Presentation on theme: "The relevance of ‘Servicescape’ for marketing of small sports clubs: A research proposal for the Irish Football Associations (IFA) Presentation prepared."— Presentation transcript:
The relevance of ‘Servicescape’ for marketing of small sports clubs: A research proposal for the Irish Football Associations (IFA) Presentation prepared by Paulina Wyczawska “The secret life of buildings...” Servicescape
‘Servicescape’ “The architects are now designing buildings that are all about spectacle and cheap thrills (however expensive to build), and have forgotten the true purpose of 'play': to bring people together for a communal experience. From shopping malls to football stadiums and museums, we discover how important ‘play’ is in our lives. The increasingly crazy, computer-designed, flashy icons produce an increasingly alienating and fragmented landscape where we feel less joined up and less playful”. Source: Tom Dyckhoff, Channel4 Documentaries
Peter Nelson, CEO at IFA quoted Winston Churchill in his report this October 2011, when speaking about the new strategic stadia projects throughout the Northern Ireland: “We are not at the end, nor at the beginning of the end, but perhaps the end of the beginning” “The Marketing Dept. of the IFA have recently discovered research that shows that the satisfaction levels and re-patronage intentions of the consumer in leisure services are strongly influenced by their perceptions of the Servicescape”. The influence of the surrounding on the customer satisfaction www.footballgroundguide.com/northern-ireland/index.htm
Scope for the presentation Introduction and understanding of market research problem Research objectives and aims Chosen methodology and reasons for choice Sampling strategy and rationale Discussion on data collection methods Fieldwork how we carried out the fieldwork – where, when, who with, why? Data analysis of the fieldwork data collected and highlight what the key findings are (based on aims and objectives)
Aims and Objectives Aim – an assessment of the role that ‘Servicescape’ plays in peoples’ decision to attend a game or not in the IFA – Carling Premier League. Objectives: Space/function Aesthetic factors Ambient conditions
Chosen methodology and reason of choice Sale et al (2002) “We propose a solution to mixed-methods research and the quantitative qualitative debate.”. Secondary research leading to the primary research: articles, journals, online data Qualitative methods: interviews; observations; focus groups; projective techniques Quantitative methods: surveys / questionnaires; All research is an exploratory question looking for an answer of: What influence the surroundings have on people?
Sampling strategy and rationale Cluster Sampling Convenience Sampling Judgment Sampling Quota Sampling x Simply Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Snowball Sampling x – sensitive, complicated issue, looks for recommendations (good for focus groups) Representativeness!!!
Data collection method In-depth Interviews (Pearl) Focus Groups / Projective Techniques (Paulina) Questionnaires / Surveys (Naomi) Observations (Joanne)
Football Association in UK vs. Football Association in Northern Ireland What Northern Irish Football Association should do to improve the spectacle experience of their stadiums and lengthen the desire to stay of their visitors?
How the stadiums around the world are designed: 1.The Allians Arena in Munich, Germany is the first stadium that can change the color of its exterior; 2.Wembley Stasium interior in the London Borough of Brent is home to Association Football 3.The Stadium in Olympia 4.The Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens 5.Estadio Olimpico Joao Havelange in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 4. 1. 3. 5. 2.
