Meyer Academy Professional Development Differentiated Instruction February 17, 2012
“ Our task is to provide an education for the kinds of kids we have, not the kinds of kids we used to have, or want to have, or the kids that exist in our dreams.” ~K. P. Gerlach
What is differentiation? Differentiation is classroom practice that looks eyeball to eyeball with the reality that kids differ, and the most effective teachers do whatever it takes to hook the whole range of kids on learning. -Tomlinson (2001)
Differentiation is responsive teaching rather than one-size- fits-all teaching.
“It means teachers proactively plan varied approaches to what students need to learn, how they will learn it, and/or how they will show what they have learned in order to increase the likelihood that each student will learn as much as he or she can, as efficiently as possible.”
Differentiation doesn’t suggest that a teacher can be all things to all individuals all the time. It does, however, mandate that a teacher create a reasonable range of approaches to learning much of the time, so that most students find learning a fit much of the time.
“Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time. Once you have a sense of what each student knows and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.”
Assumptions We Need To Have… Students differ as learners and need appropriate challenge, success, and learning experiences It’s unlikely that we will achieve challenge, success, and instructional fit for each learner by ignoring student differences
Assumptions We Need To Have… Attending to student differences requires a flexible approach to teaching Successful attention to student differences must be rooted in solid curriculum and instruction
Assumptions We Need To Have… There are many routes to achieving high quality curriculum taught in ways that attend to student differences and build community Developing differentiated classrooms calls on us not so much to develop a bag of tricks as to rethink teaching and the power of learning
Differentiation is a Response to Beliefs About Teaching and Learning We probably underestimate the capacity of every child as a learner Students should be a the center of the learning process All learners require meaningful, powerful, and engaging schoolwork to develop their individual capacities so that they can become fulfilled and productive members of society A major emphasis is on the learners competing against themselves as opposed to someone else
Meyer Academy Professional Development Assessment & Differentiated Instruction, Part 2 March 19, 2012
WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED? Skills Concepts READINESS INTEREST LEARNING PROFILE Content Knowledge Interest Surveys Interest Centers Self-Selection Areas of Strength and Weakness Work Preferences Self Awareness
Example of Assessing Interest What Do You Want to Learn About Rome? Name: _______________________ These are some of the topics we will be studying in our unit on Ancient Rome. We want to know what you want to learn about. Number your choices from 1 to 7. Make sure that 1 is your favorite and 7 is your least favorite. ____ geography ____ government (laws) ____ agriculture (foods they grew) ____ architecture (buildings) ____ music and art ____ religion and sports ____ roles of men, women, and children What Can You Tell Us About Rome? 1. What country is Rome in? ________________________________________________ 2. What does the word civilization mean?_______________________________________ _________________________________________________________________. 3. Can you give us some examples of different civilizations? ________________________ __________________________________________________________________. 4. Can you name any famous Roman people? ___________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. 5. Many things in our country and culture came from the Romans. Can you think of any? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________.
Example of Assessing Learning Style How Do You Like to Learn? 1. I study best when it is quiet. Yes No 2. I am able to ignore the noise of other people talking while I am working. Yes No 3. I like to work at a table or desk. Yes No 4. I like to work on the floor. Yes No 5. I work hard by myself. Yes No 6. I work hard for my parents or teacher. Yes No 7. I will work on an assignment until it is completed, no matter what. Yes No 8. Sometimes I get frustrated with my work and do not finish it. Yes No 9. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to have exact steps on how to complete it. Yes No 10. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to create my own steps on how to complete it. Yes No 11. I like to work by myself. Yes No 12. I like to work in pairs or in groups. Yes No 13. I like to have unlimited amount of time to work on an assignment. Yes No 14. I like to have a certain amount of time to work on an assignment. Yes No 15. I like to learn by moving and doing. Yes No 16. I like to learn while sitting at my desk. Yes No
on-going reviews observations in a classroom Teachers use formative assessment to improve instructional methods and student feedback throughout the teaching and learning process. Formative Assessments Are...
