Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Horticulture and Agriculture Chad Bergert Sunny Leon Celia Pinto Juan Rojas Margarita Zalamea Team: MCCJS.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Horticulture and Agriculture Chad Bergert Sunny Leon Celia Pinto Juan Rojas Margarita Zalamea Team: MCCJS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Horticulture and Agriculture Chad Bergert Sunny Leon Celia Pinto Juan Rojas Margarita Zalamea Team: MCCJS

2 HORTICULTURE Tools and Processes Classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. Classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. Over 10,000 years ago the age of horticulture begins which signals the end of the stone age. Over 10,000 years ago the age of horticulture begins which signals the end of the stone age. There are three main inventions that start the development of horticulture. There are three main inventions that start the development of horticulture. The hoe – flat stone or metal used to loosen dirt The hoe – flat stone or metal used to loosen dirt The spade – a digging stick becomes a spade The spade – a digging stick becomes a spade The plough – add two handles added to a spade The plough – add two handles added to a spade Assumed that women invented them because they were the primary cultivators. Assumed that women invented them because they were the primary cultivators. Chad Bergert

3 The Hoe Used to loosen soil and remove unwanted plants and objects during field cultivation. Used to loosen soil and remove unwanted plants and objects during field cultivation. Found in virtually all horticulture societies. Found in virtually all horticulture societies. Hoes are so widely used by women, assume women invented them. Hoes are so widely used by women, assume women invented them. In one Neolithic culture, women are buried with hoes and men are not. In one Neolithic culture, women are buried with hoes and men are not. Chad Bergert

4 The Spade Spade is another tool for cultivation. Spade is another tool for cultivation. Women cultivated their garden plots carefully by spade, while men cleared new land with fire. Women cultivated their garden plots carefully by spade, while men cleared new land with fire. Originally made of wood. Originally made of wood. Incas believed women must do the planting or the crops would not grow. Incas believed women must do the planting or the crops would not grow. Chad Bergert

5 The Plough The plough is a tool used prepare the soil for seeding or planting. The plough is a tool used prepare the soil for seeding or planting. By adding a two handles to a spade you get a plough. By adding a two handles to a spade you get a plough. Chad Bergert

6 The Plough The plough is one of the two marks conventionally distinguishing agriculture from horticulture. The plough is one of the two marks conventionally distinguishing agriculture from horticulture. Women are not credited with the invention of the plough because: Women are not credited with the invention of the plough because: The modern plough is heavy and women have no association with them today. The modern plough is heavy and women have no association with them today. The idea was that women would not have been strong enough to use them. The idea was that women would not have been strong enough to use them. Chad Bergert

7 The Plough However, this is likely to be an unfair assumption because: However, this is likely to be an unfair assumption because: Early ploughs were much different from today's which are drawn by animals. Early ploughs were much different from today's which are drawn by animals. Most likely two women would pull the plough in order to cultivate the soil. Most likely two women would pull the plough in order to cultivate the soil. Women were the primary workers of the population. Women inventing a plough seems more likely for this reason. Women were the primary workers of the population. Women inventing a plough seems more likely for this reason. Chad Bergert

8 Supporting Evidence The idea that women’s did not invent the hoe, spade, and plough would suggest that they were not the primary users of the tools. The idea that women’s did not invent the hoe, spade, and plough would suggest that they were not the primary users of the tools. In contrary to today’s image of the working women. The daily tasks of the horticulture woman would include: In contrary to today’s image of the working women. The daily tasks of the horticulture woman would include: Collecting and hauling firewood. Collecting and hauling firewood. Harvesting and hauling grain Harvesting and hauling grain Collecting and moving clay for pottery Collecting and moving clay for pottery Building houses or shelters Building houses or shelters Planting and harvesting crops Planting and harvesting crops This evidence also supports theories that women may have actually been stronger than men. This evidence also supports theories that women may have actually been stronger than men. Chad Bergert

9 Irrigation Definition: To supply (dry land) with water by means of ditches, pipes, or streams; water artificially; to make land fertile Definition: To supply (dry land) with water by means of ditches, pipes, or streams; water artificially; to make land fertile Arose from horticulture Arose from horticulture Women were most likely the first irrigators Women were most likely the first irrigators 2 types of irrigation: 2 types of irrigation: Bringing plants to water Bringing plants to water Bringing water to plants Bringing water to plants Margarita Zalamea

10 Harriet W.R. Strong Invented a system of dams and reservoirs for water storage and flood control. Invented a system of dams and reservoirs for water storage and flood control. Introduced winter irrigation at her orchard in Southern California. Introduced winter irrigation at her orchard in Southern California. Responsible for the rapid growth of the food-producing regions in Southern California. Responsible for the rapid growth of the food-producing regions in Southern California. Margarita Zalamea

11 Fire as a land-clearing tool Used fire to drive game, improve grazing and encourage certain plants Both men and women used this technique Otis Mason states that women may have been the first to control fire so that it may be used for this purpose Margarita Zalamea

12 Fertilizer In several cultures, women were the first to invent fertilizer In several cultures, women were the first to invent fertilizer Observation of affect of feces on plant growth during child training and food collection Observation of affect of feces on plant growth during child training and food collection Menstrual blood and herring were used as fertilizer Menstrual blood and herring were used as fertilizer Margarita Zalamea