http://www.thefa.com/GetIntoFootball/Facilities/Natural_Grass_Pitches Performance Quality Standard The Performance Quality Standard (PQS) provides a recommended minimum quality standard for the maintenance and construction of pitches. Specifically, it sets the basic standard recommended for natural grass pitches, which may be located at a variety of locations including a Club site, within a park or recreational ground. When looking at Servicescape in sports industry it is important to have the knowledge of Football League Regulations
In-depth Interviews Various range of age groups who attend matches Members of the football associations and clubs
Within an environment agreed by participants Relating to Aim & Objective Laddering technique Need to develop the in-depth interviews – Analysing the Data
Focus groups Essentially, it is a group experience When it went on the air, the sales department hated it. It was the highest advertising pullout show in the history of NBC. At the early focus groups, people were saying, 'Who are these people? Why should we watch them? Dick Wolf Dick Wolf
“Corporate documents, like football game plans, are not easily drafted in a stadium, with thousands of very interested fans participating, each with their own red pencil, trying to reach a consensus on every word”. Jon Postel Jon Postel “I remember the great atmosphere and the great stadium”. Carl Zeiss Carl Zeiss “Our stadium seats over 80,000, and we sell all of our tickets”. Steve Spurrier Steve Spurrier http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/stadium.html#ixzz1f8hL3 qeK
The objectives for usage of Focus Groups? The People with Commonality of Experience providing Depth of Information on The Topic of Discussion
When to use Focus Groups? Group discussions are especially useful techniques for researching new products, testing new concepts or determining "what would happen if…"
Areas of special consideration... Culture Sensitivity of the Focus Topic The Effect of the Group Hierarchy Difficulties with Disclosure Match of Moderator
Projective Techniques “Projective techniques “provide verbal or visual stimuli which, through their indirection and concealed intent, encourage, respondents to reveal their unconscious feelings and attitudes without being aware that they are doing so” (Will, Eadie, & MacAskill, 1996, p.38)
Focus Groups projective techniques Brainstorming is a common technique used in most business meetings and this is useful in a focus group to identify issues. It is also closely linked to word associations where respondents are asked to think of words which are associated with a product or brand. Developing a campaign is a group activity that can be used. Here, the group is asked to work together to come up with a campaign around an issue, for example: How would you think you could promote our new stadium? What do you think you could change in the current layout? What influence have on you the current surroundings’ colors and would you prefer different?
Projective techniques are generally designed to extend people’s imaginations o Creating Fantasy e.g. if you had a magic wand and could change anything about the way you buy materials for the stadium, what would you change? Creating analogies questions e.g. If brand X was the lighting for the stadium, which would it be? Futuristic Imagination e.g. Looking forward to the next 5 years, how do you think things will change in the way people attend the football matches? Personification e.g. if the fans from Y were a person, what would they be like, what gender, how would they behave? What would they look like? Role play e.g. If you were the MD of stadium X; football association Y, how would you go about promoting your services/entertainment/business to people like yourself and others?
QUESTIONNAIRES A Questionnaire is a formalized set of questions for obtaining information from respondents. “Typically a questionnaire is only ONE element of a data collection package” ( Malhotra and Birks)
Data collection methods QUESTIONNAIRES. Definition… A Questionnaire is a formalised set of questions for obtaining information from respondents. “Typically a questionnaire is only ONE element of a data collection package” ( Malhotra and Birks ).
Questionnaire Design Questionnaire design will be based on assessing the same factors we have already identified for recording our Observational research - Bitner ( 1992 ).
Questionnaire Process Layout and Reproduction. SO……we need to ask specific questions relating to how respondents feel about - AMBIENCE eg. The odour, lighting, comfort, sound, temperature. FUNCTIONALITY e.g exhibition facilities. SIGNAGE e.g wayfinding, easy to understand, sufficiency. CLEANLINESS e.g toilets, walkways, food service LAYOUT e.g parking, ease of movement GENERAL FACILITIES AND ARTIFACTS eg. Sufficient and appropriate seating, disability provision, appropriate artifacts.
Questionnaire process contd. Proposed strategy by starting with an easy, unthreatening open-ended question Generally speaking, how comfortable do you feel in this ground.“ We will then move on gradually to ask simple closed questions keeping the most difficult question to near the end for example ….
Questionnaire. Layout and Reproduction The LAYOUT of the questionnaire will consist of 6 distinct sections – Ambient Conditions, Functionality, Signage, Cleanliness,Layout, General Facilities and Artifacts REPRODUCTION – Good quality paper. - Pilot – Testing.
