2Dealing with an Medical Emergency A medical emergency is an accidental injury or a medical crisis that is very severe or life threatening, such as:The person is not breathing.Stroke or heart attack.Severe bleeding.Shock.Poisoning.Burns.A medical emergency requires your immediate attention, sometimes even before you telephone emergency services for help.
3Activating the EMS system Do you know how to call for emergency services? (Important to know)Life threatening Emergencies: Unconscious, No breathing or breathing in a strange way, No heartbeat, severe bleeding
4Heart AttackUncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing, or pain in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes or that goes away and comes back.Pain spreading to the shoulders, neck, or armsChest discomfort with lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, nausea, or shortness of breath.
5What to do ? Don’t delay; take prompt action Call EMS Monitor ABC’s and give CPR if necessaryHelp victim into the least painful position, usually a half-sitting position. Loosen tight clothing. Be calm and reassuringGive nitroglycerin tablets if patient is a heart patient.
6BLEEDINGApply direct pressure to the wound with a direct pressure bandage.Elevate the wound to slow the bleedingPressure Point when necessary apply additional pressure to help reduce bleeding.
7Specific BleedingNosePinchLean Forward – NOT BACKWARDSit On Floor
8FAINTING Fainting is a brief loss of consciousness that is caused by a temporary reduction of bloodflow to the brain.SYMPTOMS:A brief loss of consciousness causing the casualty to fall to the floorA slow pulsePale, cold skin and sweating
9What to look forA person who is about to faint usually will have one or more of the following signs and symptoms:DizzinessWeaknessSeeing spotsVisual blurringNauseaPale skinSweating
10FAINTING CAUSES: Taking in too little food and fluids (dehydration) Low blood pressureLack of sleepOver exhaustion
11FAINTS/PASSING OUTPosition the victim lying on his/her back and elevate his/her legs above heart levelCheck the victim’s airway to ensure it is clear.Check for signs of breathing, coughing, or movementLoosen clothing (neck ties, collars, belts etc.)If consciousness is not regained within one minute Call EMS
12ShockShock occurs when the circulatory system fails, and insufficient oxygen reaches the tissues. If the condition is not treated quickly, vital organs can fail, ultimately causing death. Shock is made worse by fear and pain.
14CARE FOR SHOCK Keep the victim lying down (if possible). Elevate legs inches… unless you suspect a back injury or broken bones.Cover the victim to maintain body temperature.Provide the victim with plenty of fresh air and space.If victim begins to vomit - place him/her on his/her left side.Loosen restrictive clothing
15Strains and Sprains (R.I.C.E.) Muscle Cramps> stretch out the affected muscle to counteract the cramp> massage the cramped muscle firmly> apply moist heat to the area> get medical help if the cramp persistsStrains and Sprains (R.I.C.E.)* Rest- avoid movements and activities that cause pain.* Ice- ice helps reduce pain and swelling.* Compression- light pressure from wearing an elastic wrap or bandage can help reduce swelling.* Elevation- raising the affected limb about the level of the heart reduces pain and swelling.
16FRACTURES A fracture is a break or crack in the continuity of the bone.SYMPTOMS:Pain at or near fractured siteTenderness on gentle pressureSwelling over the fracture siteDeformity e.g. irregularity of bone, angulation or rotation of limb, depression of bone etc.Loss of powerSigns and symptoms of shock
17DISLOCATIONS A dislocation is the displacement of one or more bones at a joint. It usually occurs in the shoulders, elbow, thumb, fingers and the lower jaw.SYMPTOMS:Pain at the site of injuryLimited movement at jointDeformitySwellingTenderness
18DISLOCATIONS & FRACTURES I – A – C – TI - Immobilize area Stop any movement by supporting injured area. Use pillows, jackets, blankets, etc.A - Activate Emergency Medical Services (EMS), call 911.C - Care for shockT - Treat any additional secondary injuries.
