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1 Chapter 1 & 2 Relational Databases and Queries CS101 WVU.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 1 & 2 Relational Databases and Queries CS101 WVU."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 1 & 2 Relational Databases and Queries CS101 WVU

2 Working with Table Views Datasheet View Design View 2

3 3

4 Datasheet View 4

5 Using Forms, Queries and Reports Tables – Primary Key Forms Queries – Criteria Reports. 5

6 Tips on Database Management Database files should be named using meaningful names Database files should be stored in meaningful folders and subfolders Back up your files! 6

7 Compacting & Repairing a Database Access databases increase in size over time Compacting – Avoids loss of data – Recovers unclaimed space – Defragments fragmented databases – Repairs corrupt databases 7

8 Steps in Compacting & Repairing and Backing-up Your Database. 8 Back Up Database option

9 Backing Up a Database Backups are critical to a database Access provides a default file name, including the original file name and adds on the current date Default extension for Access databases is accdb 9

10 Creating Relationships A common field — used to relate two tables together Join lines — allow relationships between two tables to be created on a common field Three types of relationships used by Access to manage relationships between tables: – Enforce referential integrity – Cascade update related fields (see Chapter 2) – Cascade delete related records (see Chapter 2) 10

11 Using the Relationships Window Relationships should be created after the tables are created, but before any data is entered Relationships between tables are represented by join lines in the Relationships window Most common method of connecting two tables is using a primary key from the primary table to the foreign key in the related table 11

12 Referential Integrity Ensures that data cannot be entered into a related table unless it first exists in the primary table Example: – Banks would not want to offer a loan to an individual unless that individual was already established as a customer of the bank. – Thus, the customer has to be entered into the customer table, before a new loan can be made in the loan table with that customer’s ID. 12

13 Relationships Window 13

14 Table Design: Designing Data Table Definition – Revised Input vs. Output in Design 14

15 Designing Fields Guidelines 1.Include the necessary data 2.Design for now and the future 3.Store data in its smallest parts 4.Add calculated fields to a table 5.Design to accommodate date arithmetic 6.Link tables using common fields 15

16 Include Necessary Data Determine what data is necessary Create a rough draft of reports that may be needed Create tables based on fields necessary for reports 16

17 Design for Now and the Future Organizations evolve over time Databases should evolve with the organization – Anticipate future needs of the organization – Build flexibility into system to satisfy future needs 17

18 Store Data in Smallest Possible Pieces Creating a name field with the entire name in it violates good database design and reduces the usefulness of the data Divide data into the smallest pieces that you’re going to need to access – Example: Prefix, FirstName, LastName, Suffix Provide flexibility for the user 18

19 Calculated Fields in a Table Produce a value from an expression or function that references one or more existing fields Access 2010 allows the user to store calculated fields – Can be a benefit or a potential problem – Exercise caution when using calculated (derived) fields 19

20 Design to Accommodate Date Arithmetic Calculated fields can also create date/time data Plenty of examples available for using date/time date arithmetic 20

21 Link Tables Using Common Fields Tables may be joined based on a common field Join lines are created – Manually by the user, or – Automatically by Access when two fields in separate tables share the same name between two related tables Avoid Data redundancy errors – The unnecessary storage of duplicate data in two or more tables 21

22 Creating Tables Create fields in Design View Import data from another database or application – Examples: Excel spreadsheets or Word text files Enter data directly into rows in Datasheet view 22

23 Creating Fields in Tables Field names should be meaningful Rules for naming fields: – Length can be up to 64 characters – Can include letters, numbers and spaces – Access uses CamelCase notation Use uppercase letters for each first letter of each new word Example: ProductCost 23

24 Field Data Types Every field has a data type Determines: – The type of data that can be entered – The operations that can be performed on that data Access recognizes 10 data types 24

