Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE ENGLISH IN DENTAL MEDICINE I"— Presentation transcript:




4 BASIC WORD STRUCTURE Word root: gingiv/al root (gums) Suffix:
gingiv/itis suffix (inflammation) Prefix:: sub/gingiv/al prefix (below) Combining word:: electr/o/cardi/o/gram root suffix prefix combining vowel

a word added at the end of a word or word base (root) to change its meaning. DERIVE FROM Greek Latin

6 NEW TERM USED IN DENTISTRY OR MEDICINE gingiv + -itis gingivitis arthr
WR SUFFIX NEW TERM USED IN DENTISTRY OR MEDICINE gingiv + -itis gingivitis arthr + -algia arthralgia WR +O SUFFIX NEW TERM USED IN DENTISTRY OR MEDICINE pulp + -tomy pulpotomy

Incision -ectomy (surgical removal, excision) apiectomy - the ablation of the root end of a tooth -o/centesis (surgical puncture) amniocentesis - surgical perforation of the uterus to obtain amniotic fluid -o/stomy (forming an opening) esophagostomy - the surgical creation of an opening into the esophagus -o/tome (instrument to cut) osteotome - a chisel like knife for cutting bone -o/tomy (to cut into) tracheotomy - incision of windpipe

8 Plastic operations (repair, rebulid, reconstruct, bind)
-desis arthrodesis - surgical fixation of a joint -o/rrhaphy (suture) splenorrhaphy - surgical repair of the spleen -o/pexy (fixation, suspension) splenopexy - surgical fixation of a mobile spleen -o/plasty (formation, plastic repair) osteoplasty - plastic surgery involving a bone

9 Refracturing, loosening, crushing
-o/clasis (to break down, refracture) osetoclasis - the surgical fracture or refracture of bones -o/lysis (loosen, free form adhesions, destruction) enterolysis - the operative division of adhesions between loops of intenstine of or between the intestine and abdominal wall -o/tripsy (to crush) neurotripsy - surgical crushing of a nerve

-algia (pain) odontalgia - toothache -o/cele (hernia, swelling) nephrocele - hernial protrusion of a kidney -o/dynia (pain) odontodynia - -ectasis (dilatation, expansion) bronchiectasis - chronic dilatation of the bronchi -emia (blood condition) hyperemia - an excess of blood in a body part -o/gen (beginning, origin) pathogen -any disease - producing microorganism

11 -o/gram (a writing, record)
roentgenogram - a photograph taken with the x-rays -o/graph (to write, record) cardiograph - a technique by means of which roentgenograms of the heart can be made at any chosen phase of its cycle. -iasis (condition, formation of, presence of) psoriasis - a chronic skin disease characterized by scaly red dish patches -sis (state of, condition) dysgenesis - state of deterioration of hereditary qualites of the stock

12 -itis (inflammation) stomatitis - a general inflammation of the mouth -o/logy (study of) odontology - the study of the teeth -o/malacia (softening) osteomalacia - a condition marked by softening of the bones -o/megaly (enlargement) acromegaly - enlargement of the extremities of the skeleton, the nose, jaws fingers and toes -o/meter (measure) dynamometer - an instrument for measuring forces or power

13 -opsy (process of viewing) autopsy -
-oma (tumor, mass) odontoma - tumor of a tooth, although it doesn’t show all the features of a tumor. It consists of the calicified dental tissues -opsy (process of viewing) autopsy - an examination and dissection of a dead body to discover the cause of death, damage done by disease. -o/pathy (disease) trombocytopathy - a very rare disease of unknown etiology where there is a tendency to bleeding. -o/penia (decrease, deficiency) leukocytopenia - deficiency in the number of leukocytes

14 -osis (abnormal condition, increase-used only with blood cells) e. g
-osis (abnormal condition, increase-used only with blood cells) e.g. leukocytosis sialosis - chronic swelling of the salivary glands -phagia (eating) dysphagia - difficulty in swallowing -phasia (speech) dysphasia - impairment of the ability to speak -plegia (paralysis, stroke) paraplegia - paralysis of the legs and lower part of the body

15 -phobia (morbid fear) aerophobia - an abnormal fear of air, especially drafts -o/ptosis metroptosis - downward displacement or prolapse of the uterus -o/rrhage (burst forth) hemorrhage - excessive blood flow -o/rrhea (discharge, flow) dysmenorrhea - painful or difficult menstruation -o/clerosis (hardening) arteriosclerosis - thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls -scope (instrument to visually examine) endoscope - an instrument for examining visually the inside of a hollow organ of the body, as the bladder or rectum

