Presentation on theme: "SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE ENGLISH IN DENTAL MEDICINE I"— Presentation transcript:
1 SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE ENGLISH IN DENTAL MEDICINE I UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREBLidija ŠtefićENGLISH IN DENTAL MEDICINE I
2 WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH DERIVATIONCONVERSIONCOMPOUNDINGBORROWING
3 DERIVATION AFFIXATION AFFIXES SUFFIXES COMBINING WORD PREFIXES ROOT (STEM)
4 BASIC WORD STRUCTURE Word root: gingiv/al root (gums) Suffix: gingiv/itissuffix (inflammation)Prefix::sub/gingiv/alprefix (below)Combining word::electr/o/cardi/o/gramrootsuffixprefixcombining vowel
5 SUFFIXES IN DENTAL MEDICINE a word added at the end of a word or word base (root)to change its meaning.DERIVE FROMGreekLatin
6 NEW TERM USED IN DENTISTRY OR MEDICINE gingiv + -itis gingivitis arthr WRSUFFIXNEW TERM USED IN DENTISTRY OR MEDICINEgingiv+ -itisgingivitisarthr+ -algiaarthralgiaWR+OSUFFIXNEW TERM USED IN DENTISTRY OR MEDICINEpulp+ -tomypulpotomy
7 SURGICAL PROCEDURE SUFFIXES Incision-ectomy (surgical removal, excision)apiectomy -the ablation of the root end of a tooth-o/centesis (surgical puncture)amniocentesis -surgical perforation of the uterus to obtain amniotic fluid-o/stomy (forming an opening)esophagostomy -the surgical creation of an opening into the esophagus-o/tome (instrument to cut)osteotome -a chisel like knife for cutting bone-o/tomy (to cut into)tracheotomy -incision of windpipe
8 Plastic operations (repair, rebulid, reconstruct, bind) -desisarthrodesis - surgical fixation of a joint-o/rrhaphy (suture)splenorrhaphy - surgical repair of the spleen-o/pexy (fixation, suspension)splenopexy - surgical fixation of a mobile spleen-o/plasty (formation, plasticrepair)osteoplasty - plastic surgery involving a bone
9 Refracturing, loosening, crushing -o/clasis (to break down, refracture)osetoclasis - the surgical fracture or refracture of bones-o/lysis (loosen, free form adhesions,destruction)enterolysis - the operative division of adhesions between loops of intenstine of or between the intestine andabdominal wall-o/tripsy (to crush)neurotripsy - surgical crushing of a nerve
10 DIAGNOSTIC AND SYMPTOMATIC SUFFIXES -algia (pain)odontalgia -toothache-o/cele (hernia, swelling)nephrocele -hernial protrusion of a kidney-o/dynia (pain)odontodynia --ectasis (dilatation, expansion)bronchiectasis -chronic dilatation of the bronchi-emia (blood condition)hyperemia -an excess of blood in a body part-o/gen (beginning, origin)pathogen -any disease - producing microorganism
11 -o/gram (a writing, record) roentgenogram -a photograph taken with the x-rays-o/graph (to write, record)cardiograph -a technique by means of which roentgenograms of the heart can be made at any chosen phase of its cycle.-iasis (condition, formation of, presence of)psoriasis -a chronic skin disease characterized by scaly red dish patches-sis (state of, condition)dysgenesis -state of deterioration of hereditary qualites of the stock
12 -itis (inflammation)stomatitis -a general inflammation of the mouth-o/logy (study of)odontology -the study of the teeth-o/malacia (softening)osteomalacia -a condition marked by softening of the bones-o/megaly (enlargement)acromegaly -enlargement of the extremities of the skeleton, the nose, jaws fingers and toes-o/meter (measure)dynamometer -an instrument for measuring forces or power
13 -opsy (process of viewing) autopsy - -oma (tumor, mass)odontoma -tumor of a tooth, although it doesn’t show all the features of a tumor. It consists of the calicified dental tissues-opsy (process of viewing)autopsy -an examination and dissection of a dead body to discover the cause of death, damage done by disease.-o/pathy (disease)trombocytopathy -a very rare disease of unknown etiology where there is a tendency to bleeding.-o/penia (decrease, deficiency)leukocytopenia -deficiency in the number of leukocytes