For example, if a teacher observes that some students do not grasp a concept, she or he can design a review activity or use a different instructional strategy. Likewise, students can monitor their progress with periodic quizzes and performance tasks. The results of formative assessments are used to modify and validate instruction. Formative Assessment
THINKING ABOUT ON-GOING ASSESSMENT STUDENT DATA Open response test Oral response Portfolio entry Exhibition Question writing Problem solving Journal Entry Short Answer Test TEACHER DATA Anecdotal records Observation by checklist Skills checklist Class discussion Small group interaction Teacher – student conference Assessment stations Exit cards Performance tasks and rubrics
Summative Assessments Are... typically used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs and services at the end of an academic year or at a pre-determined time. The goal of summative assessments is to make a judgment of student competency after an instructional phase is complete.
Summative Assessments Are... For example, we currently use the SAT. It is a summative assessment to determine each student's ability at pre-determined points in time. Summative evaluations are used to: determine if students have mastered specific competencies identify instructional areas that need additional attention.
Side by Side Formative AssessmentsSummative Assessments Anecdotal records Quizzes and essays Diagnostic tests Lab reports Final exams Statewide tests (FCAT) National tests Entrance exams (SAT and ACT)
Differentiated Instruction Two familiar examples… 1.Dinner Menu 2. Tic-Tac-Toe Choice Board
Entrée (Select One) Draw a picture that shows what happens during photosynthesis. Write two paragraphs about what happens during photosynthesis. Create a rap that explains what happens during photosynthesis. Dinner Menu – Photosynthesis Appetizer (Everyone Shares) Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis. Side Dishes (Select at Least Two) Define respiration, in writing. Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a Venn Diagram. Write a journal entry from the point of view of a green plant. With a partner, create and perform a skit that shows the differences between photosynthesis and respiration. Dessert (Optional) Create a test to assess the teacher’s knowledge of photosynthesis.
TIC-TAC-TOE Choice Board For a Book Report Draw a picture of the main character. Perform a play that shows the conclusion of a story. Write a song about one of the main events. Write a poem about two main events in the story. Make a poster that shows the order of events in the story. Dress up as your favorite character and perform a speech telling who you are. Create a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the introduction to the closing. Write two paragraphs about the main character. Write two paragraphs about the setting.
Differentiated Instruction Guided Reading Groups using the Scholastic Guided Reading Program
Begin Slowly – Just Begin! Low-Prep Differentiation Choices of books Homework options Use of reading buddies Varied journal Prompts Orbitals Varied pacing with anchor options Student-teaching goal setting Work alone / together Whole-to-part and part-to-whole explorations Flexible seating Varied computer programs Design-A-Day Varied Supplementary materials Options for varied modes of expression Varying scaffolding on same organizer Let’s Make a Deal projects Computer mentors Think-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profile Use of collaboration, independence, and cooperation Open-ended activities Mini-workshops to reteach or extend skills Jigsaw Negotiated Criteria Explorations by interests Games to practice mastery of information Multiple levels of questions High-Prep Differentiation Tiered activities and labs Tiered products Independent studies Multiple texts Alternative assessments Learning contracts 4-MAT Multiple-intelligence options Compacting Spelling by readiness Entry Points Varying organizers Lectures coupled with graphic organizers Community mentorships Interest groups Tiered centers Interest centers Personal agendas Literature Circles Stations Complex Instruction Group Investigation Tape-recorded materials Teams, Games, and Tournaments Choice Boards Think-Tac-Toe Simulations Problem-Based Learning Graduated Rubrics Flexible reading formats Student-centered writing formats
We Need To Ask Ourselves… Do all students have access to the tools, knowledge and guidance that they need to succeed? If not, what can we do to give them those tools?
Reform must come from within, not from without. James Gibbons WE are the agents of change…nothing can change unless we change ourselves and our ways of teaching
VIDEO! SIR KEN ROBINSON: TEACHERS ARE LIKE GARDENERS