The adjective endings that mean “pertaining to” are: -ac cardiac (heart) -al gingival (gums) -ar, -ary salivary (saliva) -ic dermic (skin) -ical apical (apex) -ous mucous (mucosa) -(t)ic lymphatic (lymph)

-coccus bacteria streptococcus (berry shaped bacteria) -cyte cell thrombocyte -ole little, small arteriole - little artery -trophy hypertrophy (cells increase in size, not number) -ule nodule - little node -ist specialist dentist - a specialist in dentistry -iac an individual affected by a certain disase hypohondriac - an invidual who thinks he is ill -ia abnormal condition amnesia - forgetfulness -is forms the noun from the root cutis - skin -ism abnormal condition, state of being alcoholism

at the beginning of a word DERIVE FROM Greek Latin

19 PREFIXES OF DIRECTION Prefix Meaning Example ab- from,away from
ab/normal usual, regular ad- to, toward, near ad/sternal breast plate circum – peri- around circum/renal kidney peri/odontal tooth

20 Prefix Meaning Example ec- ex- through, across ec/tropia place ex/cision to cut ecto- exo- extra- outside ecto/derm skin ex/odontics tooth extra/cellular cell

21 Prefix Meaning Example endo- Intra- in, within endo/cranial skull intra/dental tooth par- para- near, beside,beyond para/nasal nose super- supra- above excessive super/acidity acidity supra/molecular molecule

22 Prefix Meaning Example ultra- beyond,excesive ultra/sonic sound dia- per- trans- trough, across dia/rea flow per/cutaneos skin trans/urethral urethra

23 PREFIXES OF POSITION Prefix Meaning Example ambi- both,both sides
ambi/lateral side amphi- on both sides amphi/cranial skull ante- anter/o- pre- pro- before, in front of ante/febrile antero/septal Septum pre/operative Operation pro/nephros kidney

24 Prefix Meaning Example dextr/o- right, to the right dextr/o/rotatory rotation dors/o- back dors/o/ventral belly epi- upon epi/cranial skull hypo- under below hypo/dermic skin infra- sub- beneath, under infra/sonic sound sub/lingual tongue

25 Prefix Meaning Example inter- between inter/dental tooth later/o- to the side of latero/abdominal stomach mes/o- medi- in the middle of mes/o/dermic skin retro- post- after,backward retro/cervical cervix(neck) postero- located, behind postero/lateral To the side of sinistr/o- left,to the left of sinistr/o/dextral to the right

Meaning Example micro- small micro/stomatous mouth macro- large macro/cyst hyper- over,above,excessive hyper/sensitivity hypo- under,below,deficient hypo/glossal tongue primi- first primi/para to bear off spring

27 Prefix Meaning Example uni- mono- one uni/lateral side mono/nucleus kernel bi- di- two bi/lateral di/phy/odont leaf, tooth hemi- half hemi/plegia paralysis semi- partial semi/lunar moon

28 Prefix Meaning Example multi- poly- many multi/lateral side poly/phobia fear tri- three tri/cephalus head quadri- four quadry/plegia paralysis

29 PREFIXES OF COLOUR Prefix Meaning Example alb- albumino- leuc/o-
leuk/o- white albin/ous contain leuc/emia blood condition chlor/o- green chlor/emija glauc/o- poli/o- grey glauc/oma swelling polio/myel/itis

30 Prefix Meaning Example
cirrh/o- xanth/o- yellow cirrh/osis abnormal condition xanth/emia cyan/o- blue cyan/o/dermia skin melan/o- black melan/oma tumor, mass erythr/o- rube/o- red erythr/o/cyte cell rube/osis purpur/o- purple purpur/ic pertaining to

31 (used before a consonant)
PREFIXES OF NEGATION Prefix Meaning Example a – (used before a consonant) an- (used before a vowel) without, not, a lack of a/pnea breath ar- im- in- dis- not ar/rhythmia rhythm im/mature in/somni/ac sleep dis/functional

Meaning Example anti- contra- against anti/bacterial Bacteria contra/ception fertilization brady- slow brady/cardia heart tachy- rapid tachy/cardia dys- Bad,paniful,difficult Dys/phagia swallowing

