# Split Identity November 2010 Lance Rips Northwestern University.

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Split Identity November 2010 Lance Rips Northwestern University

From Plutarch’s Life of Theseus

From Hobbes’ De Corpore

One-Iceberg Condition (from Rips, Blok, & Newman, 2006) Original iceberg (Sample 94) Successor iceberg How similar is the new iceberg to Sample 94? OR How likely is the new iceberg to be Sample 94?

Similarity Identity From Rips, Blok, & Newman, Tracing the Identity of Objects. Psychological Review (2006). Dimensions of Successor Iceberg

Two-Iceberg Condition (from Rips, Blok, & Newman, 2006) Original iceberg (Sample 94) Successor icebergs Which is the original iceberg (Sample 94)? Only the eastern-most Only the western-most Both Neither WestEast

Sample 94 WestEast == = ? (West = Sample 94) and (Sample 94 = East) West = East

From Euclid’s Elements

Two Experiments on Response Options Which is Sample 94? 1) Only the eastern-most 2) Only the western-most 3) Both 4) Neither 1) Only the eastern-most 2) Only the western-most 3) The eastern-most and, simultaneously, the western-most 4) Neither Versus Which is Sample 94? 1) Only the eastern-most 2) Only the western-most 3) Both 4) Neither 1) Only the eastern-most 2) Only the western-most 3) Both 4) Neither 5) Either the eastern-most or the western-most, but one can’t tell which. Versus 59% Both 51% Both 46% Both45% Simultaneous

An Experiment on Noun versus Adjective Interpretations Suppose that on April 12 a group of scientists are studying an iceberg named Gax. On April 13, this iceberg splits into two icebergs… On April 14, which of the icebergs (if either) is the original iceberg (Gax)? Baseline Condition: Suppose that on April 12 a group of scientists are studying an iceberg that they have christened with proper name “Gax.” On April 13, this iceberg splits into two icebergs… On April 14, which of the icebergs (if either) is the original iceberg (Gax)? Proper-name Condition: Suppose that on April 12 a group of scientists are studying an iceberg that they describe as gaxish. On April 13, this iceberg splits into two icebergs… On April 14, which of the icebergs (if either) is gaxish? Adjective Condition:

On April 14, which of the icebergs (if either) is the original iceberg (Sample 94)? (Please circle ONE of the responses below.) Only the eastern-most iceberg is the original. Only the western-most iceberg is the original. Both icebergs are the original. Neither iceberg is the original. Baseline Condition: On April 14, which of the icebergs, considered on its own, is entitled to be the original iceberg (Sample 94)? In answering this question, you should ask yourself whether each iceberg has the qualifications it needs to be the original, ignoring the existence of the other iceberg. That is, supposing the other iceberg did not exist, could the remaining iceberg be the original? (Please circle ONE of the responses below.) Only the eastern-most iceberg could be the original. Only the western-most iceberg could be the original. Both icebergs could be the original. Neither iceberg could be the original. Entitlement Condition: On April 14, what relations hold between the original iceberg and the eastern-most and western-most icebergs? In asking whether one iceberg is the same iceberg as another, we mean is it the very same (or identical) iceberg. This is the sense in which a person is identical only to him- or herself and not to a twin or a clone. We are NOT simply asking whether one iceberg has the same properties (e.g., shape or weight) as the other. Please circle either “yes” or “no” for EACH of the following three questions: (a) Is the eastern-most iceberg the same iceberg as the western-most iceberg? yesno (b) Is the eastern-most iceberg the same iceberg as the original iceberg (Sample 94)? yesno (c) Is the western-most iceberg the same iceberg as the original iceberg (Sample 94)? yesno Identity Condition:

On April 14, which of the icebergs (if either) is the original iceberg (Sample 94)? (Please circle ONE of the responses below.) Only the eastern-most iceberg is the original. Only the western-most iceberg is the original. Both icebergs are the original. Neither iceberg is the original. On April 14, what relations hold between the original iceberg and the eastern-most and western-most icebergs? In asking whether one iceberg is the same iceberg as another, we mean is it the very same (or identical) iceberg. This is the sense in which a person is identical only to him- or herself and not to a twin or a clone. We are NOT simply asking whether one iceberg has the same properties (e.g., shape or weight) as the other. Which of the icebergs (if either) is the original iceberg (Sample 94)? (Please circle ONE of the responses below.) Only the eastern-most iceberg is the original. Only the western-most iceberg is the original. Both icebergs are the original. Neither iceberg is the original. Please circle either “yes” or “no” for EACH of the following three questions. On April 14: (a) Is the eastern-most iceberg the western-most iceberg? yesno (b) Is the eastern-most iceberg the original iceberg (Sample 94)?yesno (c) Is the western-most iceberg the original iceberg (Sample 94)?yesno On April 14, what relations hold between the original iceberg and the eastern-most and western-most icebergs? In asking whether one iceberg is the same iceberg as another, we mean is it the very same (or identical) iceberg. This is the sense in which a person is identical only to him- or herself and not to a twin or a clone. We are NOT simply asking whether one iceberg has the same properties (e.g., shape or weight) as the other. Please circle either “yes” or “no” for EACH of the following three questions: (a) Is the eastern-most iceberg the western-most iceberg? yesno (b) Is the eastern-most iceberg the original iceberg (Sample 94)?yesno (c) Is the western-most iceberg the original iceberg (Sample 94)?yesno

Before SplitAfter Split Three icebergs: 63% 13 24 East West Sample 94 One iceberg: East West Sample 94 Two icebergs: East West Sample 94

Justifications from One- and Two-Iceberg Subjects One Iceberg: Subject A: “…the icebergs are all the same and thus only one iceberg has existed.” Two Icebergs: Subject B: “…they are 2 separate entities included in one sample.”

Thanks to: Marianne Abouyared Rita Biagioli Rachel Bhagwat Annum Bhular Serge Blok Sanford Goldberg Doug Medin George Newman Eryka Nosal Samantha Thompson Sirisha Yadlapati Richard Yao