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Digital Image Fundamentals Selim Aksoy Department of Computer Engineering Bilkent University

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Presentation on theme: "Digital Image Fundamentals Selim Aksoy Department of Computer Engineering Bilkent University"— Presentation transcript:

1 Digital Image Fundamentals Selim Aksoy Department of Computer Engineering Bilkent University

2 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy2 Imaging process Light reaches surfaces in 3D. Surfaces reflect. Sensor element receives light energy. Intensity is important. Angles are important. Material is important. Adapted from Rick Szeliski

3 Physical parameters Geometric Type of projection Camera pose Optical Sensor’s lens type Focal length, field of view, aperture Photometric Type, direction, intensity of light reaching sensor Surfaces’ reflectance properties Sensor Sampling, etc. CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy3 Adapted from Trevor Darrell, UC Berkeley

4 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy4 Image acquisition Adapted from Gonzales and Woods

5 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy5 Image acquisition Adapted from Rick Szeliski

6 Camera calibration Camera’s extrinsic and intrinsic parameters are needed to calibrate the geometry. Extrinsic: camera frame  world frame Intrinsic: image coordinates relative to camera  pixel coordinates CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy6 Camera frame World frame Adapted from Trevor Darrell, UC Berkeley

7 Perspective effects CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy7 Adapted from Trevor Darrell, UC Berkeley

8 Aperture Aperture size affects the image we would get. CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy8 Larger Smaller Adapted from Trevor Darrell, UC Berkeley

9 Focal length Field of view depends on focal length. As f gets smaller, image becomes more wide angle more world points project onto the finite image plane As f gets larger, image becomes more telescopic smaller part of the world projects onto the finite image plane CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy9 Adapted from Trevor Darrell, UC Berkeley

10 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy10 Sampling and quantization

11 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy11 Sampling and quantization

12 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy12 Problems with arrays Blooming: difficult to insulate adjacent sensing elements. Charge often leaks from hot cells to neighbors, making bright regions larger. Adapted from Shapiro and Stockman

13 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy13 Problems with arrays Clipping: dark grid intersections at left were actually brightest of scene. In A/D conversion the bright values were clipped to lower values. Adapted from Shapiro and Stockman

14 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy14 Problems with lenses Adapted from Rick Szeliski

15 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy15 Image representation Images can be represented by 2D functions of the form f(x,y). The physical meaning of the value of f at spatial coordinates (x,y) is determined by the source of the image. Adapted from Shapiro and Stockman

16 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy16 Image representation In a digital image, both the coordinates and the image value become discrete quantities. Images can now be represented as 2D arrays (matrices) of integer values: I[i,j] (or I[r,c]). The term gray level is used to describe monochromatic intensity.

17 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy17 Spatial resolution Spatial resolution is the smallest discernible detail in an image. Sampling is the principal factor determining spatial resolution.

18 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy18 Spatial resolution

19 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy19 Spatial resolution

20 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy20 Gray level resolution Gray level resolution refers to the smallest discernible change in gray level (often power of 2).

21 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy21 Bit planes

22 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy22 Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

23 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy23 Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum The wavelength of an EM wave required to “see” an object must be of the same size as or smaller than the object.

24 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy24 Other types of sensors

25 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy25 Other types of sensors

26 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy26 Other types of sensors blue green red near ir middle ir thermal ir middle ir

27 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy27 Other types of sensors

28 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy28 Other types of sensors

29 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy29 Other types of sensors

30 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy30 Other types of sensors

31 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy31 Other types of sensors

32 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy32 Other types of sensors

33 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy33 Other types of sensors

34 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy34 Other types of sensors

35 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy35 Other types of sensors ©IEEE

36 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy36 Image enhancement The principal objective of enhancement is to process an image so that the result is more suitable than the original for a specific application. Enhancement can be done in Spatial domain, Frequency domain. Common reasons for enhancement include Improving visual quality, Improving machine recognition accuracy.

37 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy37 Image enhancement First, we will consider point processing where enhancement at any point depends only on the image value at that point. For gray level images, we will use a transformation function of the form s = T(r) where “r” is the original pixel value and “s” is the new value after enhancement.

38 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy38 Image enhancement

39 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy39 Image enhancement

40 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy40 Image enhancement

41 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy41 Image enhancement

42 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy42 Image enhancement

43 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy43 Image enhancement Contrast stretching:

44 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy44 Image enhancement

45 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy45 Histogram processing

46 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy46 Histogram processing Intuitively, we expect that an image whose pixels tend to occupy the entire range of possible gray levels, tend to be distributed uniformly will have a high contrast and show a great deal of gray level detail. It is possible to develop a transformation function that can achieve this effect using histograms.

47 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy47 Histogram equalization

48 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy48 Histogram equalization

49 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy49 Histogram equalization Adapted from Wikipedia

50 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy50 Histogram equalization Original RGB imageHistogram equalization of each individual band/channel Histogram stretching by removing 2% percentile from each individual band/channel

51 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy51 Enhancement using arithmetic operations

52 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy52 Image formats Popular formats: BMPMicrosoft Windows bitmap image EPSAdobe Encapsulated PostScript GIFCompuServe graphics interchange format JPEGJoint Photographic Experts Group PBMPortable bitmap format (black and white) PGMPortable graymap format (gray scale) PPMPortable pixmap format (color) PNGPortable Network Graphics PSAdobe PostScript TIFFTagged Image File Format

53 CS 484, Spring 2012©2012, Selim Aksoy53 Image formats ASCII or binary Number of bits per pixel (color depth) Number of bands Support for compression (lossless, lossy) Support for metadata Support for transparency Format conversion …


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