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Einojuhani Rautavaara Kalevala trilogy Vesa Matteo Piludu, 2011 Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Arts Musicology University of Helsinki.

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Presentation on theme: "Einojuhani Rautavaara Kalevala trilogy Vesa Matteo Piludu, 2011 Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Arts Musicology University of Helsinki."— Presentation transcript:

1 Einojuhani Rautavaara Kalevala trilogy Vesa Matteo Piludu, 2011 Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Arts Musicology University of Helsinki

2 Einojuhani Rautavaara

3 Einojuhani Rautavaara: Mystic Kalevala Shamanic or mystic interpretation No more nationalism Rautavaara considered the Kalevala as an ancestral epos Otherness, not rational The musical narration is not linear Kalevala Opera Trilogy

4 Einojuhani Rautavaara Marjatta, matala neiti (1977) – Marjatta Lowly Maiden Finnish mystery – Medieval Opera in one act for high voices Narrator Female soloist Children choir Chamber orchestra Percussions, string quartet The flute has a soloist role Based on the last Runo of Kalevala n. 50 Contrast between old and new: Jesus the Child and Väinämöinen CD: Kalevala Sävelissä CD: Tapiola Choir, Water Under Snow is Sweary

5 Marjatta: i contenuti Marjatta = Maria = Mary Maiden that wasn’t interested in marriage Become pregnant by miracle This time it was a berry, not the Holy Spirit … Marjatta - marja (berry in Finnish) In the family, no one believe her: Marjatta is banned from home Ruotus (Herod) didn’t accept her in his sauna, the place where generally children were born She give birth to the Child between the trees, with a horse warming her Glorious final: a new era for Finland

6 Gallén-Kallela’s Marjatta

7 Music Narrator: The story is ancient and is coming from distant lands … Music = spiritual, religious, mysterious, Medieval Ethereal melody made of light Dream element 12:00’ = references to more rhythmic folk music Marvelous flutes Narrator at the end: End of an ancient story, beginning of new era, new hope, new faith Rautavaara has the same point of view of Lönnrot: Historical interpretation of Kalevala

8 Väinämöinen leaving... 1893-1894.

9 Rautavaara’s Kalevala “It was a magic book, a Shamanic Bible, an ancient and obscure ritual. In it the voice of the drum resounds and the scent of our ancestors’ smoke fly … And this strong, ancient scent is growing stronger in our days.” “Kalevala was a kind of initiation rite: its existence made and make us sufficently mature as a nation to receive the Western tradition, including Western musical tradition, such as it had developed elsewere, and to melt it down into its own Finnish cultural caracter”

10 The Sampo (1959) 4/6: forging the sampo

11 Before the battle for the sampo: Ilmarinen’s wife’s (maiden of Pohjola’s) death

12 Amorphis: The death of Ilmarinen’s wife - killed by Kullervo 9. Course Of Fate – Skyforger Got a maid from the lands of north A wife from lands of strange The work of gods was at last replaced By days and nights of men She wakes beside me She stands by me She stares at our sky She lives our lives In the beginning of all time the sounds of war I sanctified for work Cries of terror harmonized to a song Spirits of wrath restrained

13 Amorphis: And now dead is my wife Ripped apart by iron teeth … And now dead is my wife Ripped apart by iron teeth Slashed by the claws of steel The ancient venom surfaced again She lies in the ground She's gone from me She stares without eyes She stares at me Poisoned by the bane of riches Betrayed by lies manifold Slain by avenger The ancient venom turned the course of fat She woke beside me She stood by me She stared at our sky And lived our life After the death of the wife, Kalevala’s three heroes decide to ask sampo’s back … and Rautavaara’s story begin …

14 Einojuhani Rautavaara: Sämmön ryöstö / The Myth os Sampo (1982) Male voices Viking Era: 700-800 Tree soloist-heroes: Väinämöinen, Ilmarinen, Lemminkäinen Distance from reality Saga-like game

15 Male chorus Always present, but the function is changing all the time: It could represent the background of the action Pohjola’s obscurity The crew of the boat, oarsmen of the Viking boat

16 Electronics and Sampo Tape music made using sinthethizators Track 2 – 6 Use of electonics linked with the symbolism of the sampo Sampo: a mysterious and eningmatic miraculous device of Finnish mythology... In our age it could be “a fourth-generation fusion reactor” or some “supercomputer”, making of the basic elements of oxigen and hydrogen “whathever we care to programme in it” Panacea for universal well being... Removing hunger, absorving the need for all labours

