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China and Internet Censorship Censorship 1 Maya Graham Lisa Moriyama Jill Peckarsky.

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Presentation on theme: "China and Internet Censorship Censorship 1 Maya Graham Lisa Moriyama Jill Peckarsky."— Presentation transcript:

1 China and Internet Censorship Censorship 1 Maya Graham Lisa Moriyama Jill Peckarsky

2 Background n Censorship: suppression of information n Propaganda: “generating (mis)information to counteract other influences” n Internet censorship attempts like “trying to nail Jell-O to a wall” n Viewed as threat to Chinese political authority

3 History of People’s Republic of China (PRC) Government Control n Since 1949 (CCP takeover), has maintained tight control over forms and methods information is spread to people n Government to be only source of news & ideology n Monitors production & distribution of most newspapers, magazines, other news material n May 2001, members of book club arrested for holding meeting without permission n President Bush speech on religious tolerance in China edited by New China News Agency

4 Emergence of Internet in China n Government first to introduce Internet Protocol (IP) connections n Government initiative, “Golden Project,” connected Chinese ministries & other state venues n Used “Informatization” process to modernize economy & decentralize decision making n Officials closely monitored usage n Access only for scientists, academic community, & official government business

5 Access Barriers n Cost exceeded annual salary of most college educated professionals n Software/Internet in English; keyboard in QWERTY style based on Roman alphabet n All users required to register with federal police force -- require proof of ID and police file report form

6 1999 Internet Survey n Most Unsatisfied About China’s Internet n No issues relating to censorship of Internet n Echoes some access barriers

7 “Provisional Directive on the Management of International Connections by Computer Information Networks in the PRC” n “Government in charge of planning & protocols for all international computer connections” n All international networked computer communications must go through network channels provided by Ministry of Posts & Telecommunications n Computer networks may not be used for any activities that might endanger state security or disseminate pornographic or obscene materials n “All networks are subject to administration and monitoring by one of four major state agencies”

8 Change in Government Motives n Focus now on government efforts to limit what citizens (“netizens”) access online

9 Issues in Academics n Universities encourage exchange of ideas while government blocks information on the Internet n Scholars who study abroad face problems when returning to China n Gao Zhan’s return to China

10 Internet Cafés n Highly regulated n Feiyu Internet Café n “Underground” Cafés are more lax n Investigation into Internet Cafés from April to June 2001

11 Economics and the Internet n 1999 – World Trade Organization (WTO) –Opened China’s financial services to foreign investors n China must continue to move away from containment policy n Lack of E-Commerce n Non-Chinese Internet Companies –Targeting businesses

12 Conclusion n China needs an unrestricted Internet –Economic and academic growth n Despite regulations, usage growing n Membership in the WTO will help loosen controls n China losing hold over Internet – old solutions for new problems


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