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Ergonomics Part 1 Introduction to Ergonomics. December 2000APWU Safety & Health 2 What is Ergonomics? The study of Work. The science of designing the.

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Presentation on theme: "Ergonomics Part 1 Introduction to Ergonomics. December 2000APWU Safety & Health 2 What is Ergonomics? The study of Work. The science of designing the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ergonomics Part 1 Introduction to Ergonomics

2 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 2 What is Ergonomics? The study of Work. The science of designing the job to fit the worker vs forcing the worker to fit the job. Adapting tasks, work stations, tools and equipment to the worker.

3 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 3 Why is ergonomics important? Dramatic increase of reported MSD’s. Poor machine design. Increased task requirements. Increased work hours. Increases in production. Specialized work tasks. Repetition of Work tasks.

4 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 4 What are MSD’s? Musculoskeletal disorders – injuries and disorders of the soft tissues and nervous system. Muscles Joints Tendons Ligaments Cartilage

5 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 5 MSD’s CTD – Cumulative Trauma Disorder RSI – Repetitive Stress Injuries Occupational Overexertion Syndrome

6 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 6 What diseases are found ? Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) Tendonitis or tenosynovitis Sciatica Herniated discs Back pain DeQuervain’s disease Trigger finger

7 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 7 Common causes of work-related MSD’s Excessive force during exertion Excessive repetition Awkward postures Static postures Quick motions Compression or contact stress Inadequate recovery times

8 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 8 Common causes of work-related MSD’s Excessive vibration Whole-body vibration Working in cold temperatures

9 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 9 Key body parts effected Shoulders Back Arms & Hands Elbows Wrists Neck legs

10 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 10 High risk work tasks Manual Lifting Manufacturing and production Heavy Lifting Twisting movements Long hours Awkward positions

11 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 11 Signs and Symptoms of MSD’s Numbness in fingers Numbness in thighs Difficulty moving fingers Stiff joints Pain in joints and tendons Back pain Pain associated with specific movements

12 Ergonomics Part II OSHA’s Ergonomics Standard

13 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 13 OSHA’s Ergonomic Standard 29 CFR 1910.900 Subpart W – Program Standard December 2000

14 APWU Safety & Health 14 OSHA Ergonomics Chronology Click on the Picture

15 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 15 Key Elements Basic Worker Information Injury Trigger Job Hazard Analysis and Control Grandfather clause Covers all General Industry Workers Quick Fix Option Medical Management and Work Protection Provisions Training Workers & Supervisors Program Evaluation Recordkeeping

16 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 16 Basic Worker Information Employers are required to provide ALL workers with basic information on MSD’s, including: Signs and Symptoms Importance of early reporting How to report MSD’s Risk factors Summary of the Ergonomic standard

17 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 17 Action Triggers Employers must take further action when an MSD is reported or when signs or symptoms are reported. Determine if work-related Do MSD job-risk-factors meet Action Trigger Exposure to risk factors (repetition, force, frequency)

18 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 18 Required Actions Implement management leadership and employee participation provisions Provide MSD management to injured workers Analyze job to determine if MSD hazards are present Control MSD hazards Provide training to workers

19 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 19 Required Actions - Continued Employers must ensure they have no policies or practices that discourage workers form reporting MSD’s or their signs or symptoms or from participating in the ergonomics program.

20 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 20 Job Hazard Analysis and Control Must be conducted when an MSD exposure to risk factors meet Action Trigger. Includes problem job and similar jobs If hazards/risks are identified - Hazards must be controlled by: Reducing the exposure Reducing the hazard

21 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 21 Job Hazard Analysis and Control Controls Engineering Work practices Administrative measures PPE (must be provided at no cost to the employees)

22 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 22 Grandfather Clause Employer must have an ongoing ergonomics program that meets the requirements set forth in the standard.