13 Cultivation Women were most likely the primary cultivators Women were most likely the primary cultivators 75% of all human food energy comes from 8 cereals—all were domesticated in prehistory 75% of all human food energy comes from 8 cereals—all were domesticated in prehistory For bread wheat, women: For bread wheat, women: Saved the seeds for planting gradually increasing them until they formed the whole seed stock Saved the seeds for planting gradually increasing them until they formed the whole seed stock Developed seedling beds Developed seedling beds Margarita Zalamea

14 Agriculture As society begins to depend more heavily on cultivation and agriculture, women begin to lose out as exclusive cultivators. As society begins to depend more heavily on cultivation and agriculture, women begin to lose out as exclusive cultivators. The question is no longer who does the work, but who is in charge—and who makes the tools The question is no longer who does the work, but who is in charge—and who makes the tools Leading to dramatic shift called the Takeover Theory Leading to dramatic shift called the Takeover Theory Margarita Zalamea

15 Takeover Theory Women played an important role in domestication Women played an important role in domestication they became the primary care taker for their children, leaving little room for their agricultural and horticultural interests. they became the primary care taker for their children, leaving little room for their agricultural and horticultural interests. Celia Pinto

16 Developments that Affected the Transition to Agriculture The Birth Explosion The Birth Explosion Change from Female-Centered to Male- Centered religion Change from Female-Centered to Male- Centered religion The Professionalization of The Cultivative Role The Professionalization of The Cultivative Role Celia Pinto

17 The Birth Explosion Difficult and Late Periods Difficult and Late Periods Late pregnancy Late pregnancy Early lactation Early lactation Increasing Work Load Increasing Work Load Food providing Food providing Processing Processing Child care Child care Stress and Emotional Trauma Stress and Emotional Trauma Celia Pinto

18 Change From Female-Centered To Male-Centered Religion Overthrow of Goddess-Worship Overthrow of Goddess-Worship Negative Effects on Women Negative Effects on Women Opposite Effect on Men Opposite Effect on Men Celia Pinto

19 The Professionalization of the Cultivative Role Heavy workload became crucial Heavy workload became crucial Gardens become fields Gardens become fields Irrigation became complex Irrigation became complex Commercialized and professionalized Commercialized and professionalized Celia Pinto

20 Women's role in the 19th & 20th Century in Agriculture Plant Culture/Planting & Cultivating Plant Culture/Planting & Cultivating Fertilization Fertilization New foods New foods New plants New plants Plant Diseases Plant Diseases Juan Rojas

21 Plant Culture/ Planting & Cultivating Dr. M. Claire Shephard: involved in inventing of two systemic fungicides. Dimethirimol and ethirimol. Seed Treatments. To coat the seeds with fertilizer or pesticides rather than the entire fields. Miranda Smith: lived in New York City and was credited for starting Rooftop Gardens Project. New Forms of Cultivating around the world Hsing Yen-tzu: method of planting spring wheat in frozen grounds. Yetateriana Novgorodova: hotbed techniques w/bonfires, sprinkling rountines for growing vegetables in Siberia. Juan Rojas

22 Fertilization Elisabeth Bryenton Elisabeth Bryenton Created mixture that provided plants as much nitrogen as needed to grow at a fraction of the cost. Created mixture that provided plants as much nitrogen as needed to grow at a fraction of the cost. Juan Rojas

23 New Foods  Dr. Catherine H. Bailey Creating new hybrids of peaches, nectarines apples and pears. Elizabeth White, daughter of cranberry growers discovered ways of growing a new berry, Tru- Blu-Berries Juan Rojas

24 New Plants Female agriculturists are credited for the work in developing new and unique flowers. Most of these flowers being roses. Female agriculturists are credited for the work in developing new and unique flowers. Most of these flowers being roses. Juan Rojas

25 Inventors of New Breeds Esther Johnson, Anna Miller, Elizabeth A. Briggs and Marie Schaefer created the walnut tree. Esther Johnson, Anna Miller, Elizabeth A. Briggs and Marie Schaefer created the walnut tree. Juan Rojas

26 Plant Diseases Joanna B. Tribble: preventing diseases on vegetables. Joanna B. Tribble: preventing diseases on vegetables. Rebecca J. Walker: protecting fruit trees from curculio. Rebecca J. Walker: protecting fruit trees from curculio. Dr. Margaret C. Shephard: covering pesticides and agents that regulate plant growth. Dr. Margaret C. Shephard: covering pesticides and agents that regulate plant growth. Juan Rojas

27 Animal Husbandry The branch of agriculture concerned with the care and breeding of domestic animals such as cattle, hogs, sheep, and horses. Sunny Leon

28 The purpose of Animal Husbandry is to breed a better type of animal. Diamond White Tails Diamond White Tails Santa Gertrudis Santa Gertrudis Red Angus Red Angus Sunny Leon New Breeds and Varieties

29 Care of Livestock: Methods, Apparatus, Research Livestock and cattle cars Livestock and cattle cars Livestock feeding troughs Livestock feeding troughs Improved sheep shears Improved sheep shears Handling livestock and fighting against fleas Handling livestock and fighting against fleas Growth promoters Growth promoters In-vitro fertilization In-vitro fertilization Sunny Leon

30 Dairy and Poultry Inventions Dairy inventions Dairy inventions 20 th Century 20 th Century Poultry Inventions Poultry Inventions Sunny Leon


Download ppt "Horticulture and Agriculture Chad Bergert Sunny Leon Celia Pinto Juan Rojas Margarita Zalamea Team: MCCJS."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google