Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

X-Words They’re everywhere!. Communication… Good Communication… GC = SI.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "X-Words They’re everywhere!. Communication… Good Communication… GC = SI."— Presentation transcript:

1 X-Words They’re everywhere!

2 Communication…

3 Good Communication… GC = SI

4 Bad Communication… “What we got here is a failure to communicate!”

5 Communication Communication in English: Requires an idea worth sharing AND Share it in a way that makes sense to readers “Readers want our pages to look very much like pages they have seen before.” – Kurt Vonnegut

6 Barriers to Clear Writing

7 What can we do? X-word grammar is an attempt to address this problem. X-word grammar is a classroom application of sector analysis developed by linguist, Robert Allen.

8 Patterns vs. Rules It is not a prescriptive grammar, focusing on rules. It’s a descriptive grammar making observations about patterns of written English.

9 What is an X-word? An X-word is any word that can begin a Yes-No question in English.

10 Your list should look something like this… HAVE DO BE MODAL havedo am can could has does is shall should haddid are will would was ought to must were might may

11 Learn the X-Words

12 Lesser Significance of Main Verbs In combination with x-words, the main verb occurs in only 3 forms: base -ing 3 rd form (D-T-N) Akiko can speak Spanish. Akiko is speaking Spanish. Akiko has spoken Spanish for many years.

13 1.Commitment 2.Creativity 3.Flexibility 4.Humility 5.Listening 6.Motivation 7.Organization 8.Patience 9.Professionalism 10.Sensitivity A.Adult students’ needs are constantly changing B.Many students have worked all day. C.The budgets are tight. D.Students can focus better when routines are established. E.Most classes involve guided discussion. F.Teachers should allow “think time” for the students. G.Has your class been a priority in your life? H.She was teaching because she loved her job. I.Commitment is modeled by the teacher. J.A lesson doesn’t work out like we had planned. Find the X-words – Notice the Base

14 X-Words Combine with Main Verbs in Six Different Ways DO+Base(Simple) MODAL+Base(Modal) HAVE+3rd (DNT)(Perfect) BE+-ing(Progressive) BE+3rd (DNT)(Passive) BE+(nothing)(Descriptive)

15 Quick Review How many X-Words? How many families? How many main forms of the verb? How many basic patterns? Now…. How many jobs/uses of X-words?

16 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Akiko can speak Spanish. 2.Peter is teaching grammar. 3.They have worked hard all year. YES/NO QUESTIONS NEGATIVE STATEMENTS FIND THE SUBJECT ADD MEANING ADD TENSE/TIME SHORT ANSWERS TAG QUESTIONS

17 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Can Akiko speak Spanish? 2.Is Peter teaching grammar? 3.Have they worked hard all year?

18 Helpful Tool for Making Questions

19 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Akiko can speak Spanish. 2.Peter is teaching grammar. 3.They have worked hard all year. YES/NO QUESTIONS NEGATIVE STATEMENTS FIND THE SUBJECT ADD MEANING ADD TENSE/TIME SHORT ANSWERS TAG QUESTIONS

20 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Akiko can not speak Spanish. 2.Peter is not teaching grammar. 3.They have not worked hard all year.

21 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Akiko can speak Spanish. 2.Peter is teaching grammar. 3.They have worked hard all year. YES/NO QUESTIONS NEGATIVE STATEMENTS FIND THE SUBJECT ADD MEANING ADD TENSE/TIME SHORT ANSWERS TAG QUESTIONS

22 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Akiko can speak Spanish. 2.Peter is teaching grammar. 3.They have worked hard all year.

23 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.My friend Akiko can speak Spanish. 2.Peter’s grandfather is teaching grammar. 3.The men at this site have worked hard all year.

24 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.My friend Akiko can usually speak Spanish. 2.Peter’s grandfather is still teaching grammar. 3.The men at this site have never worked hard this year.

25 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Akiko can speak Spanish. 2.Peter is teaching grammar. 3.They have worked hard all year. YES/NO QUESTIONS NEGATIVE STATEMENTS FIND THE SUBJECT ADD MEANING ADD TENSE/TIME SHORT ANSWERS TAG QUESTIONS

26 Why are X-words significant for learners? Akiko can speak Spanish. Akiko might speak Spanish. Akiko may speak Spanish. Akiko should speak Spanish.

27 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Akiko can speak Spanish. 2.Peter is teaching grammar. 3.They have worked hard all year. YES/NO QUESTIONS NEGATIVE STATEMENTS FIND THE SUBJECT ADD MEANING ADD TENSE/TIME SHORT ANSWERS TAG QUESTIONS

28 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Akiko can speak Spanish. Akiko could speak Spanish. 2. Peter is teaching grammar. Peter was teaching grammar. 3. They have worked hard all year. They had worked hard all year.

