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Presentation on theme: "ENGLISH IN DENTAL MEDICINE I Lidija Štefić SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB."— Presentation transcript:




4 BASIC WORD STRUCTURE Word root: gingiv/al root (gums) Suffix: gingiv/itis suffix (inflammation) Prefix: Prefix: : sub/gingiv/al prefix (below) Combining word: Combining word: : electr/o/cardi/o/gram prefix combining vowel root suffix

5 SUFFIXES IN DENTAL MEDICINE a word added at the end of a word or word base (root) to change its meaning. to change its meaning. DERIVE FROM Greek Latin

6 WRSUFFIX NEW TERM USED IN DENTISTRY OR MEDICINE gingiv -itis + -itisgingivitis arthr + -algia arthralgia WR+OSUFFIX NEW TERM USED IN DENTISTRY OR MEDICINE pulp+O + -tomy pulpotomy

7 SURGICAL PROCEDURE SUFFIXES Incision Incision -ectomy (surgical removal, excision) apiectomy - the ablation of the root end of a tooth -o/centesis (surgical puncture) amniocentesis - surgical perforation of the uterus to obtain amniotic fluid -o/stomy (forming an opening) esophagostom y - the surgical creation of an opening into the esophagus -o/tome (instrument to cut) osteotome - a chisel like knife for cutting bone -o/tomy (to cut into) tracheotomy - tracheotomy - incision of windpipe

8 Plastic operations (repair, rebulid, reconstruct, bind) -desis arthrodesis - surgical fixation of a joint -o/rrhaphy (suture) splenorrhaphy - surgical repair of the spleen -o/pexy (fixation, suspension) splenopexy - surgical fixation of a mobile spleen -o/plasty (formation, plastic repair) repair) osteoplasty - plastic surgery involving a bone

9 Refracturing, loosening, crushing -o/clasis (to break down, refracture) osetoclasis - the surgical fracture or refracture of bones -o/lysis (loosen, free form adhesions, destruction) destruction) enterolysis - the operative division of adhesions between loops of intenstine of or between the intestine and abdominal wall -o/tripsy (to crush) neurotripsy - surgical crushing of a nerve

10 DIAGNOSTIC AND SYMPTOMATIC SUFFIXES -algia (pain) odontalgia - toothache -o/cele (hernia, swelling) nephrocele - hernial protrusion of a kidney -o/dynia (pain) odontodynia - toothache -ectasis (dilatation, expansion) bronchiectasis - chronic dilatation of the bronchi -emia (blood condition) hyperemia - an excess of blood in a body part -o/gen (beginning, origin) pathogen -any disease - producing microorganism

11 -o/gram (a writing, record) roentgenogram - a photograph taken with the x-rays -o/graph (to write, record) cardiograph - a technique by means of which roentgenograms of the heart can be made at any chosen phase of its cycle. -iasis (condition, formation of, presence of) psoriasis - a chronic skin disease characterized by scaly red dish patches -sis (state of, condition) dysgenesis - state of deterioration of hereditary qualites of the stock

12 -itis (inflammation) stomatitis - a general inflammation of the mouth -o/logy (study of) odontology - the study of the teeth -o/malacia (softening) osteomalacia - a condition marked by softening of the bones -o/megaly (enlargement) acromegaly - enlargement of the extremities of the skeleton, the nose, jaws fingers and toes -o/meter (measure) dynamometer - an instrument for measuring forces or power

13 -oma (tumor, mass) odontoma - tumor of a tooth, although it doesn’t show all the features of a tumor. It consists of the calicified dental tissues -opsy (process of viewing) autopsy - autopsy - an examination and dissection of a dead body to discover the cause of death, damage done by disease. -o/pathy (disease) trombocytopathy - a very rare disease of unknown etiology where there is a tendency to bleeding. -o/penia (decrease, deficiency) leukocytopenia - deficiency in the number of leukocytes

