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Data Representation. The popular table  Table (relation)  propositional, attribute-value  Example  record, row, instance, case  individual, independent.

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Presentation on theme: "Data Representation. The popular table  Table (relation)  propositional, attribute-value  Example  record, row, instance, case  individual, independent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Data Representation

2 The popular table  Table (relation)  propositional, attribute-value  Example  record, row, instance, case  individual, independent  Table represents a sample from a larger population  Attribute  variable, column, feature, item  Target attribute, class  Sometimes rows and columns are swapped  bioinformatics ABCDEF ……………… ……………… ………………

3 Example: symbolic weather data OutlookTemperatureHumidityWindyPlay sunnyhothighfalseno sunnyhothightrueno overcasthothighfalseyes rainymildhighfalseyes rainycoolnormalfalseyes rainycoolnormaltrueno overcastcoolnormaltrueyes sunnymildhighfalseno sunnycoolnormalfalseyes rainymildnormalfalseyes sunnymildnormaltrueyes overcastmildhightrueyes overcasthotnormalfalseyes rainymildhightrueno attributes examples

4 Example: symbolic weather data OutlookTemperatureHumidityWindy Play sunnyhothighfalse no sunnyhothightrue no overcasthothighfalse yes rainymildhighfalse yes rainycoolnormalfalse yes rainycoolnormaltrue no overcastcoolnormaltrue yes sunnymildhighfalse no sunnycoolnormalfalse yes rainymildnormalfalse yes sunnymildnormaltrue yes overcastmildhightrue yes overcasthotnormalfalse yes rainymildhightrue no attributes examples target attribute

5 Example: symbolic weather data OutlookTemperatureHumidityWindy Play sunnyhothighfalse no sunnyhothightrue no overcasthothighfalse yes rainymildhighfalse yes rainycoolnormalfalse yes rainycoolnormaltrue no overcastcoolnormaltrue yes sunnymildhighfalse no sunnycoolnormalfalse yes rainymildnormalfalse yes sunnymildnormaltrue yes overcastmildhightrue yes overcasthotnormalfalse yes rainymildhightrue no if Outlook = sunny and Humidity = high then play = no … if Outlook = overcast then play = yes … three examples covered, 100% correct

6 Numeric weather data OutlookTemperatureHumidityWindyPlay sunny85 falseno sunny8090trueno overcast8386falseyes rainy7096falseyes rainy6880falseyes rainy6570trueno overcast6465trueyes sunny7295falseno sunny6970falseyes rainy7580falseyes sunny7570trueyes overcast7290trueyes overcast8175falseyes rainy7191trueno numeric attributes

7 Numeric weather data OutlookTemperatureHumidityWindyPlay sunny85 (hot)85falseno sunny80 (hot)90trueno overcast83 (hot)86falseyes rainy7096falseyes rainy6880falseyes rainy6570trueno overcast6465trueyes sunny7295falseno sunny6970falseyes rainy7580falseyes sunny7570trueyes overcast7290trueyes overcast8175falseyes rainy7191trueno numeric attributes

8 Numeric weather data OutlookTemperatureHumidityWindyPlay sunny85 falseno sunny8090trueno overcast8386falseyes rainy7096falseyes rainy6880falseyes rainy6570trueno overcast6465trueyes sunny7295falseno sunny6970falseyes rainy7580falseyes sunny7570trueyes overcast7290trueyes overcast8175falseyes rainy7191trueno if Outlook = sunny and Humidity > 83 then play = no if Temperature < Humidity then play = no

9 UCI Machine Learning Repository

10 CPU performance data (regression) MYCT: machine cycle time in nanoseconds MMIN: minimum main memory in kilobytes MMAX: maximum main memory in kilobytes CACH: cache memory in kilobytes CHMIN: minimum channels in units CHMAX: maximum channels in units PRP: published relative performance ERP: estimated relative performance from the original article MYCT MMIN MMAXCACHCHMINCHMAXPRPERP …………………… numeric target attributes (Regression, numeric prediction)