Observations According to Kleine and Baker, 2004; Milligan, 1998; Tombs and McColl-Kennedy 2004 “the identity defining value of social interaction in servicescapes is an area that remains under- researched”
Observational Research Source: Adapted from Bitner’s (1992) Framework for Understanding Environment-user Relationship in Service Organizations
Observational Research Source: Wakefield, K.L. and Blogett, J.G. (1996), “The effect of the servicescape on customers’ behavioral intentions in leisure service settings”, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol.10 No.6, pp.46.
Recording Observations CHECK LIST Ambient Conditions The odor in the facility is pleasantYES/NO ……………………… The lighting in the facility is easy on the eyeYES/NO ………………………. The lighting in the facility is adequateYES/NO ……………………… Overall, the ambient condition in the facility makes it comfortable to stay insideYES/NO ……………………… The background music/sound is appropriate YES/NO ……………………… The temperature in the facility is comfortable YES/NO ……………………… Functionality The facility offers high performing electronic equipment YES/NO ……………………… The interior wall and floor colour schemes are attractive YES/NO ………………..… The facility offers excellent convention and exhibition facilities YES/NO ………………… This facility’s architecture gives it an attractive character YES/NO ………………….….
Recording Observations Signage The signage in this stadium is easy to understandYES/NO ……………. The signage in this stadium makes it easy to find your way YES/NO …………… The signage in the stadium is large enough to be seen YES/NO …………… There are sufficient signage in the stadiumYES/NO ……………. Cleanliness Overall, the stadium is kept clean YES/NO ………….. The stadium maintains clean restrooms YES/NO …………… The stadium maintains clean walkways and exits YES/NO …………… The stadium maintains clean food service areasYES/NO …………… Layout The stadium layout makes it easy to get to the parking areasYES/NO …………… Overall, the stadium layout makes it easy to get to where you want to go YES/NO …………… The stadium layout makes it easy to get to the kind of food service you want YES/NO …………… The stadium layout makes it easy to get to restrooms YES/NO …………… General Facilities and Artifacts There are sufficient seating arrangements in the stadiumYES/NO …………… There are sufficient standing arrangements in the stadiumYES/NO …………… Facilities for disabled people are providedYES/NO ……………. Artifacts and decorations in the facility are appropriate YES/NO ……………
Recording Observations Field Notes Date: Location: Findings: ---------------------------------------------- Date : Location: Findings: ----------------------------------------------- Date: Location: Findings: -----------------------------------------------
Summary Finishing quote Thank you Any questions?
Rubin, H. and Rubin, I. (2004), Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data, 2 nd Edition, Sage. claim “interviewing is about obtaining Rubin, H. and Rubin, I. (2004), Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data, 2 nd Edition, Sage. claim “interviewing is about obtaining interviewees’ interpretations of their experiences and their understanding of the world in which they live and work. pg 36interviewees’ interpretations of their experiences and their understanding of the world in which they live and work. pg 36 References:
References Kleine, S.S., Baker, S.M. (2004). An Integrative Review of Material Possession Attachment, Academy of Marketing Science Review 1, 1-35 Milligan, M.J. (1998). Interactional Past and Potential: The Social Construction of Place Attachment, Symbolic Interaction 21 (1), 1-33 Proctor, T. (2005), Essentials of Marketing Research, 4 th Edition, Prentice Hall Tombs,A., McColl-Kennedy, J.R. (2003). Social-Servicescape Conceptual Model, Marketing Theory 3(4), 447-445 Will, V., Eadie, D., & MacAskill, S. (1996) Projective and Enabling Techniques Explored. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 14, 38-43
References Bitner, M.J. (1990), “Evaluating service encounters: the effects of physical surroundings and employee responses”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54, April, pp. 69-82 Bitner, M.J. (1992), “Servicescapes: the impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56, April, pp. 57-71. Bitner, M.J., Booms, B.H. and Mohr, L.A. (1994), “Critical service encounters: the employee viewpoints:, Journal of Markeing, Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 95-106