14 -osis (abnormal condition, increase-used only with blood cells) e. g -osis (abnormal condition, increase-used only with blood cells) e.g. leukocytosissialosis -chronic swelling of the salivary glands-phagia (eating)dysphagia -difficulty in swallowing-phasia (speech)dysphasia -impairment of the ability to speak-plegia (paralysis, stroke)paraplegia -paralysis of the legs and lower part of the body
15 -phobia (morbid fear)aerophobia -an abnormal fear of air, especially drafts-o/ptosismetroptosis -downward displacement or prolapse of theuterus-o/rrhage (burst forth)hemorrhage -excessive blood flow-o/rrhea (discharge, flow)dysmenorrhea -painful or difficult menstruation-o/clerosis (hardening)arteriosclerosis -thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls-scope (instrument to visually examine)endoscope -an instrument for examining visually the inside of a hollow organ of the body, as the bladder or rectum
16 SUFFIXES: ADJECTIVE ENDINGS The adjective endings that mean “pertaining to” are:-accardiac (heart)-algingival (gums)-ar, -arysalivary (saliva)-icdermic (skin)-icalapical (apex)-ousmucous (mucosa)-(t)iclymphatic (lymph)
17 SUFFIXES: NOUN ENDINGS -coccusbacteriastreptococcus (berry shaped bacteria)-cytecellthrombocyte-olelittle, smallarteriole - little artery-trophyhypertrophy (cells increase in size, notnumber)-ulenodule - little node-istspecialistdentist - a specialist in dentistry-iacan individual affected by a certain disasehypohondriac - an invidual who thinkshe is ill-iaabnormal conditionamnesia - forgetfulness-isforms the noun from the rootcutis - skin-ismabnormal condition, state of beingalcoholism
18 PREFIXES IN DENTAL MEDICINE at the beginning of a wordDERIVE FROMGreekLatin
19 PREFIXES OF DIRECTION Prefix Meaning Example ab- from,away from ab/normalusual, regularad-to, toward, nearad/sternalbreast platecircum –peri-aroundcircum/renalkidneyperi/odontaltooth
23 PREFIXES OF POSITION Prefix Meaning Example ambi- both,both sides ambi/lateralsideamphi-on both sidesamphi/cranialskullante-anter/o-pre-pro-before, in front ofante/febrileantero/septalSeptumpre/operativeOperationpro/nephroskidney
24 PrefixMeaningExampledextr/o-right, to the rightdextr/o/rotatoryrotationdors/o-backdors/o/ventralbellyepi-uponepi/cranialskullhypo-under belowhypo/dermicskininfra-sub-beneath, underinfra/sonicsoundsub/lingualtongue
25 PrefixMeaningExampleinter-betweeninter/dentaltoothlater/o-to the side oflatero/abdominalstomachmes/o-medi-in the middle ofmes/o/dermicskinretro-post-after,backwardretro/cervicalcervix(neck)postero-located, behindpostero/lateralTo the side ofsinistr/o-left,to the left ofsinistr/o/dextralto the right
26 PREFIXES OF NUMBER AND MEASUREMENT MeaningExamplemicro-smallmicro/stomatousmouthmacro-largemacro/cysthyper-over,above,excessivehyper/sensitivityhypo-under,below,deficienthypo/glossaltongueprimi-firstprimi/parato bear off spring
29 PREFIXES OF COLOUR Prefix Meaning Example alb- albumino- leuc/o- leuk/o-whitealbin/ouscontainleuc/emiablood conditionchlor/o-greenchlor/emijaglauc/o-poli/o-greyglauc/omaswellingpolio/myel/itis
30 Prefix Meaning Example cirrh/o-xanth/o-yellowcirrh/osisabnormal conditionxanth/emiacyan/o-bluecyan/o/dermiaskinmelan/o-blackmelan/omatumor, masserythr/o-rube/o-rederythr/o/cytecellrube/osispurpur/o-purplepurpur/icpertaining to
31 (used before a consonant) PREFIXES OF NEGATIONPrefixMeaningExamplea –(used before a consonant)an-(used before a vowel)without, not, a lack ofa/pneabreathar-im-in-dis-notar/rhythmiarhythmim/maturein/somni/acsleepdis/functional