33 Prefix Meaning Example
eu- good, easy eu/pnea breathing heter/o- different heter/o/cellular cell homo- same homo/sexual sex hydro- water hydr/o/cephalus head mal- ill, bad, poor mal/nutrition food substances meta- after,over,change meta/plasia abnormal (change)

34 Prefix Meaning Example
pan- all pan/hyster/ectomy uterus/removal pseudo- false pseudo/mening/itis meninges inflammation scler/o- hard scler/osis condition of sym- syn- union, together sym/podia foot syn/chilia lips

35 COMBINING FORMS Combining form Meaning Terminology cyt/o all cytology
cephal/o head cephalic -ic means pertaining to physi/o nature physiology study of functions of the living organism hem/o blood hematoma -oma means tumor or mass

36 crin/o to secrete endocrine glands endo-means within derm/o skin hypodermic hypo-means below, under gingiv/o gums gingivitis -itis means inflammation cerebr/o brain cerebrum cerebral -al means pertaining to gen/o producing produced by pathogenic patho-means disease

37 gnos/o knowledge diagnosis -dia-means complete; -sis means state of. A diagnosis is made after sufficient information has been obtained about the patient’s condition cardi/o heart cardiology sarco/o flesh sarcoma path/o disease pathological orth/o straight, regular, correct orthodontist odont means tooth -ist means a specialist bi/o life biopsy -opsy means process of viewing oste/o bone osteodynia -dynia means pain

38 ANATOMY Anatomy (from the Greek ἀνατομία anatomia, from ἀνατέμνειν ana: separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open) is a branch of biology It is the study of exernal and internal structures and the physical realationships between body parts Microscopic -cytology -histology Macroscopic (gross) -surface -regional systemic

39 Claudius Aelius Galenus
HYSTORY OF ANATOMY Hippocrates of Kos (Greek: Ἱπποκράτης) Claudius Aelius Galenus (AD 129 – 200) ca. 460 BC - ca. 370 BC

40 Canon of Medicine Ibn al-Nafis 1484

41 Anatomy Lesson of dr.Nicolaes Tulp
Leonardo da Vinci Anatomy Lesson of dr.Nicolaes Tulp 1632 Rembrandt

42 Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

43 Robert Hooke’s microscope
The scanning electron microscope (SEM)

44 Anatomy employs two chief methods of study - the systemic and
topographic.In the former the body is regarded as consisting of systems and organs. The divisions of systemic anatomy are: a. Osteology, the description of the skeleton b. Arthrology, the description of the joints c. Myology, the description of muscles and accessory structures d. Splancnology, the description of viscera e. Angiology, the description of organs of circulation f. Neurology, the description of the nervous system g. Esthesiology, the description of the sense organs

45 Dental medicine takes into consideration other branches of systemic
anatomy such as : embriology, genetics, endocrinology and dermatology. Pathological anatomy is the study of diseased organs. sections of normal anatomy applied to various purposes receive special names such as medical, surgical, ginaecological, artistic and superficial anatomy

46 Structural Organisation of the Body
Organs, Systems Body Cavities

47 Organs and Systems Tissues  Patterns  Various Organs
Organs = several kinds of tissue viscera (lat.) = internal organs (sing. viscus) Systems = groups of organs working together and performing complex functions

48 Gastrointestinal System
Mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, intestines (small and large), liver, gallbladder, pancreas

49 Excretory System Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

50 Respiratory System Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial
tubes, lungs

51 Reproductive System Female: Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina,
mammary glands

52 Reproductive System Male: testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis,
prostate gland

53 Endocrine System Thyroid gland, pituitary gland, sex glands,
adrenal glands, pancreas, parathyroid glands, pineal gland, thymus gland

54 Nervous System Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collection of nerves

55 Cardiovascular System
Heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries), lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland

56 Muscular System Muscles

57 Skeletal System Bones and joints (articulations)

58 Integumentary System Skin, hair, nails and associated glands
(sweat or sudoriferous and sebaceous or oil glands)

59 Body Cavities Body cavity = space within the body containing the
internal organs (viscera).

60 Cranial Cavity Brain

61 Thoracic Cavity Subdivided into: -Pleural Cavities:
area surrounding the lungs -The Mediastinum: area between the lungs; contains heart, aorta, trachea, oesophagus, and thymus gland

62 Abdominal Cavity Stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, liver,
gallbladder, pancreas, kidneys Surrounded by peritoneum

