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"Developing Surveys to Measure Student Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes“ Nathan Lindsay & Larry Bunce February 19, #labgabLike us.

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Presentation on theme: ""Developing Surveys to Measure Student Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes“ Nathan Lindsay & Larry Bunce February 19, #labgabLike us."— Presentation transcript:

1 "Developing Surveys to Measure Student Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes“ Nathan Lindsay & Larry Bunce February 19, #labgabLike us on Facebook!www.campuslabs.com/blog

2 There are many types of surveys to consider…  Satisfaction Surveys  Learning Outcome Surveys  Needs Assessments  Exit Surveys  Alumni Surveys  User Surveys  Non-User Surveys  Student/Faculty/Staff/General Public Surveys  Other?

3 Steps in survey design Pilot test survey and revise Review and revise survey Determine physical characteristics of survey Determine item sequence Write and edit items Choose response formats Outline topic(s) and draft items

4 Determine your purpose DESIGN

5 Begin with the end in mind… What do you want/need to show? Why do you need to show it? Who is the source of your data? How will you use the data? Who will need to see results?

6 The purpose of this assessment is… To better understand what the needs of our veteran students are, and how the new Veteran’s Center can meet them To evaluate if students achieved the stated learning outcomes of our workshop, and what additional training needs they have To demonstrate to stakeholders the impact that living in the residence halls has on student development To assess student awareness of services in order to develop our marketing and communications plan

7 Determine your purpose D Examine past assessments ESIGN

8 Did you use the data? o If not, what kept you from examining it? If you used the data… o What was useful? o Was any of the data difficult to analyze? o Were there questions you wished you had asked? o Did any question wording make you unsure of what the data meant? What feedback did you receive from those who participated? Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. Philosopher, George Santayana 1905

9 Determine your purpose D Examine past assessments E Select the appropriate method SIGN

10 S elect an appropriate method Indirect vs. direct Quantitative vs. qualitative Formative vs. summative Population vs. sample

11 QuantitativeQualitative Focus on numbers/numeric values Who, what, where, when Match with outcomes about knowledge and comprehension (define, classify, recall, recognize) Allows for measurement of variables Uses statistical data analysis May be generalize to greater population with larger samples Easily replicated Focus on text/narrative from respondents Why, how Match with outcomes about application, analysis, synthesis, evaluate Seeks to explain and understand Ability to capture “elusive” evidence of student learning and development

12 Sampling Population The whole group Example: survey goes to entire campus If entire campus: use sparingly and coordinate with Institutional Research Sample A subsection of that group Example: survey goes to 30% of campus

13 Sampling strategies Simple Random Sample gives everyone in sampling population an equal chance of selection; a probability sample Stratified Random Sample breaks total sample into subpopulations and then selects randomly from each stratum

14 Sample suggestions Number of Students in PopulationRandom Sample Size (suggestion) 1, Based on 5% margin of error Suggestion in: Assessing Student Learning by Linda Suskie Sample size is the desired number of respondents NOT the number of individuals invited to participate.

15 Any process employed to gather data which requires subjects to display their knowledge, behavior, or thought processes. Direct Methods Indirect Methods Any process employed to gather data which asks subjects to reflect upon their knowledge, behaviors, or thought processes. Where on campus would you go or who would you consult with if you had questions about which courses to register for the fall? I know where to go on campus if I have questions about which courses to register for in the fall. Strongly agree Moderately agree Neither agree nor disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree

16 Conducted during the programConducted during the program Purpose is to provide feedbackPurpose is to provide feedback Use to shape, modify or improve programUse to shape, modify or improve program Conducted after the program Makes judgment on quality, worth, or compares to standard Can be incorporated into future plansFormative Summative

17 Is a survey right for you? Pros: Include large numbers Relatively fast and easy to collect data Lots of resources available Requires minimal resources Fast to analyze Good for surface level or basic data Cons: Survey fatigue and response rates Non-responsive Limited in type of questions asked Lacks depth in data Skills set in both designing questions and analyzing data properly

18 Focus Groups Group discussions where the facilitator supplies the topics and monitors the discussion. The purpose is to gather information about a specific (or focused) topic in a group environment, allowing for discussion and interaction by participants. Similar to interviews, but use when the group interaction will give contribute to a richer conversation

19 Is a focus group right for you? Pros: Helps to understand perceptions, beliefs, thought processes Small number of participants Focus groups encourage group interaction and building upon ideas Responsive in nature Relatively low costs involved Cons: Getting participants (think of time/places) Data collection and analysis takes time Data is as good as the facilitator Beware of bias in analysis reporting Meant to tell story, may not help if numbers are needed Data is not meant to be generalizable

20 Quick, 1-Minute Assessments On a notecard, write a real-world example of how you can apply what you learned. Pass an envelope containing notecards with quiz questions. Students pick one and have 60 seconds to answer and pass along. At the end of a workshop, ask students to write down 1 thing they learned, and 1 lingering question.