23 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 23 Coverage General Industry

24 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 24 Quick Fix Option May be used in place of setting up a full ergonomics program Only if no more than one incident/job or two incidents/workplace within 18 months

25 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 25 Medical Management Provide prompt medical management Access to health care Work restrictions Temporary removal from work Work Restriction Protection WRP Temp. Restriction – 100% pay/90 days Temp. Removal – 90% pay/90 days 2 nd /3 rd Opinions

26 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 26 Training for Workers & Supervisors Initial training Follow-up –every 3 years

27 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 27 Training cont. Must cover Requirements of Standards Employer’s Ergonomic Program Worker’s Role in Program MSD Signs and Symptoms Risk Factors MSD hazards in employee’s jobs

28 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 28 Training cont. Control Measures The plan Timetables for addressing identified MSD hazards

29 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 29 Evaluation of Program Effectiveness Employer’s must evaluate at least Every three years Effectiveness at identifying and reducing MSD hazards * Employees and their representatives must be consulted in the evaluation process

30 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 30 Record Keeping Employer’s must maintain records of: Reported MSD’s MSD Signs and Symptoms and hazards Response to such reports Job Hazard evaluations Hazard control measures Program evaluations Medical management records

31 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 31 Record Keeping cont. Records must be provided to employees and their representatives upon request. Records must be maintained for 3 years or until replaced by updated records. Health care records must be maintained for employment plus 3 years

32 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 32 Compliance Dates Effective 60 days after publication 11month after publication – Information to employees

33 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 33 Compliance Dates – cont. 12 months after publication – Must respond to reports of MSD incidents: 7 days- Action Triggers 7 days – MSD Management If the job meets Action Trigger 30 days- Management Leadership/Employee Participation

34 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 34 Compliance Dates – cont. 45 days – Train on Program Setup 60 days – Job Hazard Analysis 90 days – Implement Initial Controls 90 days – Train current Employees 2 years – Implement Permanent Controls (except that initial compliance – 4years plus 60 days) 3 years – Program Evaluation

35 Ergonomics Part III Elements of Ergonomics Programs

36 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 36 Ergonomic Programs Key Elements Looking for signs of MSD’s Developing Action Plans Training – Building In-house Expertise Data Collection & Evaluation Developing Controls Health Care Management Program Evaluation Developing a proactive program

37 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 37 Looking for signs of MSD’s Recognizing signs of a problem OSHA 200 Logs Worker complaints (signs & symptoms) Medical indications Types of job tasks Industry notices and job comparisons Changes in production goals

38 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 38 Determining a level of effort Full scale Task specific

39 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 39 Setting the stage for action Ergonomic as part of S&H Reactive vs Proactive Cost Effectiveness Management Commitment Must be a Company goal Expect full cooperation Assign lead roles

40 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 40 Management Commitment –cont. Give ergonomics equal priority with: Cost reduction Productivity Quality assurance Work with and involve local unions Resource commitment Communication in both directions Management evaluation of the program

41 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 41 Union and Worker Involvement Promotes safety and health Have a better understanding of the job tasks Adds problem solving capabilities Ownership Greater acceptance of changes Improves job satisfaction

42 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 42 Training – Building In-house Expertise Ergonomic Awareness Training Recognizing risk factors Signs and symptoms Complete understanding of the program Controls Employee roles Reporting Task at risk

43 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 43 Training in job analysis & controls Develop skill and expertise Consultants Labor and management

44 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 44 Data collection & evaluation Health and medical indicators Worker reports OSHA logs and other records Symptoms surveys Medical exams Identify risk factors by job Screen all jobs/tasks Perform hazard analysis Set priorities

45 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 45 Job hazard analysis – risk factors Awkward Posture Bending or twisting while lifting Repeated or stained bending or twisting of wrists, knees, hips, or shoulders Frequent or prolonged work above the shoulders

46 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 46 Job hazard analysis – risk factors Forceful exertions (lifting, pushing, pulling) Increased weight of loads Bulkiness Awkward posture Speeding up movement Vibration Pinching grip Undersized tools

47 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 47 Job hazard analysis – risk factors Repetitive motion Duration Contact stress Vibration Cold temperatures Insufficient recovery times Machine pace Unfamiliar work tasks

48 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 48 Job hazard analysis – risk factors Other related factors Performance monitoring Incentive pay Lack of employee control to determine injury Safety incentive programs

49 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 49 Methods of conducting a Job hazard analysis Walkthrough observation survey Worker and supervisor interviews Records review Scoring jobs using risk factors checklists

50 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 50 Performing a job hazard analysis Break the job into elements/actions/tasks Detailed description Measure & Quantify risk factors Photograph/video tasks Identify contributing conditions Environment Noise Etc.