14 -osis (abnormal condition, increase-used only with blood cells) e.g. leukocytosis sialosis - chronic swelling of the salivary glands -phagia (eating) dysphagia - difficulty in swallowing -phasia (speech) dysphasia - impairment of the ability to speak -plegia (paralysis, stroke) paraplegia - paralysis of the legs and lower part of the body

15 -phobia (morbid fear) aerophobia - an abnormal fear of air, especially drafts -o/ptosis metroptosis - downward displacement or prolapse of the uterus -o/rrhage (burst forth) hemorrhage - excessive blood flow -o/rrhea (discharge, flow) dysmenorrhea - painful or difficult menstruation -o/clerosis (hardening) arteriosclerosis - thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls -scope (instrument to visually examine) endoscope - endoscope - an instrument for examining visually the inside of a hollow organ of the body, as the bladder or rectum

16 SUFFIXES: ADJECTIVE ENDINGS The adjective endings that mean “pertaining to” are: -ac cardiac (heart) -al gingival (gums) -ar, -ary salivary (saliva) -ic dermic (skin) -ical apical (apex) -ous mucous (mucosa) -(t)ic lymphatic (lymph)

17 SUFFIXES: NOUN ENDINGS -coccus bacteria streptococcus (berry shaped bacteria) -cytecellthrombocyte -ole little, small arteriole - little artery -trophy hypertrophy (cells increase in size, not number) -ule little, small nodule - little node -istspecialist dentist - a specialist in dentistry -iac an individual affected by a certain disase hypohondriac - an invidual who thinks he is ill -ia abnormal condition amnesia - forgetfulness -is forms the noun from the root cutis - skin -ism abnormal condition, state of being alcoholism

18 PREFIXES IN DENTAL MEDICINE DERIVE FROM Greek Latin at the beginning of a word

19 PrefixMeaningExample ab-from,away from ab/normal usual, regular ad-to, toward, near ad/sternal breast plate circum – peri-around circum/renal kidney peri/odontal tooth PREFIXES OF DIRECTION

20 PrefixMeaningExample ec-ex- through, across ec/tropia place ex/cision to cut ecto-exo-extra-outside ecto/derm skin ex/odontics tooth extra/cellular cell

21 PrefixMeaningExample endo-Intra- in, within endo/cranial skull intra/dental tooth par-para- near, beside,beyond para/nasal nose super-supra-aboveexcessive super/acidity acidity supra/molecular molecule

22 PrefixMeaningExample ultra-beyond,excesive ultra/sonic sound dia-per-trans- trough, across dia/rea flow per/cutaneos skin trans/urethral urethra

23 PREFIXES OF POSITION PrefixMeaningExample ambi- both,both sides ambi/lateral side amphi- on both sides amphi/cranial skull ante-anter/o-pre-pro- before, in front of ante/febrile antero/septal Septum pre/operative Operation pro/nephros kidney

24 PrefixMeaningExample dextr/o- right, to the right dextr/o/rotatory rotation dors/o-back dors/o/ventral belly epi-upon epi/cranial skull hypo- under below hypo/dermic skin infra-sub- beneath, under infra/sonic sound sub/lingual tongue

25 PrefixMeaningExample inter-between inter/dental tooth later/o- to the side of latero/abdominal stomach mes/o-medi- in the middle of mes/o/dermic skin retro-post-after,backward retro/cervical cervix(neck) postero- located, behind postero/lateral To the side of sinistr/o- left,to the left of sinistr/o/dextral to the right

26 PREFIXES OF NUMBER AND MEASUREMENT PrefixMeaningExample micro-small micro/stomatous mouth macro-large macro/cyst hyper-over,above,excessive hyper/sensitivity hypo-under,below,deficient hypo/glossal tongue primi-first primi/para to bear off spring

27 PrefixMeaningExample uni-mono-one uni/lateral side mono/nucleus kernel bi-di-two bi/lateral side di/phy/odont leaf, tooth hemi-half hemi/plegia paralysis semi-partial semi/lunar moon

28 PrefixMeaningExample multi-poly-many multi/lateral side poly/phobia fear tri-three tri/cephalus head quadri-four quadry/plegia paralysis

