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Unilateral Presentation Paradigm in Psychophysical Tasks: Capability and Limitations of Resource Approach А.Gusev, I.Utochkin.

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Presentation on theme: "Unilateral Presentation Paradigm in Psychophysical Tasks: Capability and Limitations of Resource Approach А.Gusev, I.Utochkin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unilateral Presentation Paradigm in Psychophysical Tasks: Capability and Limitations of Resource Approach А.Gusev, I.Utochkin

2 Daniel Kahneman (1973). Monograph “Attention and Effort”: The first detailed elaboration in Resource Approach D. Kahneman – Nobel Prize in Economy, 2002

3 Concept of Resource in contemporary Cognitive Science (two aspects) 1. Resource as descriptive metaphor: an illustration of limited capacity in information processing. 2. Resource as theoretical concept: a principle of explanation of limited capacity in information processing.

4 Resource as theoretical concept Task 5 Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Subtask 4 Subtask 3 Subtask 5 Subtask 1 Subtask 2 Task OR Arousal Controlling mechanism (Allocation Policy) Factors determining task priority Energetic task demands How much Resource is at one’s disposal? What tasks demand Resource (attention) first of all? How much Resource is to be allocated to a task? Resource

5 “Demons” of Resource Approach 1. Confusion of the descriptive and explanatory aspects of Resourсe - vicious circle. E.g.: Pashler H.(1999). “… capacity is limited because Capacity is limited” (Neumann, 1987) “… attention influences attention” (Taylor, Klein, 1998) 2. Introducing infinitely many specific resources to explain new results - vicious infinity. E.g.: Wickens C. D. (1984).

6 Resource and alternative principles for explanation of information processing limitations Resource and Data limited processing (Norman & Bobrow, 1975) Resource and Data limited processing (Norman & Bobrow, 1975) Cognitive schemes (Neisser, 1976) Cognitive schemes (Neisser, 1976) Levels of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) Levels of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) Functional system or organ (Ukhtomski, 1978; Anokhin, 1978; Leontiev, 1959) Functional system or organ (Ukhtomski, 1978; Anokhin, 1978; Leontiev, 1959) Attentional networks (Posner, Raichle, 1994) Attentional networks (Posner, Raichle, 1994) All of these concepts emphasize idea of functional re-organization of task performance system.

7 Typical Domain of Resource approach Tasks involving the following factors: Arousal dynamics Arousal dynamics Task difficulty Task difficulty Typical “Resource” research paradigms: Dual-task paradigm Dual-task paradigm Vigilance tasks Vigilance tasks Psychological refractory period Psychological refractory period

8 Resource and Asymmetry We suppose that research of brain asymmetry allows: to clear the contribution of energetic (resource) and functional mechanisms of task performance. to clear the contribution of energetic (resource) and functional mechanisms of task performance. Friedman (1981) vs Luria (1973); Kinsbourne (1970) vs Kimura (1961) to clear the contribution of unitary (central) or multiple (hemisphere specific) resource into mechanisms of task performance to clear the contribution of unitary (central) or multiple (hemisphere specific) resource into mechanisms of task performance Friedman (1981) & Davidson (1998) vs Luria (1973)

9 Objectives of Experiment 1. Investigate an influence of Task Difficulty on Task Performance and Manifestations of Brain Asymmetry. 2. Investigate an influence of Arousal on Task Performance and Manifestations of Brain Asymmetry.

10 Methods 83 right-handed participants 83 right-handed participants Signal Detection Paradigm Signal Detection Paradigm Unilateral presentation of tonal signal on noise background, “yes-no” method Unilateral presentation of tonal signal on noise background, “yes-no” method Factor 1: Difficulty of signal detection task – TD (3 levels, 260 trials per level) Factor 1: Difficulty of signal detection task – TD (3 levels, 260 trials per level) Factor 2: Self-report Arousal (Energetic and Tense Arousal: Thayer,1968) Factor 2: Self-report Arousal (Energetic and Tense Arousal: Thayer,1968) Dependent variables: RT, sdRT, P(hit), A`, Yes-rate; Lateral indexes of RT, sdRT, P(hit), A` and Yes-rate Dependent variables: RT, sdRT, P(hit), A`, Yes-rate; Lateral indexes of RT, sdRT, P(hit), A` and Yes-rate

11 Energetic Arousal Tense Arousal Thayer, General Arousal (GA)

12 Results: effect of TD on Lateral indexes* * - the same tendency is for sdRT, P(hit) and Yes-rate F=14.00; p<0.001

13 Results: effects of TD  GA on P(hit)* F=2.73; p=0.04 Easy Moderate Difficult * - the similar tendency is for A`

14 Results: effects of TD  GA on sdRT Easy Moderate Difficult F=3.05; p=0.03

15 Results: effects of TD  GA on Lateral indexes Easy Moderate Difficult F=2.88; p=0.04

16 Discussion 1. Ear asymmetry increases with task difficulty: Resource interpretation Functional interpretation The increment may be a sign of hemispheric resource allocation. The increment may be a sign of involvement of some hemisphere- specific mechanism into task performance. 2. Efficiency of task performance and performance asymmetry reveal non-linear (Yerkes-Dodson-like) relation to arousal variations: Resource interpretation Functional interpretation Optimally aroused Ss have sufficient resource and allocate it optimally. Redundant.

17 Discussion 3.Non-linear (Yerkes-Dodson-like) effect of arousal takes place only in moderately difficult task. Resource interpretation Functional interpretation 1. Easy task demands little or no effort (Posner & Snyder, 1975). 2. Difficult (threshold) task is typical data-limited task so it can`t be perfectly resolved by only additional resource involvement. 1. Easy task may be resolved with extremely simplified or reduced functional system. 2. Difficult task requires involvement of extended functional system and/or its reorganizing, e.g., searching adequate cognitive strategies.

18 General conclusions 1. Resource Approach predominantly “works” in arousal-dependent tasks. 2. Comprehensive understanding of difficult psychophysical tasks performance requires additional usage of some other concepts and models, e.g., cognitive schemes, levels of processing, functional system, etc.


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