20Early Warning Signs of an Asthma Attack Coughing with no coldWheezing (however light), especially upon exhalingFast/irregular breathingAnxiousnessCyanosis (bluish skin color)Nostrils flaring with each breath
21What to do ?Keep the victim in a comfortable upright position and leaning slightly forward. This is known as the “tripod” position. Generally the victim will dictate what position is most tolerable, usually sitting up since that makes it easier to breathe.Check and monitor ABC’s.Try to calm and reassure; help relax the victimAdminister warm fluids if possible.Ask the victim about any asthma medication he or she may be using. Usually the victim will have an inhaler nearby.If the victim does not respond to his or her inhaled medication, seek medical attention immediately.
22Diabetic Emergencies High-blood sugar Low -blood sugar Give Sugar diabetic coma (Hyperglycemia)Low -blood sugarinsulin shock (Hypoglycemia)Give SugarOnly if taken without assistanceSugar, Soda, Soft Candy
23Diabetic EmergenciesInsulin shock – Too much insulin (giving a shot with too much insulin; lack of activity; not eating for a long period of time; etc.)Also known as low blood sugar (blood sugar levels less than 80).Symptoms: sudden onset, irritability (cry, belligerent, etc.), hungry (especially a craving for sweets), perspire excessively, trembling, dizzy/disoriented/pale, pulse is generally full and normal.This condition is potentially life threatening.
24What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia? HeadacheSweatingShakinessPale, moist, cold and clammy skinExtreme hungerWeakness/dizzinessFatigueRapid pulse rateBlurred visionShallow breathingInability to concentrateLoss of coordinationMental confusionSeizureLoss of consciousness
25First Aid for Hypoglycemia If victim is known diabetic, his or her mental status is altered, and is awake enough to swallow:Give the person some form of sugar such as a sugar cube, soda, candy, raisins, prescribed candy, honey or corn syrup.Symptoms should subside within minutes.
26A seizure is the result of an abnormal stimulation of the brain’s cells. A variety of medical conditions can lead to seizures, including the following:EpilepsyHeat strokePoisoningElectric shockHypoglycemiaHigh fever in childrenBrain injury, tumor, or strokeAlcohol withdrawal, drug abuse/overdose
27Seizure Can Look Very Scary Protect Head and Neck Don’t Restrain Move ObjectsNothing In The Mouth
28For convulsions and grand mal seizures: Cushion the victim’s head; remove items that could cause injury if the person were to bump into them.Loosen tight clothing; especially around neck.Roll the victim onto his or her side.Look for a medical-alert tagAs the seizure ends, offer your help. Most seizures in people with epilepsy are not medical emergencies. They end after a minute or two without harm and usually do not require medical attention.
29CALL EMS ifA seizure happens to someone who is not known to have epilepsy or seizure disorder; it could be a sign of serious illness.A seizure lasts more than five minutes.The victim is slow to recover, has a second seizure, or has difficulty breathing afterward.The victim is pregnant or has another medical condition.There are any signs of injury or illnesses.
30DO NOT Give the victim anything to eat or drink. Restrain the victim. Put anything between the victim’s teeth during the seizure.Splash or pour any liquid on the victim’s face.Move the victim to another place (unless it is the only way to protect the victim from injury).
31STROKE- What to look for ? Weakness, numbness, or paralysis of the face, an arm, or a leg on one side of the bodyBlurred or decreased vision, especially in one eyeProblems speaking or understandingDizziness or loss of balanceSudden, severe, and unexplained headache
32STROKE-What to do ? Call EMS If victim is unresponsive, check ABC’s; give CPR if necessaryIf the victim is conscious, lay the victim down with the head and shoulders slightly elevatedDo not give a stroke victim anything to drink or eat. The throat may be paralyzed, which restricts swallowing.
34Animal Bites Nosebleeds Object in the Eye > wash the bite area with mild soap and warm water for five minutes to remove saliva and any other foreign matter.> use direct pressure or pressure point bleeding control to stop any bleeding.> if the wound is swollen, apply ice wrapped in a towel for 10 min.> cover the wound with a clean dressing or bandage.Nosebleeds> often occurs when a person has been breathing dry air.> seek professional help if they occur often.> do not tilt the persons head back, this could cause them to choke as the blood runs down their throat.Object in the Eye> do not rub the eye> wash your hands, then flush out the eye by using water.