29 PREFIXES OF COLOUR PrefixMeaningExample alb-albumino-leuc/o-leuk/o-white albin/ous contain leuc/emia blood condition chlor/o-green chlor/emija glauc/o-poli/o-grey glauc/oma swelling polio/myel/itis

30 PrefixMeaningExample cirrh/o-xanth/o-yellow cirrh/osis abnormal condition xanth/emia cyan/o-blue cyan/o/dermia skin melan/o-black melan/oma tumor, mass erythr/o-rube/o-red erythr/o/cyte cell rube/osis abnormal condition purpur/o-purple purpur/ic pertaining to

31 PREFIXES OF NEGATION PrefixMeaningExample a – (used before a consonant) an- (used before a vowel) without, not, a lack of a/pnea breath ar-im-in-dis-not ar/rhythmia rhythm im/mature in/somni/ac sleep dis/functional

32 MISCELLANEOUS PREFIXES PrefixMeaningExample anti-contra-against anti/bacterial Bacteria contra/ception fertilization brady-slow brady/cardia heart tachy-rapid tachy/cardia heart dys-Bad,paniful,difficult Dys/phagia swallowing

33 PrefixMeaningExample eu- good, easy eu/pnea breathing heter/o-different heter/o/cellular cell homo-same homo/sexual sex hydro-water hydr/o/cephalus head mal- ill, bad, poor mal/nutrition food substances meta-after,over,change meta/plasia abnormal (change)

34 PrefixMeaningExample pan-all pan/hyster/ectomy uterus/removal pseudo-false pseudo/mening/itis meninges inflammation scler/o-hard scler/osis condition of sym-syn- union, together sym/podia foot syn/chilia lips

35 COMBINING FORMS Combining form MeaningTerminologyMeaning cyt/oallcytology cephal/oheadcephalic -ic means pertaining to physi/onaturephysiology study of functions of the living organism hem/obloodhematoma -oma means tumor or mass

36 crin/oto secreteendocrine glands endo-means within derm/oskinhypodermic hypo-means below, under gingiv/ogumsgingivitis -itis means inflammation cerebr/obrain cerebrum cerebral -al means pertaining to gen/oproducing produced by pathogenic patho-means disease

37 gnos/oknowledgediagnosis -dia-means complete; -sis means state of. A diagnosis is made after sufficient information has been obtained about the patient’s condition cardi/oheartcardiology sarco/ofleshsarcoma path/odiseasepathological orth/ostraight, regular, correct orthodontist odont means tooth -ist means a specialist bi/olifebiopsy -opsy means process of viewing oste/oboneosteodynia -dynia means pain

38 ANATOMY Anatomy (from the Greek ἀ νατομία anatomia, from ἀ νατέμνειν ana: Greek separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open) is a branch of biology biology It is the study of exernal and internal structures and the physical realationships between body parts Macroscopic (gross) -surface-regionalsystemic Microscopic-cytology-histology

39 HYSTORY OF ANATOMY Hippocrates of Kos (Greek: Ἱ πποκράτης) Greek ca. 460 BCca. 370 BC ca. 460 BC - ca. 370 BC Claudius Aelius Galenus (AD 129 – 200)

40 Ibn al-Nafis 1213-1288 Canon of Medicine 1484

41 Leonardo da Vinci 1452 - 1519 Rembrandt 1606 - 1669 Anatomy Lesson of dr.Nicolaes Tulp 1632

42 Anton Van Leeuwenhoek 1632 - 1723

43 Robert Hooke’s microscope The scanning electron microscope (SEM)

44 Anatomy employs two chief methods of study - the systemic and topographic.In the former the body is regarded as consisting of systems topographic.In the former the body is regarded as consisting of systems and organs. and organs. The divisions of systemic anatomy are The divisions of systemic anatomy are : a. Osteology, the description of the skeleton b. Arthrology, the description of the joints c. Myology, the description of muscles and accessory structures d. Splancnology, the description of viscera e. Angiology, the description of organs of circulation f. Neurology, the description of the nervous system g. Esthesiology, the description of the sense organs