51 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 51 Performing a job hazard analysis Key evaluation factors Tools, equipment & materials used Workstation/area layout Task demands Organization of work - climate

52 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 52 Developing controls Types of controls Engineering Administrative Personal equipment (PPE)

53 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 53 Performing a job hazard analysis Implementing controls Tests and trials of selected solutions Modification to selected solutions Full-scale implementation Evaluating controls effectiveness Reduction in incidence rate Reduction in severity Increase in productivity Reduction in complaints Reduction in turnover & absenteeism

54 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 54 Setting Priorities Cases of MSD’s Signs & Symptoms Significant risk factors

55 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 55 Developing Controls Types of Controls Engineering Administrative Personal Equipment Implementing Controls Evaluating Control Effectiveness

56 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 56 Types of Controls Engineering Preferred approach Workstation layout Selection and use of tools Work methods

57 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 57 Administrative controls Work practices and policies Changes in job rules and procedures Scheduling More rest breaks Rotating workers and adjusting work pace Training workers to recognize risk factors Training on techniques for reducing stresses and strains Usually considered as temporary

58 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 58 Personal Equipment Wrist supports, back belts, vibration attenuation gloves NIOSH – insufficient evidence to determine is helpful Must be evaluated to insure they don’t create a hazard

59 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 59 Implementing Controls Sources Trade Associations Insurance companies Consultants Visits to other sites Training courses Input for workers

60 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 60 Implementing Controls Process Trials and tests of selected solutions Modify or revise tested solutions Full-scale implementation Follow up and evaluation of effectiveness of controls

61 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 61 Evaluating Controls Effectiveness Use the same risk factors checklist Re-do job hazard analysis May include a symptoms survey Short term - 1-2 weeks after implementations of solutions If hazards are not substantially reduced or eliminate re-start problem solving process

62 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 62 Evaluating Control Effectiveness Long term evaluations are necessary Indicators of and effective program include: Reduction in the incidence rate of MSD’s Reduction in the severity rate of MSD’s Increase in productivity or quality Reduction in job turnover or absenteeism

63 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 63 Health Care Management Employer responsibilities Employee responsibilities Health care providers responsibilities Issues Job familiarity and job placement evaluation Early reporting and access to health care providers Treatment

64 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 64 Employer Responsibilities Providing education and training Recognition of signs and symptoms Reporting procedures Encourage early reporting and prompt evaluation Give health care providers opportunity to become familiar with jobs and tasks Modifying job, accommodating employees Employee privacy and confidentially of medical records

65 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 65 Employee Responsibilities Following applicable workplace safety & health rules Following work practices procedures Reporting early signs of MSD’s

66 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 66 Health care providers responsibilities Acquire experience and training Understand employees job Maintain medical privacy Evaluate symptoms Medical history Describe work activities Physical examination Initial assessment Offer an opinion of cause Follow up

67 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 67 Proactive Ergonomics Proactive vs reactive Design phase Avoid risk factors Preplanning of tool and equipment selection to fit job to worker Workstation layout Job design Materials selection

68 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 68 Essential considerations Identify and resolve ergonomic problems in the planning process Design strategies emphasizing fitting the job to the worker Re-evaluate the program regularly Provide regular training Continually fine tune the program

69 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 69 Workstation Checklist "No" responses indicate potential problem areas which should receive further investigation. 1. Does the work space allow for full range of movement? [ ]yes [ ]no 2. Are mechanical aids and equipment available? [ ]yes [ ]no 3. Is the height of the work surface adjustable? [ ]yes [ ]no 4. Can the work surface be tilted or angled? [ ]yes [ ]no 5. Is the workstation designed to reduce or eliminate bending or twisting at the wrist? [ ]yes [ ]no reaching above the shoulder? [ ]yes [ ]no static muscle loading? [ ]yes [ ]no full extension of the arms? [ ]yes [ ]no raised elbows? [ ]yes [ ]no 6. Are the workers able to vary posture? [ ]yes [ ]no 7. Are the hands and arms free from sharp edges on work surfaces? [ ]yes [ ]no 8. Is an armrest provided where needed?[ ]yes [ ]no 9. Is a footrest provided where needed? [ ]yes [ ]no 10. Is the floor surface free of obstacles and flat? [ ]yes [ ]no 11. Are cushioned floor mats provided for employees required to stand for long periods? [ ]yes [ ]no 12. Are chairs or stools easily adjustable and suited to the task?[ ]yes [ ]no 13. Are all task elements visible from comfortable positions?[ ]yes [ ]no 14. Is there a preventive maintenance program for mechanical aids, tools, and other equipment? [ ]yes [ ]no