21 Is a quick assessment right for you? Pros: Provides a quick summary of take away from student perspective Quickly identifies areas of weakness and strengths for formative assessment Can track changes over time (short-term) Non-verbal (provides classroom feedback from all students) Captures student voice Short time commitment Provides immediate feedback Cons: Non-responsive Short (so you may lose specifics) Sometimes hard to interpret Need very specific prompts in order to get “good” data Plan logistics ahead of time and leave time during program/course May need to be collected over time

22 Mixed Methods Look for same results across multiple data collections Build upon or relate results from one assessment to another Use data from one method (e.g., a survey) to inform another method (e.g., a focus group) Able to increase scope, number, and types of questions

23 Determine your purpose D Examine past assessments E Select the appropriate method S Identify ethical/logistical considerations IGN

24 Do you have the necessary resources and brain power? Do you need to go through IRB? Do you need to identify respondents for follow up, merging of data, tracking of cohorts, or pre/post analysis? Do you need to include demographic questions to drill down or separate data? Who needs to be involved at planning stage to avoid problems when results are in? Does anyone need to approve the project? Are there any political issues to be aware of?

25 Determine your purpose D Examine past assessments E Select the appropriate method S Identify ethical/logistical considerations I Generate the best question and answer format GN

26 What to consider Scales that match Mutually exclusive Exhaustive Neutral/Not applicable/Non-response options Choose not to respondDon’t know Not applicableUnable to judge No opinionNeutral Neither ___ nor ___

27 Pairing Question Text with Answer Choices Question text should be compatible with the answer choices e.g., “How satisfied were you with the following?” e.g., “Did you enjoy the Black History Month speaker?” Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree ExcellentGoodFairPoor Meals at the conference Location of the conference Date of the conference

28 Mutually Exclusive Answer Choices Response options should never overlap e.g., How many hours per week do you work? Response options should exist independently of one another e.g., Which of the following statements describes your peer mentor? He/she is helpful and supportive He/she is difficult to get a hold of

29 Exhaustive Answer Choices Respondents should always be able to choose an answer e.g., How often do you use the University website? Daily 2-3 times a week Weekly Monthly

30 Non-response options Always consider a non-response option Choose not to respondDon’t know Not applicableUnable to judge No opinionNeutral Neither ___ nor ___ Customize the non-response option when possible e.g., How would you rate the leadership session? Excellent Good Fair Poor Did not attend

31 Pitfalls to avoid Socially desirable responding – based on social norms –Can never be eliminated –Consider sensitive topics like race, drug and alcohol use, sexual activity, and other areas with clear social expectations Leading questions – suggesting there is a correct answer e.g., “Why would it be good to eliminate smoking on campus?” Double-barreled questions – asking more than one question e.g., “What were the strengths and weaknesses of orientation?” Double negatives – including negative phrasing which makes responding difficult e.g., “I do not feel welcome in my residence hall.”

32 Response Formats Open ended responses –Free response - text –Numeric –Yes/No with please explain Types of multiple choice responses –Yes/No –Single response –Multiple response (e.g., Check all that apply, Select 3) –Ranking –Scales

33 Yes/No When to Use: –There is no response between “Yes” and “No” e.g., “Have you ever lived on campus?” –You consciously want to force a choice even if other options might exist e.g., “Would you visit the Health Center again?” When Not to Use: –There could be a range of responses e.g., “Was the staff meeting helpful?”

34 Single response When to Use: –All respondents would only have one response e.g., “What is your class year?” –You consciously want to force only one response e.g., “What is the most important factor for improving the Rec Center?” When Not to Use: –More than one response could apply to respondents e.g., “Why didn’t you talk to your RA about your concern?”

35 Multiple response Options: “Check all that apply” or “Select (N)” When to Use: –More than one answer choice might be applicable e.g., “How did you hear about the Cultural Dinner?” (Check all that apply) –You want to limit/force a certain number of responses e.g., “What were your primary reasons for attending?” (Select up to 3) When Not to Use: –It’s important for respondents to only be associated with one response e.g., “What is your race/ethnicity?”