45 Dental medicine takes into consideration other branches of systemic anatomy such as : embriology, genetics, endocrinology and dermatology. Pathological anatomy is the study of diseased organs. sections of normal anatomy applied to various purposes receive sections of normal anatomy applied to various purposes receive special names such as medical, surgical, ginaecological, artistic and superficial anatomy

46 Structural Organisation of the Body Organs, Systems Body Cavities

47 Organs and Systems Tissues  Patterns  Various Organs Organs = several kinds of tissue viscera (lat.) = internal organs (sing. viscus) Systems = groups of organs working together and performing complex functions

48 Gastrointestinal System Mouth, pharynx,Mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, oesophagus, stomach, intestines intestines (small and large), (small and large), liver, gallbladder, pancreasliver, gallbladder, pancreas

49 Excretory System Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

50 Respiratory System Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs

51 Reproductive System Female: Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands

52 Reproductive System Male: testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostate gland

53 Endocrine System Thyroid gland, pituitary gland, sex glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, parathyroid glands, pineal gland, thymus gland

54 Nervous System Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collection of nerves

55 Cardiovascular System Heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries), lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland

56 Muscular System Muscles

57 Skeletal System Bones and joints (articulations)

58 Integumentary System Skin, hair, nails and associated glands (sweat or sudoriferous and sebaceous or oil glands)

59 Body Cavities Body cavity = space within the body containing the internal organs (viscera).

60 Cranial Cavity Brain

61 Thoracic Cavity Subdivided into: -Pleural Cavities: area surrounding the lungs -The Mediastinum: area between the lungs; contains heart, aorta, trachea, oesophagus, and thymus gland

62 Abdominal Cavity Stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidneys Surrounded by peritoneum

63 Pelvic Cavity Urinary bladder, urethra, ureters; uterus and vagina in the female

64 Spinal Cavity Spinal cord and nerves of the spinal cord

65 Glossary tissue = tkivo cavity = šupljina gallbladder = žučni mjehur pancreas = gušterača spleen = slezena thymus gland = prsna žlijezda thyroid gland = štitnjača



68 Bones are complete organs, composed of connective tissue called osseous tissue Dense connective tissue includes the cartilage and bone It consists of osteocytes surrounded by intercellular substance filled with calcium salts

69 It is composed of an outer hard layer and an inner,spongy core. Compact tissue- forms the outer layer of bones, it is arranged in concentric layers with a hollow centre which carries blood vessels and nerves.

70 The inner spongy core- forms the inside of bones, it has the yellow and red bone marrow. - the yellow bone marrow stores fat cells (leucocytes). - the yellow bone marrow stores fat cells (leucocytes). - the red bone marrow contains red cells (erythrocytes). - the red bone marrow contains red cells (erythrocytes).

71 External surface of bone is covered by periosteum- it has the function of feeding the bone

72 Several hormones regulate the activity of the bone cell 1) Osteoblasts- they are immature osteocytes which produce the bony tissue osteocytes which produce the bony tissue that replaces cartilage during ossification that replaces cartilage during ossification

73 2) Osteoclasts- they reabsorb bony tissue thus enlarging the inner bone cavity so that the bone does not become overly thick and heavy 2) Osteoclasts- they reabsorb bony tissue thus enlarging the inner bone cavity so that the bone does not become overly thick and heavy - parathyroid gland stimulates osteoclasts to remove bone and to stimulate osteoblasts to build up the bone - parathyroid gland stimulates osteoclasts to remove bone and to stimulate osteoblasts to build up the bone

74 It secretes a hormone to release calcium from bone, bones become weakened due to loss of calcium.

75 CRANIAL BONES FrontalFrontal ParietalParietal TemporalTemporal OccipitalOccipital SphenoidSphenoid EthmoidEthmoid

76 FACIAL BONES NasalNasal LacrimalLacrimal MaxillaryMaxillary MandibularMandibular ZygomaticZygomatic VomerVomer

77 The Mandible

78 The Maxilla

79 The Palate

80 JOINTS junctions (meeting places called articulations) between two or more bones. SYNARTHROSESDIARTHROSES


82 FOUR MOVEMENTS OF TMJ: Elevation Depression Protraction Retraction

83 MUSCLES Myology is the branch of anatomy dealing with the muscles, muscular tissue components, structure and functions. muscular tissue components, structure and functions. Striated - Voluntary Smooth - Involuntary Cardiac from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse"

