2DefinitionPeripheral joint mobilization (PJM) is the use of skilled graded forcesto mobilize jointsto improve motion& to normalize joint function.
3Mobilization Techniques are used to Improve jt. nutrition.Improve m. spasm & tensionReduce pain.Reverse jt. hypomobility.Improve or restore motion.Treat jt. dysfunction as stiffness.
4A. Joint MobilizationIs a type of passive movement performed by the PT at a speed slow enough that the patient can stop the movement.The tech. may be applied with:1. Oscillatory motion or2. Sustained stretchto↓Pain or↑mobility.The tech. may use:Physiologic orAccessory movs.
5Indications of Joint Mobilization Pain, m. guarding & spasmAll can be treated with gentle joint play technique to stimulate neurophysiological & mechanical effects.Neurophysiological effect:Small amplitude oscillatory mov → stim mechanoreceptors → ↓ transmission of nociceptive stimuli at spinal cord & brain stem levels.b. Mechanical effects:Small-amplitude distraction or gliding mov → synovial fluid motion→ bring nutrients to the avascular portions of articular cartilage. (↓ pain of ischemia)Gentle jt-play → maintain nutrient exchange → prevent painful effects of stasis when a jt is painful or swollen & can’t move through a ROM. (but not in acute or massive swelling)
6PrecautionsIn most cases jt mobilization is safer than passive angular stretching.ButSometimes Jt mobilization can be used with extreme care in:Malignancy -» spread & growth.Excessive pain -» m. guarding, prevent mov.Total jt. replacement » disl. or loosen internal fixation.Bone disease (Osteoporosis, TB, Rickets).Unhealed # (site & stabilization) » re-fracture.Hypomobility (in associated jts & m. weak) »↑ capsule laxity, lig. Weakness & jt disl.
7Procedure for Applying Jt Mobilization Techniques 2. painful mov.1. limited, orAssessment if&EvaluationEvaluateState of pathologyTissue limiting funDetermine ttt directionSoft tissue limitRelieving painStretching a jtDetermine Pain qualityTreatment DoseRecovery Stage
8Possibilities for pain While moving or mobilizing & found!Before tissue limitation (after acute injury or active stage of a disease),use pain inhibiting jt. tech to relieve pain & maintain jt. play.With tissue limitation as damaged tissue begins to heal) (subacute), use gradual gentle stretching tech to tight tissue, but Don’t exacerbate pain by injuring the tissues.After tissue limitations (as stretching a tight capsule or a peri-articular tissue of chronic stiff joints),use ↓ force of the stretching techniques.
9Grades of mov. (Dosage, Amplitude) systems of techniques:1. Graded oscillation.2. Sustained translatory joint Play.
101. Graded Oscillation Tech. Dosage Grade ISmall amplitude rhythmic oscillations at the beginning of ROM.Grade IILarge amplitude rhythmic oscillations within the ROM, but not reaching the limitation.Grade IIILarge amplitude rhythmic oscillations up to the limit of available motion & stressed into tissue resistance.Grade IVSmall amplitude rhythmic oscillations, up to the limit of the available motion & stressed into tissue resistance.Grade VSmall amplitude, high velocity, thrust technique Performed to break adhesions at the level of available motion (manipulation or chiropractic). (Stretch)
12Techniques Oscillations may be done using: 1- Physiologic (osteokinematic) motions.2- Joint play (arthrokinematic) techniques.
13Sustained Translatory joint Play Technique Grade I (Loosen):Small amplitude distraction, applied where no stress is placed on the capsule..Equalizes cohesive force,2. M. tension3. Atmospheric pressure acting on the jt.Grade II (Till tightness):Distraction or glide applied to tightend tissues around jt.Grade III:Distraction or glide with large enough amplitude to placea stretch on jt. capsule & surrounding peri-articular structures.
15UsesGrade I: Used with gliding motions to relieve pain.Grade II: Used to determine how sensitive the jt is.Grade III: Used to stretch jt. structures & ↑ jt play.Technique:This grading system describes jt. play techniques that separate or glide (slide) jt surfaces.
16N.B.The consistency between the dosage of the two grading systems is grade I (no tension on the jt capsule or surroundings).Grade III (sustained stretch) & IV (oscillation) are similar in dosage as they are applied with a stretch force at the limit of the motion.Using oscillating or sustained tech., depends on the pt’s response.Pain management: use oscillating tech.Loss of jt. play & ↓ function: use sustained stretch.To maintain available R.: Use either grade II! oscillating or II sustained technique.
17Patient PositionPatient Position The pt. & treated extremity should be carefully positioned & relaxed.The jt. is positioned so that the capsule has greatest laxity.
18StabilizationFirm & comfortable stabilization for proximal parts by using:Belt.PT hand.External assistance.
19ForceTreatment force (gentle or strong) is applied as close to the opposing jt. surfaces as possible.The larger the contact surface of PT hand → the morecomfortable procedure will be.e.g. use flat surface of the hand instead of forcing with the thumb.
20Direction of MovementEither parallel to, or perpendicular to treatment plane.Joint traction: Perpendicular to ttt plane.The entire bone is moved → jt surfaces are separated.Gliding technique: Parallel to the ttt plane.This is determined by using the convex-concave rule.If the surface of moving bone is convex -→ opposite direction glideIf the surface of moving bone is concave → glide in the same direction.The entire bone is moved, so there’s gliding of one jt. surface on the other.No swing of the bone that causes rolling & compression of the jt. surfaces