70 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 70 Task Analysis Checklist "No" responses indicate potential problem areas which should receive further investigation. 1. Does the design of the primary task reduce or eliminate bending or twisting of the back or trunk? [ ]yes [ ]no crouching?[ ]yes [ ]no bending or twisting the wrist? [ ]yes [ ]no extending the arms? [ ]yes [ ]no raised elbows? [ ]yes [ ]no static muscle loading? [ ]yes [ ]no clothes wringing motions? [ ]yes [ ]no finger pinch grip? [ ]yes [ ]no 2. Are mechanical devices used when necessary? [ ]yes [ ]no 3. Can the task be done with either hand? [ ]yes [ ]no 4. Can the task be done with two hands? [ ]yes [ ]no 5. Are pushing or pulling forces kept minimal? [ ]yes [ ]no 6. Are required forces judged acceptable by the workers? [ ]yes [ ]no 7. Are the materials able to be held without slipping? [ ]yes [ ]no easy to grasp? [ ]yes [ ]no free from sharp edges and corners? [ ]yes [ ]no 8. Do containers have good handholds? [ ]yes [ ]no 9. Are jigs, fixtures, and vises used where needed? [ ]yes [ ]no 10. As needed, do gloves fit properly and are they made of the proper fabric? [ ]yes [ ]no

71 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 71 Task Analysis Checklist – cont. 11. Does the worker avoid contact with sharp edges when performing the task? [ ]yes [ ]no 12. When needed, are push buttons designed properly? [ ]yes [ ]no 13. Do the job tasks allow for ready use of personal equipment that may be required? [ ]yes [ ]no 14. Are high rates of repetitive motion avoided by Job rotation? [ ]yes [ ]no self-pacing? [ ]yes [ ]no sufficient pauses? [ ]yes [ ]no adjusting the job skill level of the worker? [ ]yes [ ]no 15. Is the employee trained in proper work practices? [ ]yes [ ]no when and how to make adjustments? [ ]yes [ ]no recognizing signs and symptoms of potential problems? [ ]yes [ ]no

72 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 72 Handtool Analysis Checklist "No" responses indicate potential problem areas which should receive further investigation. 1. Are tools selected to limit or minimize exposure to excessive vibration? [ ]yes [ ]no use of excessive force? [ ]yes [ ]no bending or twisting the wrist? [ ]yes [ ]no finger pinch grip? [ ]yes [ ]no problems associated with trigger finger? [ ]yes [ ]no 2. Are tools powered where necessary and feasible? [ ]yes [ ]no 3. Are tools evenly balanced? [ ]yes [ ]no 4. Are heavy tools suspended or counterbalanced in ways to facilitate use? [ ]yes [ ]no 5. Does the tool allow adequate visibility of the work? [ ]yes [ ]no 6. Does the tool grip/handle prevent slipping during use? [ ]yes [ ]no 7. Are tools equipped with handles of textured, non-conductive material? [ ]yes [ ]no 8. Are different handle sizes available to fit a wide range of hand sizes? [ ]yes [ ]no 9. Is the tool handle designed not to dig into the palm of the hand? [ ]yes [ ]no 10. Can the tool be used safely with gloves? [ ]yes [ ]no 11. Can the tool be used by either hand? [ ]yes [ ]no 12. Is there a preventive maintenance program to keep tools operating as designed? [ ]yes [ ]no 13. Have employees been trained [ ]yes [ ]no in the proper use of tools? [ ]yes [ ]no when and how to report problems with tools? [ ]yes [ ]no in proper tool maintenance? [ ]yes [ ]no

73 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 73 Materials Handling Checklist "No" responses indicate potential problem areas which should receive further investigation. 1. Are the weights of loads to be lifted judged acceptable by the workforce? [ ]yes [ ]no 2. Are materials moved over minimum distances? [ ]yes [ ]no 3. Is the distance between the object load and the body minimized? [ ]yes [ ]no 4. Are walking surfaces level? [ ]yes [ ]no wide enough? [ ]yes [ ]no clean and dry? [ ]yes [ ]no 5. Are objects easy to grasp? [ ]yes [ ]no stable? [ ]yes [ ]no able to be held without slipping? [ ]yes [ ]no 6. Are there handholds on these objects? [ ]yes [ ]no 7. When required, do gloves fit properly? [ ]yes [ ]no 8. Is the proper footwear worn? [ ]yes [ ]no 9. Is there enough room to maneuver? [ ]yes [ ]no 10. Are mechanical aids used whenever possible? [ ]yes [ ]no