63 Pelvic Cavity Urinary bladder, urethra, ureters; uterus and vagina
in the female

64 Spinal Cavity Spinal cord and nerves of the spinal cord

65 Glossary tissue = tkivo cavity = šupljina gallbladder = žučni mjehur
pancreas = gušterača spleen = slezena thymus gland = prsna žlijezda thyroid gland = štitnjača



68 Bones are complete organs, composed
of connective tissue called osseous tissue Dense connective tissue includes the cartilage and bone It consists of osteocytes surrounded by intercellular substance filled with calcium salts

69 It is composed of an outer hard layer and an inner,spongy core.
Compact tissue- forms the outer layer of bones, it is arranged in concentric layers with a hollow centre which carries blood vessels and nerves.

70 The inner spongy core- forms the inside of bones, it has the yellow and red bone marrow.
- the yellow bone marrow stores fat cells (leucocytes). - the red bone marrow contains red cells (erythrocytes).

71 External surface of bone is covered by
periosteum- it has the function of feeding the bone

72 Several hormones regulate the activity of the bone cell
Osteoblasts- they are immature osteocytes which produce the bony tissue that replaces cartilage during ossification

73 2) Osteoclasts- they reabsorb bony tissue thus enlarging the inner bone cavity so that the bone does not become overly thick and heavy - parathyroid gland stimulates osteoclasts to remove bone and to stimulate osteoblasts to build up the bone

74 It secretes a hormone to release
calcium from bone, bones become weakened due to loss of calcium.

75 CRANIAL BONES Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital Sphenoid Ethmoid

76 FACIAL BONES Nasal Lacrimal Maxillary Mandibular Zygomatic Vomer

77 The Mandible

78 The Maxilla

79 The Palate

junctions (meeting places called articulations) between two or more bones. SYNARTHROSES DIARTHROSES


82 FOUR MOVEMENTS OF TMJ: Elevation Depression Protraction Retraction

83 MUSCLES from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse"
Myology is the branch of anatomy dealing with the muscles, muscular tissue components, structure and functions. Striated - Voluntary Smooth - Involuntary Cardiac

84 MASTICATORY MUSCLES Temporal Muscle Masseter Muscle Lateral (External)
Pterygoid Muscle Digastric Muscle (Anterior Portion)

85 Temporal Muscle

86 Masseter Muscle

87 Lateral (External) Pterygoid Muscle

88 Digastric Muscle (Anterior Portion)

89 FACIAL MUSCLES Orbicularis oris – the sphincter of the mouth
The buccinator - a deep muscle of the cheek


91 NERVE TISSUE Neuroglia Neurons Neuron Dendrite Nucleus Axon Soma
Myelin sheath Schwann cell Axon Terminal Node of Ranvier

92 synapses are specialized junctions through which neurons
Greek "syn-" ("together") and "haptein" ("to clasp"). synapses are specialized junctions through which neurons signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.


94 CRANIAL NERVES There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves.   Olfactory I   Optic II   Oculomotor III   Trochlear IV   Trigeminal V   Abducens VI   Facial VII   Auditory (vestibulocochlear) VIII   Glossopharyngeal IX   Vagus X   Spinal Accessory XI   Hypoglossal XII


Fluids constitute over half of an adult’s weight under normal conditions These fluids are vital in the transport of nutrients to all cells

97 Blood is composed of: liquid (plasma) – 55% formed elements ( erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets) – 45 %

98 Plasma consists of about:
- 90% of water 7% proteins less than 1% inorganic salts, organic substances, dissolved gases, hormones, antibodies and enzymes

99 Many important proteins
such as serum, albumin, gamma globulin and fibrinogen are dissolved in the plasma

100 Fibrinogen is essential in the clotting process

101 All blood cells originate from hemocytoblasts
They change from undifferentiated form into specialized or differentiated Hematopoiesis: :

102 Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to
the body tissues, and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs:


104 Erythrocytes The great majority of all blood cells 35 trillion in the
average adult Total surface area almost the size of a football field

105 Hemoglobin enables carrying oxygen from the
lungs to the tissues

106 Red blood cells are stored in the spleen They live for about 110 to 120 days About 180 million erythrocytes are destroyed every minute

107 Leukocytes Body’s primary defense against Infections
These cells are larger than erythrocytes and fewer in number Blood has about 8000 leukocytes per cubic millimeter

