during delivery?
Support the presenting part Check for nuchal cord Suction mouth Then nose

49 Head and shoulders delivered
Have a firm grip on infant Cheesy covering and moisture make them slippery After shoulders, rest of the body will slip out fast

50 Clamping & cutting the cord
After cord is done pulsating, clamp 8″ from infant’s navel with 2 clamps placed 2″ apart Watch for blood leakage from infant’s cord Reinforce with additional clamps as needed

51 3rd Stage of Labor – Placental stage
Watch for excessive bleeding (>500 ml) Prepare to perform fundal massage Need to feel uterus become firm – size of the uterus will depend on the size of the fetus

52 Fundal Massage

53 Newborn dried off, cord clamped & cut
What’s his APGAR?

54 Case Study #2 Mother calls EMS because “my baby is coming”
Upon EMS arrival, you gain quick rapport Contractions are coming every 2-3 minutes and are seconds long The mother states she wants to push and feels her baby is coming right now You perform a visual exam

55 Case Study #2 This is what you see. Now what do you do?
If cord is wrapped around the neck, try to loosen and slip over the head. If too tight, need to double clamp and cut the cord NOW.

56 Case Study #3 Mother calls EMS and states she is in labor
Mother is G3P2 due tomorrow No known complications She has been in labor for 4 hours Contractions are 3 minutes apart You establish rapport and perform a visual exam And you determine that delivery is imminent

57 Case Study #3 - This is a breech delivery that is not delivering
Case Study #3 - This is a breech delivery that is not delivering. What do you do? Head should deliver in 30 seconds. If not, reach in to create an airway for the infant. Support body across your forearm.

58 Creating an airway for a breech delivery
Reach 2 fingers into the vagina Locate the infant’s face Push the vaginal skin away from the infant’s mouth Transport immediately Give report to the closest facility The crew member CANNOT move their fingers and risk losing the airway

59 The golden sounds to a mother’s and EMS provider’s ears – a newborn’s cry!!!

60 Documentation Once your patient delivers, EMS is to write 2 reports – mother & infant Both reports can have time of delivery On run report, OB delivery is credited to the person who delivers (“catches”) Segregate information Mother’s information on mother’s run report Infant’s information on the infant’s run report

61 Documentation - Mother
Due date (ie: EDC June 15th) Gravida/para (ie: G3P2) Presence of high risk concerns Bag of waters – Ruptured? Intact Status of contractions Signs of imminent delivery Crowning Bulging Urge to push Time of delivery (when last of baby delivers) & sex Complications during/after delivery (ie: bleeding) If placenta delivered or not

62 Documentation - Infant
Time of delivery Appearance of amniotic fluid (ie: clear, meconium staining) APGAR 1 and 5 minutes (ie: APGAR 9/9) Completion of assessment per physical condition boxes on run report Vital signs – B/P not necessary That cord was clamped and cut Time placenta delivered Special interventions required after delivery

63 Wrist Bands Apply a wrist band to both the mother and the newborn
Include the same information on both wrist bands Mother’s name Sex of infant Time of delivery

64 Bibliography Bledsoe, B., Porter, R., Cherry, R. Essentials of Paramedic Care. 2nd Edition. Brady Limmer, D., O’Keefe, M. Emergency Care 10th Edition. Brady Region X SOP’s Effective March 1, 2007

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