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Definition Peripheral joint mobilization (PJM) is the use of skilled graded forces to mobilize jointsto mobilize joints to improve motionto improve motion.

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Presentation on theme: "Definition Peripheral joint mobilization (PJM) is the use of skilled graded forces to mobilize jointsto mobilize joints to improve motionto improve motion."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Definition Peripheral joint mobilization (PJM) is the use of skilled graded forces to mobilize jointsto mobilize joints to improve motionto improve motion & to normalize joint function.& to normalize joint function.

3 Mobilization Techniques are used to 1)Improve jt. nutrition. 2)Improve m. spasm & tension 3)Reduce pain. 4)Reverse jt. hypomobility. 5)Improve or restore motion. 6)Treat jt. dysfunction as stiffness.

4 A. Joint Mobilization Is a type of passive movement performed by the PT at a speed slow enough that the patient can stop the movement.Is a type of passive movement performed by the PT at a speed slow enough that the patient can stop the movement. The tech. may be applied with: The tech. may be applied with: 1. Oscillatory motion or 1. Oscillatory motion or 2. Sustained stretch 2. Sustained stretch to to 1.↓Pain or 2.↑mobility. The tech. may use: 1. Physiologic or 2. Accessory movs.

5 Indications of Joint Mobilization 1.Pain, m. guarding & spasm All can be treated with gentle joint play technique to stimulate neurophysiological & mechanical effects. All can be treated with gentle joint play technique to stimulate neurophysiological & mechanical effects. a.Neurophysiological effect: Small amplitude oscillatory mov → stim mechanoreceptors → ↓ transmission of nociceptive stimuli at spinal cord & brain stem levels. b. Mechanical effects:  Small-amplitude distraction or gliding mov →  Small-amplitude distraction or gliding mov → synovial fluid motion→ bring nutrients to the avascular portions of articular cartilage. (↓ pain of ischemia)  Gentle jt-play → maintain nutrient exchange → prevent painful effects of stasis when a jt is painful or swollen & can’t move through a ROM. (but not in acute or massive swelling)

6 Precautions In most cases jt mobilization is safer than passive angular stretching.In most cases jt mobilization is safer than passive angular stretching. But Sometimes Jt mobilization can be used with extreme care in:Sometimes Jt mobilization can be used with extreme care in: 1.Malignancy -» spread & growth. 2.Excessive pain -» m. guarding, prevent mov. 3.Total jt. replacement -» disl. or loosen internal fixation. 4.Bone disease (Osteoporosis, TB, Rickets). 5.Unhealed # (site & stabilization) -» re-fracture. 6.Hypomobility (in associated jts & m. weak) -»↑ capsule laxity, lig. Weakness & jtdisl. 6.Hypomobility (in associated jts & m. weak) -»↑ capsule laxity, lig. Weakness & jt disl.

7 Procedure for Applying Jt Mobilization Techniques A.Evaluation & Assessment if 1. limited, or 2. painful mov. Evaluate 1.Tissue limiting fun 2.State of pathology Determine ttt direction 1.Relieving pain 2.Stretching a jt 3.Soft tissue limit Determine Pain quality 1.Recovery Stage 2.Treatment Dose

8 Possibilities for pain While moving or mobilizing & found! 1.Before tissue limitation 1.Before tissue limitation (after acute injury or active stage of a disease), use pain inhibiting jt. tech to relieve pain & maintain jt. play. use pain inhibiting jt. tech to relieve pain & maintain jt. play. 1.With tissue limitation use gradual gentle stretching tech to tight tissue, but Don’t exacerbate pain by injuring the tissues. 1.With tissue limitation as damaged tissue begins to heal) (subacute), use gradual gentle stretching tech to tight tissue, but Don’t exacerbate pain by injuring the tissues. 2.After tissue limitations (as stretching a tight capsule or a peri- articular tissue of chronic stiff joints), ↓ force of the stretching techniques. use ↓ force of the stretching techniques.

9 ) Grades of mov. (Dosage, Amplitude ) systems of techniques: 1. Graded oscillation. 2. Sustained translatory joint Play.