84 MASTICATORY MUSCLES Temporal Muscle Masseter Muscle Lateral (External) Pterygoid Muscle Pterygoid Muscle Digastric Muscle (Anterior Portion) (Anterior Portion)

85 Temporal Muscle

86 Masseter Muscle

87 Lateral (External) Pterygoid Muscle

88 Digastric Muscle (Anterior Portion)

89 FACIAL MUSCLES Orbicularis oris – the sphincter of the mouth The buccinator - a deep muscle of the cheek


91 NERVE TISSUE Neurons Neuroglia NeuronDendriteNucleus Axon Soma Myelin sheath Schwann cell Axon Terminal Node of Ranvier

92 SYNAPSE Greek "syn-" ("together") and "haptein" ("to clasp"). synapses are specialized junctions through which neurons signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.


94 CRANIAL NERVES There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Olfactory I Optic II Oculomotor III Trochlear IV Trigeminal V Abducens VI Facial VII Auditory (vestibulocochlear) VIII Glossopharyngeal IX Vagus X Spinal Accessory XI Hypoglossal XII Olfactory IOptic IIOculomotor IIITrochlear IVTrigeminal VAbducens VIFacial VIIAuditory (vestibulocochlear) VIIIGlossopharyngeal IXVagus XSpinal Accessory XIHypoglossal XIIOlfactory IOptic IIOculomotor IIITrochlear IVTrigeminal VAbducens VIFacial VIIAuditory (vestibulocochlear) VIIIGlossopharyngeal IXVagus XSpinal Accessory XIHypoglossal XII


96 Fluids constitute over half of an adult’s weight under normal conditions These fluids are vital in the transport of nutrients to all cells BLOOD AND OTHER BODY FLUIDS

97 Blood is composed of: liquid (plasma) – 55% liquid (plasma) – 55% formed elements ( erythrocytes, formed elements ( erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets) – 45 % leukocytes and platelets) – 45 %

98 Plasma consists of about: - 90% of water 7% proteins less than 1% inorganic salts, organic substances, dissolved gases, hormones, antibodies hormones, antibodies and enzymes

99 Many important proteins such as serum, albumin, gamma globulin and fibrinogen are dissolved in the plasma

100 Fibrinogen is essential in the clotting process

101 All blood cells originate from hemocytoblasts They change from undifferentiated form into specialized or differentiated Hematopoiesis: :

102 Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues, and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs:


104 Erythrocytes The great majority of all blood cells 35 trillion in the average adult Total surface area almost the size of a football field

105 Hemoglobin enables carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues

106 Red blood cells are stored in the spleen They live for about 110 to 120 days About 180 million erythrocytes are destroyed every minute

107 Leukocytes Body’s primary defense against Infections These cells are larger than erythrocytes and fewer in number Blood has about 8000 leukocytes per cubic millimeter

108 Classification of leukocytes 1.Granulocytes ( neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) 2. Agranulocytes (monocytes, lynphocytes)

109 Neutrophils form about 70%, and limphocytes about 20% of the total number

110 Platelets (thrombocytes) Small clear disk-shaped bodies About 1/3 the size of erythrocytes 25000 platelets per one cubic millimeter of blood They initiate blood clotting

111 Platelets disintegrate and adhere to the edges of the injured tissue

112 Blood coagulation (clotting) The process by which the body prevents blood loss prevents blood loss Bleeding generally stops within 5 minutes A thrombus can form within a vessel

113 Defects in blood vessels (owing to injury or disease) AnemiaAnemia NeutropeniaNeutropenia Human immunodeficiencyHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virus (HIV) LeukimiaLeukimia ThrombocytopeniaThrombocytopenia HemophiliaHemophilia