108 Classification of leukocytes
Granulocytes ( neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) 2. Agranulocytes (monocytes, lynphocytes)

109 Neutrophils form about 70%, and limphocytes about 20% of the total number

110 Platelets (thrombocytes)
Small clear disk-shaped bodies About 1/3 the size of erythrocytes 25000 platelets per one cubic millimeter of blood They initiate blood clotting

111 Platelets disintegrate
and adhere to the edges of the injured tissue

112 Blood coagulation (clotting)
The process by which the body prevents blood loss Bleeding generally stops within 5 minutes A thrombus can form within a vessel

113 Defects in blood vessels (owing to injury or disease)
Anemia Neutropenia Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Leukimia Thrombocytopenia Hemophilia


115 Four main blood groups Type O = universal donors Type AB = universal recipients


117 Rhesus factor - Rh Another important factor, called Rh factor must also be considered in blood typing. This is a very complex system : 8 principal variants of the Rh factor are known, and there are others not yet identified and grouped. For practical reasons there are 2 main groups of Rh types: Rh positive Rh negative


119 Blood diseases Blood parasites Christmas disease Hemophilia Malaria
Septicemia Vitamin K deficiency Hemoglobin C,S,E disease

120 Vitamin K deficiency

121 Anemia

122 Malaria



125 Hemophilia


The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart, blood vessels and blood. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and lymphatics. This system transports food, oxygen, and other vital substances to all body cells and picks up waste products for disposal.

128 THE HEART The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that
pumps blood through the blood vessels. It is enclosed in a fibrouserous sac called pericardium. The heart beats over times per day. It weights about one half pound and is the size of clenched fist

129 The heart has three distinctive layers of tissue:
The endocardium The myocardium The epicardium The heart is divided into four chambers: Right atrium Right ventricle Left atrium Left ventricle

carry blood from the heart to the body tissues and organs VEINS carry blood back to the heart from body organs and tissues CAPILLARIES connect arterioles to venules.

131 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM Lymph fluid Capillaries Lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic ducts Lymph nodes

132 FUNCTION Transporting fluids from tissues back to the bloodstream
Aiding in the control of infection caused by microorganisms Conveyance of lipids or fats away from the digestive organs

133 Lymph nodes of the human head and neck
Regional lymph tissue

134 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The digestive system is
basically a long, muscular tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus

135 The functions of the digestive system are threefold

136 Digestive enzymes are substances that speed up
chemical reactions and help in the breakdown of complex nutrients Digestion can be defined as a complete process of changing the chemical and physical composition of food in order to facilitate assimilations of the nourishing ingredients of flood by the cells of the body

137 The gastrointestinial (GI) tract begins at the oral cavity or mouth

138 THE MOUTH The mouth is the first division of the digestive tube
and is separable into two parts, smaller external part, the vestibule formed by the lips cheek, gums and teeth and a larger part, the mouth proper (oral) cavity behind the gums and teeth

139 Lips and cheeks Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans
and many animals. Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food intake , and in the articulation of speech, as a tactile sensory organ as an erogenous organ used in kissing and other acts of intimacy.

140 Cheeks (Latin: buccae) constitute the area of the
face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear.

141 Gums and teeth

142 Gingiva are part of the soft tissue lining of the mouth.
They surround the teeth and provide a seal around them. Compared with the soft tissue linings of the lips and cheeks, most of the gingiva are tightly bound to the underlying bone and are designed to resist the friction of food passing over them. Healthy gingiva is usually coral pink, but may contain physiologic pigmentation. Changes in color, particularly increased redness, together with edema and an increased tendency to bleed, suggest an inflammation (gingivitis)

143 Teeth (singular, Tooth) are small whitish structures
found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates that are used to tear, scrape, milk and chew food Humans usually have 20 primary teeth (also called deciduous, baby, or milk teeth) and 32 permanent teeth. Among primary teeth, 10 are found in the (upper) maxilla and the other 10 in the (lower) mandible. Teeth are classified as incisors, canines,premolars and molars .

144 The main functions of the teeth:
Incisors = cutting Canines = tearing Premolars = crushing Molars = grinding

145 The tongue The tongue is skeletal muscle on the floor of the
mouth that manipulates food for chewing and swallowing (deglutition).

146 The main functions of the tongue:
It moves food around in the mouth It begins swallowing action (deglutition) It aids in speech production It provides the equipment for taste sensation


Similar presentations

Ads by Google