Presentation on theme: "School Leadership: A Lynchpin for Improving Instructional Outcomes Ronnie Detrich, Wing Institute: Chair Trina Spencer, Northern Arizona University: Discussant."— Presentation transcript:
School Leadership: A Lynchpin for Improving Instructional Outcomes Ronnie Detrich, Wing Institute: Chair Trina Spencer, Northern Arizona University: Discussant Jack States, Wing Institute Randy Keyworth, Wing Institute
A Behavioral Conceptualization of Leadership Ronnie Detrich Wing Institute
Acknowledgments Tim Slocum Andy Lattal Randy Keyworth Jack States
Why Do We Need a Behavioral Conceptualization of Leadership? Hundreds of books on leadership Most incorrectly focus on personal characteristics of leaders. “Leadership is a potent combination of strategy and character. But if you must be without one, be without the strategy.”- Norman Schwarzkopf Relatively few view leadership as a behavioral transaction. Exception: Aubrey Daniels The Measure of a Leader
Leadership Considered Function of Leaders: Occasion change Maintain and stabilize system
A Functional Perspective on Leadership There can be no leaders without followers. Obvious but more complex upon closer examination Frame of Leaders/Followers places emphasis on characteristics of each. Leadership is a construct. When is it invoked? Leadership made up of two classes of behavior : Leading Following
Leadership Considered Leading defined by two effects Following Effects on outcomes Followers but no outcomes is not leadership Outcomes without following is not leading. “Leadership is intentional influence.” Michael McKinney
Leadership Considered Leadership is a social relationship between two actors (leader & follower). Relationship maintained by exchange of reinforcers and punishers. Not defined by topography or nominal role of actors. “Leading from behind”
Interaction Between Leading and Following: Maintaining Contingencies
LeaderFollower SRSR SRSR Organizational Variables History Cultural Norms Hierarchies Cultural Norms Hierarchies Training Rules Values/Beliefs Training Rules Values/Beliefs Social milieu History Cultural Norms Hierarchies Cultural Norms Hierarchies Training Rules Values/Beliefs Training Rules Values/Beliefs Context Even though external variables have influence on leader and follower, leading is ultimately determined by the interaction between the leader and follower.
Leading S R+ S R- Following S R+ S R- Cooperation Coercion A ruler should be slow to punish and swift to reward. Ovid “You do not lead by hitting people over the head-that’s assault not leadership” Dwight D. Eisenhower S R+ S R-
Leading S R+ S R- Following S R+ S R- Cooperation Coercion
Cooperation vs Coercion Cooperation and Coercion produce very different effects. Cooperation=approach, continuous cycle of engagement, doing more. Coercion=escape/avoidance, counter-control, doing less. Leadership requires large majority of time engaged in cooperation.
Establishing Motivation Inspirational/Aspirational speakers-calls to action Appeals to values. JFK MLK, Jr. Nelson Mandella Geoffrey Canada-Harlem Children’s Zone-”whatever it takes.”
Establishing Motivation Leadership teams-Distributed Leadership Responsibility for solution is shared. Allows participants to “own” the problem/solution. Effective for getting agreement that a problem exists and framing solutions. If members of the team are credible then can function as local champions for solutions with peers. o Requires that someone assures that team remains solution focused. o May reduce resistance.
Specify Classes of Behavior Following is difficult if followers don’t know what to do. These are functional classes of behavior rather than topographical classes. Overly prescribing form narrows the range so that in many instances there is no “appropriate” response. The form of the behavior is not as important as the function. o Catch ’em being good. SWPBS is a good model for establishing broad classes of behavior. Be Safe Be Respectful Be Responsible
Create Context for Following Clear statement of vision and goals. Adequate training and coaching. Necessary resources available.
Establish Stimuli for Following Set the occasion for when following is to occur. Coaching Checklists Job Aids
Monitor and Reinforce Following Performance feedback systems. “Management by walking around” Allows for immediate reinforcement of following.
Analytical Leading Leading Behavior Present/Absent Increase MotivationYes No Specify classes of followingYes No Establish contextYes No Establish stimuli for followingYes No Monitor and reinforce followingYes No
Leadership Summarized To lead people, walk beside them... As for the best leaders, the people do not notice their existence. The next best, the people honor and praise. The next, the people fear; and the next, the people hate... When the best leader's work is done the people say, 'We did it ourselves!'” Lao Tzu
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