17 Sampo … a supercomputer? … Smötkyn Riiko’s sampo is quite similar

18 Sampo-machine

19 Technology … is a kind of (black) magic A magic that produce wealth and pleasure … but it contains also the domain of evil, black magic (track 3 - 4.30) Sampo means also stagnation, degeneration, destruction

20 Gallen-Kallela: Battle for sampo

21 The search The search to attain the sampo, to steal it, is by contrast a manifestation of struggle, energy, life force Example of the Viking culture When sampo is stolen … it is only an illusion, a mirage of happiness The sampo must be plundered for the very act of seeking it … And it must be also destroyed and shattered into fragments, if life is to continue …

22 Ritual Myth of sampo … is an archetypical repetition of the myth and the ritual A Sacrament in which Life materializes before us The archaic and futuristic is essential in text and music A complex game played between the male voice of the primitive tribal rite and the synthesizer Canon in two voices and clusters in twenty or more Tonal mode singing and arbitrary choices of notes made by a random number generator

23 Prologue 1. Prologue: narrator is Rautavaara Once upon time of sea, Time of trade, weapons, plunder Two centuries of salt winds, And mist, and blood, and shaman’s drum. Finland’s slow nativity – Born blind as an animal (…) Only Pohjola is obscure … There too lies Sampo, Magic Mill, Pillar of the World, Shield of Might, Hinge of Heaven, Marble Mountain. Power, wealth and greatness Pour down on Sampo’s holder.

24 1. Prologue: Sampo and the Search Or – is but the Polar Star? Polaris ever fleeting? And the yearning for Happiness, The vain mirage of perfection? Eternal receding along and endless path Mayhap to a nonexistent goal? And yet: the greatest and the holy part of us Lies in its acquisition, in the struggle, The capture of it for our own - Against salt winds, and mist, Blood and shaman’s drum.

25 Narration 1 2. Chourus: the boatmen are presenting the tree heroes and their adventure 3. 1’00 Male chourus as narrator: Väinämöinen steered the vessel onward 3. 3’10’’ Magic travel to the north 3. 5’30’’ Strange voices of Pohjola 5’30’’ 4. Ilmarinen ”(Antti Sulhonen): I have come to share the sampo Male chorus repeating “sampo, sampo, sampo” as a mantra 1’40’ Voices from Pohjola: “Two men cannot shere a groseling, Nor can three divide a squirrel

26 Narration 2 5. Louhi (female voice): I call toghether all the people, summon all my youthful swordmen … Lemminkäinen, Väinämöinen, Ilmarinen: I’ll enchant the Lapp by singing … (spell) Väinämöinen: If you will not share the sampo … the the sampo, all entire, to our vessel will we carry 6. Adoration of Sampo: 3’55’’: sampling the magic 7.-11. The heroes are sailing away with the sampo

27 Narration 3: the eagle 13. Boatmen: “An eagle! An eagle! An Eagle! The wonderous bird was hovering” Ilmarinen (as a mantra): “Save us, o Ukko, superior god” Väinämöinen: “Hail, O Pohjola’s great Mistress! Wilt you now divide the Sampo?” Lemminkäinen: “Down ye men, and down ye swordsmen!” Voice of Louhi, Mistress (sampled): “Two men cannot share a grouseling!” (mantra style) The men: “Down, Down!”

28 Gallen-Kallela: The defence of the sampo, 1896.

29 13. Epilogue: Eternally receding along an endless path … Narrator (Rautavaara): … Nothing survives – and the sampo is lost, Destroyed! If you go to Alpha Centauri, Five years you travel at the speed of light When you return, the price is a century. And the journey is lost, Beyond your own world and nonexistent. Eternally receding along an endless path Mayhap to a no existent goal. Hence they must lose their Sampo both, Kaleva and Pohjola … Is then worth to sing of a dream unfulfilled? (…)

30 14. Epilogue: Life is as endless as our vision is unlimited Yes! And Yes again! ONLY this is woth the hire! Life is as endless as our vision is unlimited, And when we sing it, it is here and now! The eternal seed, the shards of broken dreams, Are buried, and give birth to dreams once more.

31 14. The Prayer Men: Grant Ukko, protect Jumala Guard us from terrestrial evils, And the spells of water-sorcerers! Grant Ukko, protect, Jumala!