115 Four main blood groups Type O = universal donors Type AB = universal recipients


117 Another important factor, called Rh factor must also be considered in blood typing. This is a very complex system : 8 principal variants of the Rh factor are known, and there are others not yet identified and grouped. For practical reasons there are 2 main groups of Rh types:  Rh positive  Rh negative Rhesus factor - Rh


119 Blood diseases Blood parasites Christmas disease HemophiliaMalariaSepticemia Vitamin K deficiency Hemoglobin C,S,E disease

120 Vitamin K deficiency

121 Anemia

122 Malaria



125 Hemophilia


127 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart, blood vessels and blood. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and lymphatics. This system transports food, oxygen, and other vital substances to all body cells and picks up waste products for disposal.

128 THE HEART The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood through the blood vessels. It is enclosed in a fibrouserous sac called pericardium. The heart beats over 100.000 times per day. It weights about one half pound and is the size of clenched fist

129 The heart has three distinctive layers of tissue: The endocardium The myocardium The epicardium The heart is divided into four chambers: Right atrium Right ventricle Left atrium Left ventricle

130 BLOOD VESSELS ARTERIES carry blood from the heart to the body tissues and organs VEINS carry blood back to the heart from body organs and tissues connect arterioles to venules connect arterioles to venules. CAPILLARIES

131 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM Lymph fluid Capillaries Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic ducts Lymph nodes

132 FUNCTION Transporting fluids from tissues back to the bloodstream Aiding in the control of infection caused by microorganisms Conveyance of lipids or fats away from the digestive organs

133 Lymph nodes of the human head and neck Regional lymph tissue

134 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The digestive system is basically a long, muscular basically a long, muscular tube that begins at the tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus

135 The functions of the digestive system are threefold

136 Digestive enzymes are substances that speed up chemical reactions and help in the breakdown of complex nutrients Digestion can be defined as a complete process of changing the chemical and physical composition of food in order to facilitate assimilations of the nourishing ingredients of flood by the cells of the body

137 The gastrointestinial (GI) tract begins at the oral cavity or mouth

138 THE MOUTH The mouth is the first division of the digestive tube and is separable into two parts, smaller external part, the vestibule formed by the lips cheek, gums and teeth and a larger part, the mouth proper (oral) cavity behind the gums and teeth

139 Lips and cheeks Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals. Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food intake, and in the articulation of speech, as a tactile sensory organ as an erogenous organ used in kissing and other acts of intimacy.

140 Cheeks (Latin: buccae) constitute the area of the Latin faceface below the eyes and between the nose eyesnose faceeyesnose and the left or right ear. ear

141 Gums and teeth

142 Gingiva are part of the soft tissue lining of the mouth. They surround the teeth and provide a seal around them. Compared with the soft tissue linings of the lips and cheeks, most of the gingiva are tightly bound to the underlying bone and are designed to resist the friction of food passing over them. Healthy gingiva is usually coral pink, but may contain physiologic pigmentation. Changes in color, particularly increased redness, together with edema and an increased tendency to bleed, edema suggest an inflammation (gingivitis) inflammation

143 Teeth (singular, Tooth) are small whitish structures found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates that are used to tear, scrape, milk and chew food Humans usually have 20 primary teeth (also called deciduous, baby, or milk teeth) and 32 permanent teeth. Among primary teeth, and 32 permanent teeth. Among primary teeth, 10 are found in the (upper) maxilla and the other 10 are found in the (upper) maxilla and the other 10 in the (lower) mandible. Teeth are classified as incisors, canines,premolars and molars. and molars.

144 The main functions of the teeth: Incisors = cutting Canines = tearing Premolars = crushing Molars = grinding

145 The tongue The tongue is skeletal muscle on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing and swallowing (deglutition).

146 The main functions of the tongue The main functions of the tongue: It moves food around in the mouthIt moves food around in the mouth It begins swallowing action (deglutition)It begins swallowing action (deglutition) It aids in speech productionIt aids in speech production It provides the equipment for taste sensationIt provides the equipment for taste sensation


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