10 1. Graded Oscillation Tech. Dosage Grade I Small amplitude rhythmic oscillations at the beginning of ROM. Grade II Large amplitude rhythmic oscillations within the ROM, but not reaching the limitation. Grade III Large amplitude rhythmic oscillations up to the limit of available motion & stressed into tissue resistance. Grade IV Small amplitude rhythmic oscillations, up to the limit of the available motion & stressed into tissue resistance. Grade V Small amplitude, high velocity, thrust technique.. Performed to break adhesions at the level of available motion (Stretch) Small amplitude, high velocity, thrust technique.. Performed to break adhesions at the level of available motion (manipulation or chiropractic). (Stretch)

11 Graded oscillation technique

12 Techniques Oscillations may be done using:Oscillations may be done using: 1- Physiologic (osteokinematic) motions. 1- Physiologic (osteokinematic) motions. 2- Joint play (arthrokinematic) techniques. 2- Joint play (arthrokinematic) techniques.

13 Sustained Translatory joint Play Technique Grade I (Loosen):Grade I (Loosen): Small amplitude distraction, applied where no stress is placed on the capsule.. 1.Equalizes cohesive force, 2. M. tension 3. Atmospheric pressure acting on the jt. Grade II ( Till tightness):Grade II ( Till tightness): Distraction or glide applied to tightend tissues around jt. Grade III:Grade III: Distraction or glide with large enough amplitude to place a stretch on jt. capsule & surrounding peri-articular structures.

14 Sustained translatory joint-play technique

15 Uses.Grade I: Used with gliding motions to relieve pain. Grade II: Used to determine how sensitive the jt is. Grade III: Used to stretch jt. structures & ↑ jt play. Technique:Technique: This grading system describes jt. play techniques that separate or glide (slide) jt surfaces. This grading system describes jt. play techniques that separate or glide (slide) jt surfaces.

16 N.B. The consistency between the dosage of the two grading systems is grade I (no tension on the jt capsule or surroundings).The consistency between the dosage of the two grading systems is grade I (no tension on the jt capsule or surroundings). Grade III (sustained stretch) & IV (oscillation) are similar in dosage as they are applied with a stretch force at the limit of the motion.Grade III (sustained stretch) & IV (oscillation) are similar in dosage as they are applied with a stretch force at the limit of the motion. Using oscillating or sustained tech., depends on the pt’s response.Using oscillating or sustained tech., depends on the pt’s response. Pain management: use oscillating tech.Pain management: use oscillating tech. Loss of jt. play & ↓ function: use sustained stretch.Loss of jt. play & ↓ function: use sustained stretch. To maintain available R.: Use either grade II! oscillating or II sustained technique.To maintain available R.: Use either grade II! oscillating or II sustained technique.

17 Patient Position Patient PositionThe pt. & treated extremity should be carefully positioned & relaxed. Patient Position The pt. & treated extremity should be carefully positioned & relaxed. The jt. is positioned so that the capsule has greatest laxity.

18 Stabilization Firm & comfortable stabilization for proximal parts by using:Firm & comfortable stabilization for proximal parts by using: 1. Belt. 2. PT hand. 3. External assistance.

19 Force Treatment force is applied as close to the opposing jt. surfaces as possible.Treatment force (gentle or strong) is applied as close to the opposing jt. surfaces as possible. The larger the contact surface of PT hand → the more The larger the contact surface of PT hand → the more comfortable procedure will be. comfortable procedure will be. e.g. use flat surface of the hand instead of forcing with the thumb. e.g. use flat surface of the hand instead of forcing with the thumb.

20 Direction of Movement Either parallel to, or perpendicular to treatment plane.Either parallel to, or perpendicular to treatment plane. Joint traction: Perpendicular to ttt plane.Joint traction: Perpendicular to ttt plane. The entire bone is moved → jt surfaces are separated. The entire bone is moved → jt surfaces are separated. Gliding technique: Parallel to the ttt plane.Gliding technique: Parallel to the ttt plane. This is determined by using the convex-concave rule. This is determined by using the convex-concave rule. If the surface of moving bone is convex -→ opposite direction glideIf the surface of moving bone is convex -→ opposite direction glide If the surface of moving bone is concave → glide in the same direction.If the surface of moving bone is concave → glide in the same direction. The entire bone is moved, so there’s gliding of one jt. surface on the other. The entire bone is moved, so there’s gliding of one jt. surface on the other. No swing of the bone that causes rolling & compression of the jt. surfaces No swing of the bone that causes rolling & compression of the jt. surfaces

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