Presentation on theme: "Lesson #4: More on verbs Operators; negation; a slightly expanded definition of verb phrase; yes/no questions; the subject of the verb."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson #4: More on verbs Operators; negation; a slightly expanded definition of verb phrase; yes/no questions; the subject of the verb.
Negation Negation is an important process to understand. Any verb can be made negative. Examples: I am teaching. > I am not teaching. He is the President. > He is not the President. You will be given a ride. > You will not be given a ride. He likes long boat rides. > He does not like long boat rides.
Operators To understand how negation works, we first must understand operators.
Finding the Operator An operator is a part of a verb phrase. In a verb phrase with more than one verb (e.g. with an auxiliary) the operator is the first verb on the left. I can understand operators. In a verb phrase with just one lexical verb (and no auxiliaries), in which the lexical verb is formed with “be”, the operator is the lexical verb. Operators are part of the verb phrase. In a verb phrase with just one lexical verb formed with a verb other than “be,” there is no operator. The operator is formed by adding a form of “do.”
Examples of Operators All whales are mammals. (only a lexical verb,a form of BE) The whales are playing in the shallows. (a verb phrase with more than one verb) The whales have been playing for hours. (a verb phrase with more than one verb) Whales will suckle their young for years. (a verb phrase with more than one verb) The whales play in the sunlight. (only a lexical verb,not a form of BE >>>no operator)
The Basic Negative Rule English verb phrases are made negative by adding the word “not” AFTER the operator in the verb phrase. If there is no operator (as in the case of a single lexical verb that is not a form of BE), we have to create an operator using a form of “do.”
Negations with Operators The whale was swimming along. >> The whale was not swimming along. The whale is a blue whale.>> The whale is not a blue whale. The whale has fed its calf. >> The whale has not fed its calf.
Negation without Operators Whales mature slowly. 1.There is no operator because there is just a single lexical verb that is not a form of BE. 2.AN OPERATOR MUST BE CREATED. Create an operator by inserting a form of the verb “do” in front of the verb. The form of “do” must be the same person, number, and tense as the lexical verb. Example: Whales do mature slowly. 3.Check to be sure that the lexical verb is in the base form (since the person,number, tense are only carried on the first verb in the phrase) 4.Add the word “not” after the newly formed operator. Example: Whales do not mature slowly.
Before We Go On A student wrote: Christopher doesn’t gets jokes. There are many ways to mark this: Neg = problem with negative. Vb = problem with verb form. But as we have discussed -- just marking isn’t enough. Discuss with a partner: what does this student need to learn?
Another Grammar Error Another student wrote: The people don’t are happy with the ceasefire. What do you think has happened in this sentence? What does the student need to understand about the negative? How might you go about sorting this out?
Revising the Definition of Verb Phrase This is the definition we started with: A verb phrase is a group of words that consists of a lexical verb and all its auxiliaries if there are any. If there are any adverbs between the lexical verb and the auxiliaries, they are part of the verb phrase.
A revised definition A verb phrase is a group of words that consists of a lexical verb and all its auxiliaries if there are any. If there are any adverbs between the lexical verb and the auxiliaries, they are part of the verb phrase. Features of the negative are also part of the verb phrase. EXAMPLE: Whales are not fish.
More on Operators You can use an operator to find the subject of the verb. The subject can be found by making a yes/no question with an operator.
Yes/No Questions Yes/No Questions are questions that can be answered with either a “yes” or a “no.” Are whales mammals? Yes. Do you like whales? Yes. Are those whales playing? No.
Making a Yes/No Question Start with a clause: Whales are mammals. You like whales. Those whales are playing.
Move the operator before the subject. If there is no operator, make one using “do” (just as you did for negatives). Add a question mark. EXAMPLES: Are whales mammals? Do you like whales? Are those whales playing?
The Subject and the Yes/No Question The subject of the verb is the part of the clause that comes AFTER the operator and BEFORE the rest of the verb phrase in a question (if there is more verb phrase). Are whales mammals? Do you like whales? Are those whales playing?
An ESL Exercise Directions: Look at these samples of student writing. There are problems with s-v agreement, verb phrase structure AND question formation. Analyze these sentences to determine what the problems are. 1. Does he needs a car inspection? 2. Do your credit card have an expiration date? 3. Does you and your cousin wants lunch this Saturday? 4. Does you watch TV? 5. Does he wakes up early? 6. Does your parents live with you?