74 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 74 Materials Handling Checklist – cont. 11. Are working surfaces adjustable to the best handling heights? [ ]yes [ ]no 12. Does material handling avoid [ ]yes [ ]no movements below knuckle height and above shoulder height? [ ]yes [ ]no static muscle loading? [ ]yes [ ]no sudden movements during handling? [ ]yes [ ]no twisting at the waist?[ ]yes [ ]no extended reaching? [ ]yes [ ]no 13. Is help available for heavy or awkward lifts? [ ]yes [ ]no 14. Are high rates of repetition avoided by job rotation? [ ]yes [ ]no self-pacing? [ ]yes [ ]no sufficient pauses? [ ]yes [ ]no 15. Are pushing or pulling forces reduced or eliminated? [ ]yes [ ]no 16. Does the employee have an unobstructed view of handling the task? [ ]yes [ ]no 17. Is there a preventive maintenance program for equipment?[ ]yes [ ]no 18. Are workers trained in correct handling and lifting procedures? [ ]yes [ ]no

75 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 75 Computer Workstation Checklist "No" responses indicate potential problem areas which should receive further investigation. 1. Does the workstation ensure proper worker posture, such as horizontal thighs? [ ]yes [ ]no vertical lower legs? [ ]yes [ ]no feet flat on floor or footrest? [ ]yes [ ]no neutral wrists? [ ]yes [ ]no 2. Does the chair adjust easily? [ ]yes [ ]no have a padded seat with a rounded front? [ ]yes [ ]no have an adjustable backrest? [ ]yes [ ]no provide lumbar support? [ ]yes [ ]no have casters? [ ]yes [ ]no 3. Are the height and tilt of the work surface on which the keyboard is located adjustable? [ ]yes [ ]no 4. Is the keyboard detachable? [ ]yes [ ]no 5. Do keying actions require minimal force? [ ]yes [ ]no 6. Is there an adjustable document holder? [ ]yes [ ]no 7. Are arm rests provided where needed? [ ]yes [ ]no 8. Are glare and reflections avoided? [ ]yes [ ]no 9. Does the monitor have brightness and contrast controls? [ ]yes [ ]no

76 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 76 Computer Workstation Checklist – cont. 10. Do the operators judge the distance between eyes and work to be satisfactory for their viewing needs? [ ]yes [ ]no 11. Is there sufficient space for knees and feet? [ ]yes [ ]no 12. Can the workstation be used for either right- or left-handed activity? [ ]yes [ ]no 13. Are adequate rest breaks provided for task demands? [ ]yes [ ]no 14. Are high stroke rates avoided by job rotation? [ ]yes [ ]no self-pacing? [ ]yes [ ]no adjusting the job to the skill of the worker? [ ]yes [ ]no 15. Are employees trained in proper postures? [ ]yes [ ]no proper work methods? [ ]yes [ ]no when and how to adjust their workstations? [ ]yes [ ]no how to seek assistance for their concerns? [ ]yes [ ]no

77 Exercise 1 Program Outline

78 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 78 Program Outline The purpose of this exercise is to develop a program outline for your facility. The outline should be bullet points. Define areas that you feel are most important in any Safety & Health Program. Outline a time table of when specific events should happen. How will you resolve conflicts or disagreements of what to include in the program.

79 Exercise 2 Ergonomics Committee Duties

80 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 80 Ergonomics Committee Duties List the duties of the Ergonomics Committee. How will conflicts be resolved? What method and how often will follow up be conducted? When should the committee get involved in an ergonomics program? What authority and responsibilities should the committee have?

81 Exercise 3 Work area and job task evaluations

82 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 82 Work area and task evalustion As a group and using the methods outlined in this presentation, and the forms provided, evaluate a work area or job task in your facility. Develop a corrective actions plan. Present your evaluation to the group

83 Exercise 4 Review of evaluation and corrective action plans

84 December 2000APWU Safety & Health 84 Group review Each group presents their evaluation and corrective action plan. The other groups will act as the ergonomics committee. Evaluate the data and actions Ask additional questions Final action recommendation

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