33 Prefix Meaning Example eu-good, easyeu/pneabreathingheter/o-differentheter/o/cellularcellhomo-samehomo/sexualsexhydro-waterhydr/o/cephalusheadmal-ill, bad, poormal/nutritionfood substancesmeta-after,over,changemeta/plasiaabnormal (change)
34 Prefix Meaning Example pan-allpan/hyster/ectomyuterus/removalpseudo-falsepseudo/mening/itismeninges inflammationscler/o-hardscler/osiscondition ofsym-syn-union, togethersym/podiafootsyn/chilialips
35 COMBINING FORMS Combining form Meaning Terminology cyt/o all cytology cephal/oheadcephalic-ic means pertaining tophysi/onaturephysiologystudy of functions of theliving organismhem/obloodhematoma-oma means tumor or mass
36 crin/oto secreteendocrine glandsendo-means withinderm/oskinhypodermichypo-means below, undergingiv/ogumsgingivitis-itis means inflammationcerebr/obraincerebrumcerebral-al means pertaining togen/oproducingproduced bypathogenicpatho-means disease
37 gnos/oknowledgediagnosis-dia-means complete;-sis means state of. A diagnosis is made after sufficient information has been obtained about the patient’s conditioncardi/oheartcardiologysarco/ofleshsarcomapath/odiseasepathologicalorth/ostraight, regular, correctorthodontistodont means tooth-ist means a specialistbi/olifebiopsy-opsy means process of viewingoste/oboneosteodynia-dynia means pain
38 ANATOMYAnatomy (from the Greek ἀνατομία anatomia, from ἀνατέμνειν ana:separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open)is a branch of biologyIt is the study of exernal and internal structuresand the physical realationshipsbetween body partsMicroscopic-cytology-histologyMacroscopic (gross)-surface-regionalsystemic
39 Claudius Aelius Galenus HYSTORY OF ANATOMYHippocrates of Kos (Greek: Ἱπποκράτης)Claudius Aelius Galenus(AD 129 – 200)ca. 460 BC - ca. 370 BC
43 Robert Hooke’s microscope The scanning electron microscope (SEM)
44 Anatomy employs two chief methods of study - the systemic and topographic.In the former the body is regarded as consisting of systemsand organs.The divisions of systemic anatomy are:a.Osteology, the description of the skeletonb.Arthrology, the description of the jointsc.Myology, the description of muscles and accessory structuresd.Splancnology, the description of viscerae.Angiology, the description of organs of circulationf.Neurology, the description of the nervous systemg.Esthesiology, the description of the sense organs
45 Dental medicine takes into consideration other branches of systemic anatomy such as : embriology, genetics, endocrinology and dermatology.Pathological anatomy is the study of diseased organs.sections of normal anatomy applied to various purposes receivespecial names such asmedical, surgical, ginaecological, artistic and superficial anatomy
46 Structural Organisation of the Body Organs, SystemsBody Cavities
47 Organs and Systems Tissues Patterns Various Organs Organs = several kinds of tissueviscera (lat.) = internal organs (sing. viscus)Systems = groups of organs working together and performing complex functions
48 Gastrointestinal System Mouth, pharynx,oesophagus, stomach,intestines(small and large),liver, gallbladder, pancreas
68 Bones are complete organs, composed of connective tissue called osseous tissueDense connective tissue includes thecartilage and boneIt consists of osteocytes surrounded byintercellular substance filled withcalcium salts
69 It is composed of an outer hard layer and an inner,spongy core. Compact tissue- forms the outer layer of bones, it is arranged in concentric layers with a hollow centre which carries blood vessels and nerves.
70 The inner spongy core- forms the inside of bones, it has the yellow and red bone marrow. - the yellow bone marrow stores fat cells (leucocytes).- the red bone marrow contains red cells (erythrocytes).
