Exercise: Tactical grammar construction for generation Construct a systemic-functional grammar that can generate (at least) the following sentences: 1.John.

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Exercise: Tactical grammar construction for generation Construct a systemic-functional grammar that can generate (at least) the following sentences: 1.John saw Mary. 2.Did John see Mary? 3.Mary was seen by John. 4.The woman saw John. 5.The ball is green. 6.The woman saw the green ball. 7.The woman saw the ball that was green. Think of the semantics involved in each case, too.

Steps to a solution (1): constructing the network 1.Consider the linguistic functions of each clause 2.Consider the linguistic functions of each of the constituents of each clause 3.Consider which constituent-functions reoccur in different clauses 4.Consider in which orders and in which combinations the constituent-functions occur

Clause functions 1.John saw Mary. 2.Did John see Mary? 3.Mary was seen by John. 4.The woman saw John. 5.The ball is green. 6.The woman saw the green ball. 7.The woman saw the ball that was green. Statement Yes-no-question Statement

A first ‘decision point’ or grammatical system statement Yes-no-question

Constituent functions 1.[John] saw [Mary]. 3.[Mary] was seen [by [John]]. 4.[The woman] saw [John]. 5.[The ball] is [green]. 6.[The woman] saw [the green ball]. 7.[The woman] saw [the ball that was green]. Statement

Constituent functions 1.[John] saw [Mary]. 3.[Mary] was seen [by [John]]. 4.[The woman] saw [John]. 5.[The ball] is [green]. 6.[The woman] saw [the green ball]. 7.[The woman] saw [the ball that was green]. Statement

Constituent functions [John] saw [Mary]. [The woman] saw [John]. [The woman] saw [the green ball]. [The woman] saw [the ball that was green].

Constituent functions [John] saw [Mary]. [The woman] saw [John]. [The woman] saw [the green ball]. [The woman] saw [the ball that was green]. The one who senses something The entity of phenomenon sensed SenserPhenomenon

Constituent functions saw SenserPhenomenon [John] [Mary] Process [The woman] [John] [the green ball] [the ball that was green]

Constituent functions SenserPhenomenon Process +Senser +Process +Phenomenon Senser^Process Process^Phenomenon

Constituent functions saw SenserPhenomenon [John] [Mary] Process [The woman] [John] [the green ball] [the ball that was green]

Constituent functions ! saw Senser Phenomenon [John] [Mary] [the green ball] [the ball that was green] Process [The woman] NP / nominal groups

A first ‘decision point’ or grammatical system statement Yes-no-question +Senser +Process +Phenomenon

Constituent functions 1.[John] saw [Mary]. 3.[Mary] was seen [by [John]]. 4.[The woman] saw [John]. 5.[The ball] is [green]. 6.[The woman] saw [the green ball]. 7.[The woman] saw [the ball that was green]. Statement

Constituent functions 1.[John] saw [Mary]. 3.[Mary] was seen [by [John]]. 4.[The woman] saw [John]. 5.[The ball] is [green]. 6.[The woman] saw [the green ball]. 7.[The woman] saw [the ball that was green]. Statement

Constituent functions 5.[The ball] is [green]. ?? Process is

Constituent functions 5.[The ball] is [green]. ?? Process is The thing that carries some property The property that is attributed CarrierAttribute

Constituent functions ! is Carrier Attribute [green] Process [The ball] NP / nominal groupsAdjectival phrase / Adjective

A first ‘decision point’ or grammatical system statement Yes-no-question +Senser +Process +Phenomenon

A second ‘decision point’ or grammatical system statement Yes-no-question +Senser +Process +Phenomenon sensing attributing +Carrier +Process +Attribute

A second ‘decision point’ or grammatical system statement Yes-no-question +Senser +Phenomenon sensing attributing +Carrier +Attribute +Process

Constituent functions 3.[Mary] was seen [by [John]].

Constituent functions 3.[Mary] was seen [by [John]]. ?? Process was seen The entity of phenomenon sensed The one who senses something PhenomenonSenser

Grammatical proportionalities John saw the ball : The ball was seen by John :: The woman saw the boy : The boy was seen by the woman :: John saw Mary : Mary was seen by John :: [active clause] : [passive clause]

Grammatical proportionalities John saw the ball : The ball was seen by John :: The woman saw the boy : The boy was seen by the woman :: John saw Mary : Mary was seen by John :: [active clause] : [passive clause] Senser / Subject Process :: activeform Phenomenon / Subject Process :: passiveform

A third ‘decision point’ or grammatical system statement Yes-no-question +Senser +Phenomenon sensing attributing +Carrier +Attribute +Process

A third ‘decision point’ or grammatical system statement Yes-no-question +Senser +Phenomenon sensing attributing +Carrier +Attribute +Process passive active Senser / Subject Process :: activeform Phenomenon / Subject Process :: passiveform

A third ‘decision point’ or grammatical system statement Yes-no-question +Senser +Phenomenon sensing attributing +Carrier +Attribute +Process passive active Senser / Subject Process :: activeform Phenomenon / Subject Process :: passiveform Subject^Process Subject/Carrier

Clause functions 2.Did John see Mary? Yes-no-question

Clause functions 2.Did John see Mary? Yes-no-question Process Finite SenserPhenomenon Subject Senser / Subject Process :: activeform Finite^Subject

A third ‘decision point’ or grammatical system statement Yes-no-question +Senser +Phenomenon sensing attributing +Carrier +Attribute +Process passive active Senser / Subject Process :: activeform Phenomenon / Subject Process :: passiveform Subject^Process Subject/Carrier +Subject

A third ‘decision point’ or grammatical system statement Yes-no-question +Senser +Phenomenon sensing attributing +Carrier +Attribute +Process passive active Senser / Subject Process :: activeform Phenomenon / Subject Process :: passiveform Subject^Finite Subject/Carrier Finite^Subject +Subject

One “micro-grammar” for the exercise clauses: version 1 statement Yes-no-question +Senser +Phenomenon sensing attributing +Carrier +Attribute +Subject +Process +Finite passive active Senser / Subject Process :: activeform Phenomenon / Subject Process :: passiveform Subject^Finite Finite/Process Subject/Carrier Finite^Subject

One “micro-grammar” for the exercise clauses: version 2 statement Yes-no-question +Senser +Phenomenon sensing attributing +Carrier +Attribute +Subject +Process +Finite passive active Senser / Subject Process :: activeform Phenomenon / Subject Process :: passiveform Subject^Finite Finite/Process Subject/Carrier Finite^Subject

NP or nominal group functions [John] [Mary] [The woman] [the green ball] [the ball that was green] ? [the ball]

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