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Jan., 2006, John A. Crain, Ed.D. 1 S.P.O.T. A Leader Days 3-4: Instruction S ystemic P ursuit O ptimizing T eaching in Texas.

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Presentation on theme: "Jan., 2006, John A. Crain, Ed.D. 1 S.P.O.T. A Leader Days 3-4: Instruction S ystemic P ursuit O ptimizing T eaching in Texas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jan., 2006, John A. Crain, Ed.D. 1 S.P.O.T. A Leader Days 3-4: Instruction S ystemic P ursuit O ptimizing T eaching in Texas

2 2 Guiding Questions What are the underlying assumptions regarding the Lesson Cycle and models of instruction based upon it? What are the differences between inductive and deductive instructional models? What is the significance of the shapes and symbols used in the Lesson Cycle Models? What are the essential elements of instruction for each lesson cycle component? How does PDAS language describe critical elements of lesson cycles? How do lesson cycles reflect the best research on teaching and learning?

3 3 The Origins of Lesson Cycles The “Lesson Cycles” for this training had their genesis in the work of Dr. Madeline Hunter. In 1985, Dr. Hunter’s work was developed into the “Original Lesson Cycle” by Dr. Jim Boyd (Dean of Education at Tarleton State University and later president of Weatherford College) and a team that developed the original Instructional Leadership Training. Educators in Texas will be forever be indebted to Dr. Boyd for his vision and pioneering work. In 1989, Dr. Boyd’s work was extended by creating other instructional models— inquiry, cooperative, and laboratory lesson cycles. The group that created these lesson cycles included: Dr. Jennifer Anderson, Mesquite ISD Karen Anderson, Mesquite ISD Dr. John A. Crain, University of Dallas Katherine Kee, Carrollton-Farmers Branch ISD Dr. Sandi Maddox, Region X Education Service Center, Richardson Dr. Lynn Mefford, Region X Education Service Center, Richardson Ron Simpson, Region X Education Service Center, Richardson In 1990, with the encouragement of Dr. Denist Harrison at Texas Education Agency, the work of this team was adopted by TEA and offered as optional extension of instructional leadership training.

4 Jan., 2006, John A. Crain, Ed.D. 4 ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT THE INSRUCTIONAL MODELS Learning occurs most efficiently and effectively when the learning experience is structured. The models (visually depicted as Lesson Cycles) do not necessarily occur in a single instructional period. Other instructional/educational related activities may occur in an Instructional period which are not reflected in a Lesson Cycle. The shapes, forms, and lines (symbols) on a Lesson Cycle diagram have interpretive meaning. Each model of instruction is represented as a decision-making model

5 5 The Symbols Have Meaning Planning Instruction Frequency may vary with need Placement may vary with need Options Corrective Teaching, as required Extension, as needed Processes Decision Points (Yes/No) Bold Line: Primary Cycle Light Line: Optional Loops

6 Jan., 2006, John A. Crain, Ed.D. 6 Guiding Questions What are the similarities and differences between the original “Lesson Cycle” with the Direct Teaching Model? What are the Critical Attributes of the Direct Teaching Model of the Lesson Cycle?

7 7 MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING LESSON CYCLE CURRICULUM State Objective Focus Plan Lesson Explanation Check Understanding Monitoring and Adjusting Independent Practice Assess Mastery Guided Practice Check Mastery Next Objectiv e Closure Extensio n Ye s Correctio n (Reteach) Task Analys is No PLANNINGTEACHING

8 8 LESSON CYCLE Direct Teaching *Deductive Process (Cognitive, Affective & Psychomotor Objectives? PLANNING INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY TEACHING AND LEARNING Curriculum Plan Student Teacher Behaviors/ Outcomes Why? How? Task Analysis Content, Vocabulary, Level of Difficulty, & Critical Attributes What? Focus Explanation *Students Acquire The Database Check for Understanding Application/ Processing Initiated Corrective Teaching (Reteach) Guided Practice/ Application/ Processing Check Mastery Monitoring and Adjusting Closure Assess Mastery Independent Practice/Application Processing Extension Individual/ Group Application/ Processing Closure Planning Instruction * Frequency may vary with need * Placement may vary with need Decision Points (Yes/No) Processes Options * Corrective Teaching, as required * Extension, as needed TO-LL-13 Select Objective(s) A MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING

9 9 CURRICULUM DECISIONS SELECTION OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES DIAMONDS: MAJOR DECISION POINT

10 10 TRIANGLES: INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING Student Behaviors/ Outcomes Why? Teacher & Student Behaviors/ Strategies How? Cognitive/Psychomotor: Knowledge and Skills Affective: Attitudes/Values What? Performance Standards Content Standards Instruction

11 11 CIRCLES: INSTRUCTIONAL OPTIONS CORRECTIVE TEACHING (Reteach) EXTENSION(s)

12 12 OCATAGON: INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESSES MONITORING AND ADJUSTING Not a “step”—a process.

13 13 BROKEN LINE RECTANGLES: VARIABLE INSTRUCTIONAL STEPS CLOSURE Placement and Frequency may vary.