71 External surface of bone is covered by periosteum- it has the functionof feeding the bone
72 Several hormones regulate the activity of the bone cell Osteoblasts- they are immatureosteocytes which produce the bony tissuethat replaces cartilage during ossification
73 2) Osteoclasts- they reabsorb bony tissue thus enlarging the inner bone cavity so that the bone does not become overly thick and heavy- parathyroid gland stimulates osteoclasts to remove bone and to stimulate osteoblasts to build up the bone
74 It secretes a hormone to release calcium from bone, bones become weakeneddue to loss of calcium.
82 FOUR MOVEMENTS OF TMJ:ElevationDepressionProtractionRetraction
83 MUSCLES from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" Myology is the branch of anatomy dealing with the muscles,muscular tissue components, structure and functions.Striated - VoluntarySmooth - InvoluntaryCardiac
92 synapses are specialized junctions through which neurons Greek "syn-" ("together") and "haptein" ("to clasp").synapses are specialized junctions through which neuronssignal to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
94 CRANIAL NERVESThere are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Olfactory I Optic II Oculomotor III Trochlear IV Trigeminal V Abducens VI Facial VII Auditory (vestibulocochlear) VIII Glossopharyngeal IX Vagus X Spinal Accessory XI Hypoglossal XII
117 Rhesus factor - RhAnother important factor, called Rh factor must also be considered in blood typing. This is a very complex system : 8 principal variants of the Rh factor are known, and there are others not yet identified and grouped. For practical reasons there are 2 main groups of Rh types:Rh positiveRh negative
127 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM The cardiovascular system is composed of theheart, blood vessels and blood. The circulatorysystem consists of the heart, blood vessels andlymphatics. This system transports food,oxygen, and other vital substances to all bodycells and picks up waste products for disposal.
128 THE HEART The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood through the blood vessels. It isenclosed in a fibrouserous sac calledpericardium. The heart beats overtimes per day. It weights about one half poundand is the size of clenched fist
129 The heart has three distinctive layers of tissue: The endocardiumThe myocardiumThe epicardiumThe heart is divided into four chambers:Right atriumRight ventricleLeft atriumLeft ventricle
130 BLOOD VESSELS ARTERIES VEINS CAPILLARIES carry blood from the heart to the body tissues and organsVEINScarry blood back to the heart from body organs and tissuesCAPILLARIESconnect arterioles to venules.
132 FUNCTION Transporting fluids from tissues back to the bloodstream Aiding in the control of infection caused by microorganismsConveyance of lipids or fats away from the digestive organs
133 Lymph nodes of the human head and neck Regional lymph tissue
134 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The digestive system is basically a long, musculartube that begins at themouth and ends at the anus
135 The functions of thedigestive system arethreefold
136 Digestive enzymes are substances that speed up chemical reactions and help in the breakdown ofcomplex nutrientsDigestion can be defined as a complete process ofchanging the chemical and physical composition of foodin order to facilitate assimilations of the nourishingingredients of flood by the cells of the body
137 The gastrointestinial (GI) tract begins at the oral cavity or mouth
138 THE MOUTH The mouth is the first division of the digestive tube and is separable into two parts, smaller externalpart, the vestibule formed by the lips cheek, gumsand teeth and a larger part, the mouth proper (oral)cavity behind the gums and teeth
139 Lips and cheeks Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals.Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for foodintake , and in the articulation of speech,as a tactile sensory organ as an erogenous organ usedin kissing and other acts of intimacy.
140 Cheeks (Latin: buccae) constitute the area of the face below the eyes and between the noseand the left or right ear.
142 Gingiva are part of the soft tissue lining of the mouth. They surround the teeth and provide a seal around them.Compared with the soft tissue linings of the lips and cheeks,most of the gingiva are tightly bound to the underlying boneand are designed to resist the friction of food passingover them. Healthy gingiva is usually coral pink,but may contain physiologic pigmentation.Changes in color, particularly increased redness,together with edema and an increased tendency to bleed,suggest an inflammation (gingivitis)
143 Teeth (singular, Tooth) are small whitish structures found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebratesthat are used to tear, scrape, milk and chew foodHumans usually have 20 primary teeth(also called deciduous, baby, or milk teeth)and 32 permanent teeth. Among primary teeth,10 are found in the (upper) maxilla and the other10 in the (lower) mandible.Teeth are classified as incisors, canines,premolarsand molars .
144 The main functions of the teeth: Incisors = cuttingCanines = tearingPremolars = crushingMolars = grinding
145 The tongue The tongue is skeletal muscle on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food forchewing and swallowing (deglutition).
146 The main functions of the tongue: It moves food around in the mouthIt begins swallowing action (deglutition)It aids in speech productionIt provides the equipment for taste sensation