36 Ranking When to Use: –You want to see the importance of items relative to one another e.g., “Please rank how important the following amenities are to you in your residence: (1=most important)” –You are prepared to do the analysis and interpretation! When Not to Use: –You want to see the individual importance of each item e.g., “How important are the following amenities to you?”

37 Scales When to Use: –You want to capture a range of responses e.g., “How satisfied were you with your meeting?” –When you would like statistics e.g., 4 = strongly agree 3 = agree 2 = disagree 1 = strongly disagree When Not to Use: –The question is truly a Yes/No question e.g., “My mother has a college degree.”

38 Scales Unipolar – no negative A great deal Considerably Moderately Slightly Not at all Bipolar – positive or negative (with or without a midpoint) Very safe Somewhat safe Somewhat unsafe Very unsafe Consider… Number of points Inclusion of neutral Whether labels are needed Order (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 5, 4, 3, 2, 1)

39 Recommended Scales

40 Determine your purpose D Examine past assessments E Select the appropriate method S Identify ethical/logistical considerations I Generate the best question and answer format G Note the purpose for each data point N

41 N ote the reason for each data point Bubble next to question Compare against purpose to identify gaps Look for overlap Eliminate “nice to know” Help with ordering Retain for analysis step

42 DATA COLLECTION METHODS

43 Paper surveys Things to consider Captive audience Administrator available for questions No technology issues or benefits Data entry necessary

44 Web surveys Things to Consider: No data entry Technology issues and benefits Immediate results Can be anonymous or identified Not a captive audience

45 Data Collection Methods ProsCons Web  No data entry  Accuracy is excellent  Technology benefits (e.g., display rules, required questions)  Immediate results  Anonymous  Audience is not usually captive  Possible misinterpretation (can’t ask ?s)  Technology issues  Response sample unrepresentative Mobile  No data entry  Accuracy is good  Technology benefits (e.g., display rules, required questions)  Captive audience  Administrator is available for ?s  Technology issues  Response sample unrepresentative  Limited formatting  Anonymity is questionable Paper  Captive audience  Administrator is available for ?s  No technology issues  No benefits of technology  Accuracy can be compromised  Data entry necessary  Anonymity is questionable

46 SURVEY FATIGUE

47 General information Survey response rates have been falling o Difficult to contact people o Refusals to participate increasing Strategies for correcting low response rates: o Weight the data for non-response o Implement strategies to increase response rates

48 Non-response may not be random Correlation exists between demographic characteristics and survey response Higher response has been found among certain sub- populations: o Women o Caucasians o High academic ability o Living on campus o Math or science majors Research is inconsistent

49 IMPROVING RESPONSE RATES

50 Specific techniques Survey length Preannouncement Invitation text Reminders Timing of administration Incentives Confidentiality statements Salience Request for help Sponsorship Deadlines

51 Survey length Greater attrition at 22 questions or 13 minutes What to consider: –Excluding “nice to know” –Eliminate what you already know –Outlining how results will be used –Number of open-ended questions –Number of required questions

52 Invitations Importance/Purpose Relevancy to respondent Request for help How and by whom results are used How long it will take to respond Deadline Incentives/Compensation Contact information

53 Timing of contact/administration Avoid busy times or holidays Send / preannouncement 2-3 days prior to survey mailing First half of semester/term may be better if you are surveying in an academic environment

54 Piloting 1. Take it as if you were respondent 2. Seek reviews from colleagues with no prior knowledge 3. Administer to sample of actual population being studied –Focus group –Questions at end of survey –Observing

55 Reliability & Validity Reliability – yielding the same results repeatedly –Test/Re-test – consistency over time –Inter-rater – consistency between people Validity – accurately measuring a concept –Internal – confidence results due to independent variable –External – results can be generalized –Face validity – does this seem like a good measure? If a survey is valid, it is almost always reliable!

56 USING THE SURVEY RESULTS

57 PR or advertising campaign

58 Results in survey invitations

59 Some Final Advice Google your area to see what other surveys have been conducted Contact Larry Bunce (Director of Institutional Research) or Nathan Lindsay for help in designing your survey Online surveys should be coordinated through the Office of Institutional Research

60 Nathan Lindsay Assistant Vice Provost for Assessment University of Missouri-Kansas City QUESTIONS?


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