14 14 DIAMOND : MAJOR DECISION POINTS “Yes/No” DECISIONS

15 15 LINES: Cycles and Loops “Yes/No” DECISIONS BOLD LINE: Primary Cycle LIGHT LINE: Optional Loops

16 Jan., 2006, John A. Crain, Ed.D. 16 Check for Understanding LESSON CYCLE A MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING DIRECT TEACHING *Deductive Process (Cognitive, Affective & Psychomotor Objectives? PLANNING INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY TEACHING AND LEARNING

17 17 LESSON CYCLE Inquiry/Discovery Learning *Inductive Process (Higher Cognitive & Affective Objectives? PLANNING INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY TEACHING AND LEARNING Curriculum Plan Student Teacher Behaviors/ Outcomes Why? How? Task Analysis Content, Vocabulary, Level of Difficulty, & Critical Attributes What? Focus Structure Inquiry/ Discovery Experience Check for Understanding Application/ Processing Initiated Corrective Teaching (Reteach) Guided Practice/ Application/ Processing Check Mastery Monitoring and Adjusting Closure Group Accountability Assess Mastery Assess Mastery Independent Practice/Application Processing Extension Individual/ Group Application/ Processing Closure Planning Instruction * Frequency may vary with need * Placement may vary with need Decision Points (Yes/No) Processes Options * Corrective Teaching, as required * Extension, as needed TO-LL-13 Select Objective(s) A MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING *Students Acquire The Database Explanation

18 18 LESSON CYCLE Cooperative Learning *Deductive Process (Cognitive, Affective & Psychomotor Objectives? PLANNING INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY TEACHING AND LEARNING Curriculum Plan Student Teacher Behaviors/ Outcomes Why? How? Task Analysis Content, Vocabulary, Level of Difficulty, & Critical Attributes What? Focus Teacher Explanation/ Modeling of the Database Check for Understanding Structure Task and the Interdependence Check for Understanding Corrective Teaching (Reteach) Cooperative Practice/Application/ Processing Check Mastery Monitoring and Adjusting Closure Group Accountability Assess Mastery Assess Mastery Individual Accountability Extension Individual/ Group Application/ Processing Closure Planning Instruction * Frequency may vary with need * Placement may vary with need Decision Points (Yes/No) Processes Options * Corrective Teaching, as required * Extension, as needed * Group Accountability, as needed TO-LL-12 Select Objective(s) A MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING Group Process Closure Explanation

19 19 TO-CL-10 LESSON CYCLE Cooperative Learning *Inductive Process (Cognitive, Affective & Psychomotor Objectives? PLANNING INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY TEACHING AND LEARNING Curriculum Plan Student Teacher Behaviors/ Outcomes Why? How? Task Analysis Content, Vocabulary, Level of Difficulty, & Critical Attributes What? Focus Structure Task and the Interdependence Check for Understanding *Students Cooperatively Acquire the Database Check for Understanding Practice/Application/ Processing Initiated Corrective Teaching (Reteach) Cooperative Practice/ Application/ Processing Check Mastery Monitoring and Adjusting Closure Group Accountability Assess Mastery Assess Mastery Individual Accountability Extension Individual/ Group Application/ Processing Closure Planning Instruction * Frequency may vary with need * Placement may vary with need Decision Points (Yes/No) Processes Options * Corrective Teaching, as required * Extension, as needed TO-LL-13 Select Objective(s) A MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING Group Process Closure Explanation

20 20 LESSON CYCLE Laboratory Learning *Deductive Process (Cognitive, Affective & Psychomotor Objectives? PLANNING INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY TEACHING AND LEARNING Curriculum Plan Student Teacher Behaviors/ Outcomes Why? How? Task Analysis Content, Vocabulary, Level of Difficulty, & Critical Attributes What? Focus Teacher Explanation/ Modeling of the Database Check for Understanding Structure Laboratory Task/Experience Check for Understanding Corrective Teaching (Reteach) Guided Practice/ Application/ Processing Manipulation of Database Check Mastery Monitoring and Adjusting Closure Group Accountability Assess Mastery Assess Mastery Individual Accountability Extension Individual/ Group Application/ Processing Closure Planning Instruction * Frequency may vary with need * Placement may vary with need Decision Points (Yes/No) Processes Options * Corrective Teaching, as required * Extension, as needed * Group Accountability, as needed TO-LL-11 Select Objective(s) A MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING

21 21 LESSON CYCLE Laboratory Learning *Inductive Process (Cognitive, Affective & Psychomotor Objectives? PLANNING INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY TEACHING AND LEARNING Curriculum Plan Student Teacher Behaviors/ Outcomes Why? How? Task Analysis Content, Vocabulary, Level of Difficulty, & Critical Attributes What? Focus Structure Laboratory Task/ Experience Check for Understanding *Students Acquire The Database Check for Understanding Application/ Processing Initiated Corrective Teaching (Reteach) Guided Practice/ Application/ Processing Manipulation of Database Check Mastery Monitoring and Adjusting Closure Group Accountability Assess Mastery Assess Mastery Individual Accountability Extension Individual/ Group Application/ Processing Closure Planning Instruction * Frequency may vary with need * Placement may vary with need Decision Points (Yes/No) Processes Options * Corrective Teaching, as required * Extension, as needed * Group Accountability, as needed TO-LL-13 Select Objective(s) A MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING Explanation


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