32 Sampo myth in the original folksongs End of a golden age of unlimited abundance Today the abundance is “divided” (the sampo has been broken in several pieces) The abundance and a good harvest must me “summon” by a ritual that included singing “sampo myths”

33 Jade Warrior: sampo machine Absurd Kalevala – Kung Fu movie, with exellent music by Kimmo Pohjonen

34 Sampo: the battle (tempest) The Finnish-Soviet film is not fiel to the text The whole story is Lemminkäinen-centered Variation: Louhi vs. Lemminkäinen, tempest Romantic end: Lemminkäinen has a piece of sampo and embraces Annikki … the daughter of Ilmarinen! (invenction of the filmmaker)

35 Einojuhani Rautavaara Thomas (1982–1985) Long opera, Kalevala aniversary Joensuu Song Festival in Northern Karelia Thomas baritone Jorma Hynninen Mid XIII century Bishop Tuomas, nominated “episcopus Finlandiae” by Pope Gregory IX According to Rautavaara, Thomas was the first person to have envisaged the potential for making Finland or Finns an indipendent (Christian) nation Between agiography and history We know very little of him: Date and place of birth unknow Maybe English, maybe Dominican Apparently a learned men

36 Thomas Thomas turns Bishop of Finland (mostly a pagan country) around 1220 AD He made the Pope declare a trade embargo on Novgorod and command the Livonian Knights of the Sword to join in a crusade against the common enemy (1240) Alexander Nevsky crushed Thomas multinational force Thomas manage to make it home to Turku Resignation from Bishopship in 1244, he blamed himself for having forged a papal dispach “under the goading of the Devil” Thomas died four years later in a monastery on the island of Gotland

37 Thomas - Opera Collusion and fusion of two cultures: Kalevala “shamanistic” culture New Christian culture coming from the West In the far future … the result, according to Rautavaara, was the Finnish identity, nationality and culture For Rautavaara Thomas was a visionary, a diviner … The overlapping of different cultures is also reflected in music itself: different tonal systems, diatonic, synthetic-modal, dodecaphonic and free atonality appear in parallel, overlapped and organically linked to one another. More a spontaneously created organism than an “organization”

38 Thomas Thomas Jorma Hynninen Maiden soprano Sini Rautavaara Savonlinna Opera Festival Children Choir Joensuu’s Orchestra directed by Pekka Haapasalo

39 Thomas: Act I, track 2 Prologue: before his death in 1248 Thomas prays at Visby Cathedral. His thoughts are chaotically besieged by the past: the Catholic Churc and pagan magic blend together, the joyous voices of children are drowned by accusations. Thomas is to be condemned for his actions He moves into a world of imagination, to a time when he believed his dream would be realized … Track 2 Chorus,: Time Time is at the beginning The end at the beginning the time of sampo is approaching Soma golden king flying bird god! Maiden: Vocalization

40 Thomas, Act 1 – Tracks 3 and 4 Track 3 Chorus (men) in Latin: Ecce sacerdos magnus Chorus (Children): Com Thomme! Com pley mid us! Mother: Thomas! Dere Thomas com hom! Track 4: Thomas: Surely I come. Surely I will follow you… Deeper and into the darkness, And backwards, beyond time …

41 Thomas’ Stile Multilayered music, circular forms The narration is not linear: it jumps between past, present and future Voyage in the confuse mind of the Bishop and in a age of cultural changes

42 CD Thomas: 1988

43 Thomas

44 Einojuhani Rautavaara: Thomas Act I: Chorus & Magi Einojuhani Rautavaara: Thomas (1982-85) Act I: Chorus Act I: Magi A live recording at the Joensuu Song Festival. Pekka Haapasalo, conductor. Joensuu Music School Choir; Savonlinna Opera Festival Chorus; Joensuu City Orchestra. * Anitta Juhala-Jolkkonen - Mother's Voice (Singer); * Anssi Hirvonen - Magus I (Tenor); * Antti Suhonen - Manhard (Bass); * Hannu Sokka - Magus II (Bass); * Jaakko Hietikko - Magus III (Bass); * Jorma Hynninen - Thomas (Baritone); * Marko Putkonen - Doberanus (Bass); * Matti Juhani Piipponen - Styver (Tenor); * Peter Lindroos - Johann von Gobyn (Tenor); * Sini Rautavaara - Maiden (Soprano).

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