25 Access Data Types Number Text Memo Date/Time Currency Yes/No OLE AutoNumber Hyperlink Attachment 25

26 Foreign Key Review A field in one table that is also a primary key of another table 26 SpeakerID is the primary key of the Speakers SpeakerID is the foreign key in the SessionSpeaker table (duplicates are allowed)

27 Using Table Views Datasheet View 27 Active record

28 Using Table Views Design View PivotTable PivotChart 28

29 Work with Field Properties Field property Text data type Number data type Caption property Validation rule 29

30 Access Field Properties Field Size Format Input Mask Caption Default Value Validation Rule Validation Text 30

31 Access Field Properties (continued) Required Allow Zero Length Indexed Expression Result Type 31

32 Understanding Table Relationships Efficiently combine data from related tables Create queries, forms, and reports 32

33 Establishing Referential Integrity Edit Relationships dialog box Select Enforce Referential Integrity checkbox 33

34 Set Cascade Options Cascade Update Related Fields Cascade Delete Related Records 34 Click Cascade Delete with caution Click Cascade Update in case the primary key changes Click Enforce Referential Integrity

35 Options on External Data Tab Import & Link Export Collect Data Web Linked Lists 35 External Data Tab Click Excel to import spreadsheet data

36 Import Data from Excel 36 Click Browse to find a spreadsheet Decide what you want to do with the data

37 Import Data from Excel (continued) 37 Choose the worksheet to import Preview of the worksheet data Click Next to continue

38 Import Data from Excel (continued) 38 Column headings Click Next to continue

39 Import Data from Excel (continued) 39 Change Indexed property to Yes (No Duplicates) Click Next to continue

40 Import Data from Excel (continued) 40 AID becomes the primary key Click Next to continue

41 Import Data from Excel (continued) 41 Accounts becomes the table name Click Finish to import the data

42 Types of Relationships One-to-one relationship One-to-many relationship Many-to-many relationship 42

43 Establishing a One-to-Many Relationship Open Relationships window Add tables Establish relationships 43 Show Table window

44 Relationships Between Tables 44 Edit Relationships dialog box One-to-many relationships

45 Relationships Window 45 Join lines 1 side Many side: the “  ” (infinity symbol)

46 Single-Table Queries Show Table Design Grid to add – Field row – Table row – Sort row – Show row – Criteria 46 Query Design Grid—Fields, Sorting, and Criteria Query Design—Tables

47 Datasheet View of Results 47 Query results in Datasheet view Only accounts with a balance over $5,000 Nine records match the criteria

48 Specifying Criteria for Different Data Types Field data type Delimiters Criteria 48

49 Wildcards The question mark (?) – Example: H?LL will return Hall, Hill, and Hull The asterisk (*) – Example: S*nd will return Sand, Stand, and StoryLand 49

50 Operators & Operands Operators Operands – Use >10 For a Price field, items with a price over $ – Use >=10 for a Price field, items with a price of at least $ – Use <>10 for a Price field, items with a price not equal to $ – Use #2/2/2012# for a field with a Date/Time data type, such as a ShippedDate field, orders shipped on February 2, – Use “Harry” for a text field, find the name Harry. – Use Date( ) for an OrderDate field, orders for today’s date. – Use Between #1/1/2012# and #3/31/2012# for a specified interval between a start and end date, including the start and end dates. 50

51 Null and Zero-Length Strings Null Is Not Null 51

52 Query Sort Determines the order of records Determined from left to right 52

53 AND, OR, and NOT Criteria And operator Or operator Not operator 53

54 Using the Query Wizard Launch Query Wizard Modify Query in Design view 54 Query Wizard

55 55 Select a Table or Query Fields already moved to the Selected Fields list Move a single field to the Selected Fields list Move all fields to the Selected Fields list Remove a single field from the Selected Fields list Remove all fields from the Selected Fields list Select detail or summary data

56 Multi-Table Queries Permit multiple tables Use related tables Similar to creating a single-table query Fixing a common problem 56

57 Resources 57 Chapter 1 & 2 Relational Databases and Queries Exploring Microsoft Access 2010


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