29 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Can Akiko speak Spanish? 2.Is Peter teaching grammar? 3.Have they worked hard all year? YES/NO QUESTIONS NEGATIVE STATEMENTS FIND THE SUBJECT ADD MEANING ADD TENSE/TIME SHORT ANSWERS TAG QUESTIONS

30 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Can Akiko speak Spanish? Yes, she can. 2.Is Peter teaching grammar? No, he is not. 3.Have they worked hard all year? Yes, they have.

31 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Akiko can speak Spanish. 2.Peter is teaching grammar. 3.They have worked hard all year. YES/NO QUESTIONS NEGATIVE STATEMENTS FIND THE SUBJECT ADD MEANING ADD TENSE/TIME SHORT ANSWERS TAG QUESTIONS

32 Why are X-words significant for learners? 1.Akiko can speak Spanish, can’t she? 2.Peter is teaching grammar, isn’t he? 3.They have worked hard all year, haven’t they?

33 Which of the six basic patterns is it?

34 Group 1 1.My brother can ride a unicycle. 2.She should take a grammar class. 3.I would like to study Chinese. MODAL + baseModals

35 Group 2 1.She is reading Things Fall Apart. 2.He was trying to help. 3.I am telling the truth. BE + -ingProgressive

36 Group 3 1.She has lived in East Lansing for three years. 2.Few of us had heard of x-words before. 3.They have decided to sell their house. HAVE + 3 rd Perfect

37 Group 4 1.Two cars were stolen from the parking lot. 2.Our apartment was painted last week. 3.These shoes are made in the USA. BE + 3 rd Passive

38 Group 5 1.I love my monkey. 2.He speaks four languages. 3.She lived in Haiti for many years. DO + baseSimple

39 Group 6 1.She is a doctor. 2.He was absent. 3.We are happy. BE+ (nothing) Strong Be!

40 X-WORDS BASIC VERB PATTERNS MODAL + BaseModal HAVE + 3 rd FormPerfect BE + ingProgressive BE + 3 rd FormPassive DO + BaseSimple BE (+ nothing) Descriptive

41 How to Teach X-Words Make a set of visual tools to use whenever the need pops up. languageguide.org

42 Little by Little Teach One Family ▫Memorize Family Members ▫Practice Making Questions and Negatives  Use Manipulative Word Cards ▫Answer Yes/No Questions ▫Change the meaning or time Sing the List - Write the List Match the Verb Forms with the X-Words Make Negatives and Yes/No and Information ?

43 With a Small Reading Passage Find the X-Words in specified sentences Change these sentences to yes/no and negatives Box the subject Make an information question

44 (1)Montgomery is the capital of the US state of Alabama.Alabama (2)The 2010 census ranked Montgomery as the second-largest city in Alabama. (3)The city was incorporated in 1819, as a merger of two towns on the Alabama River. (4)Montgomery has been a major site of events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.African-American Civil Rights Movement (5)Many military personnel are living in Montgomery from Maxwell Air Force Base.militaryMaxwell Air Force Base (6)Visitors may wish to tour the Hyundai Motor Manufacturing plant.

45 With a Small Listening Passage Make a scrambled sentence from the script. Make a scrambled question from the script. Make it… ▫Negative ▫Yes/No Question and Answer It. ▫Information Question. ▫Tag Question Identify… ▫The X-wordThe Question Word ▫The X-Word’s jobThe Main Verb ▫The SubjectAny Hidden X-Words

46 Mathematical Combinations

47 They should have finished the repairs yesterday. MODAL+base HAVE+3 rd MODAL+have+3 rd Modal Perfect

48 You must be holding it wrong. MODAL+base BE+-ing MODAL+be+-ing Modal Progressive

49 It will be cleaned tomorrow. MODAL+base BE+3rd MODAL+be+3rd Modal Passive

50 She has been working overtime every night this week. HAVE+3 rd BE+-ing HAVE+been +-ing Perfect Progressive

51 All of your grades have been recorded. HAVE+3 rd BE+3 rd HAVE+been +3 rd Perfect Passive

52 Our class was being observed by two visitors. BE+-ing BE+3 rd BE+being +3 rd Progressive Passive

53 They may have been selling illegal drugs. MODAL+base HAVE+3 rd BE+-ing MODAL+have+been+-ing Modal Perfect Progressive

54 It should have been cooked longer. MODAL+base HAVE+3 rd BE+3rd MODAL+have+been+3rd Modal Perfect Passive

55 Thank you for coming! And thanks to the X-Word group at TESOL 2012 for sharing their resources. ▫(Peter Hoffman, Akiko Ota, Nadine Roya, and Carlee Salas) And thanks to the folks who developed the X- Word Wiki ▫Richard Abend and friends ▫Bonnie Hart and her Prezi on X-Word Grammar as well as many other documents


Download ppt "X-Words They’re everywhere!. Communication… Good Communication… GC = SI."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google