11 CPU performance data (regression) Linear model of Published Relative Performance: PRP = *MYCT *MMIN *MMAX *CACH – 0.27*CHMIN *CHMAX MYCT MMIN MMAXCACHCHMINCHMAXPRPERP ……………………

12 Soybean data class,a,b,c,d,e,f,g, … diaporthe-stem-canker,6,0,2,1,0,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,1,3,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 diaporthe-stem-canker,4,0,2,1,0,2,0,2,1,1,1,1,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,3,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 diaporthe-stem-canker,4,0,2,1,1,1,0,1,0,2,1,1,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,3,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 diaporthe-stem-canker,6,0,2,1,0,3,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,3,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 diaporthe-stem-canker,4,0,2,1,0,2,0,2,0,2,1,1,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,3,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 charcoal-rot,6,0,0,2,0,1,3,1,1,0,1,1,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,0,3,0,0,0,2,1,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 charcoal-rot,4,0,0,1,1,1,3,1,1,1,1,1,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,1,0,3,0,0,0,2,1,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 charcoal-rot,3,0,0,1,0,1,2,1,0,0,1,1,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,0,3,0,0,0,2,1,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 charcoal-rot,3,0,0,2,0,2,2,1,0,2,1,1,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,0,3,0,0,0,2,1,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 charcoal-rot,5,0,0,2,1,2,2,1,0,2,1,1,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,0,3,0,0,0,2,1,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 rhizoctonia-root-rot,1,1,2,0,0,2,1,2,0,2,1,0,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,0,0,3,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 rhizoctonia-root-rot,1,1,2,0,0,1,1,2,0,1,1,0,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,3,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 rhizoctonia-root-rot,3,0,2,0,1,3,1,2,0,1,1,0,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,0,3,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 rhizoctonia-root-rot,0,1,2,0,0,0,1,1,1,2,1,0,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,3,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 rhizoctonia-root-rot,0,1,2,0,0,1,1,2,1,2,1,0,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,3,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 rhizoctonia-root-rot,1,1,2,0,0,3,1,2,0,2,1,0,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,3,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 rhizoctonia-root-rot,1,1,2,0,0,0,1,1,0,1,1,0,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,3,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 rhizoctonia-root-rot,2,1,2,0,0,2,1,1,0,1,1,0,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,3,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 rhizoctonia-root-rot,1,1,2,0,0,1,1,2,0,2,1,0,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,3,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 rhizoctonia-root-rot,2,1,2,0,0,1,1,2,0,2,1,0,0,2,2,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,3,4,0,0,0,0,0,0 …

13 Soybean data  Michalski and Chilausky, 1980  ‘ Learning by being told and learning from examples: an experimental comparison of the two methods of knowledge acquisition in the context of developing and expert system for soybean disease diagnosis. ’  680 examples, 35 attributes, 19 categories  Two methods:  rules induced from 300 selected examples  rules acquired from plant pathologist  Scores:  induced model 97.5%  expert 72%

14 Soybean data 1. date: april,may,june,july,august,september,october,?. 2. plant-stand: normal,lt-normal,?. 3. precip: lt-norm,norm,gt-norm,?. 4. temp: lt-norm,norm,gt-norm,?. 5. hail: yes,no,?. 6. crop-hist: diff-lst-year,same-lst-yr,same-lst-two-yrs, same-lst-sev-yrs,?. 7. area-damaged: scattered,low-areas,upper-areas,whole-field,?. 8. severity: minor,pot-severe,severe,?. 9. seed-tmt: none,fungicide,other,?. 10. germination: %,80-89%,lt-80%,?. … 32. seed-discolor: absent,present,?. 33. seed-size: norm,lt-norm,?. 34. shriveling: absent,present,?. 35. roots: norm,rotted,galls-cysts,?. 19 Classes diaporthe-stem-canker, charcoal-rot, rhizoctonia-root-rot, phytophthora-rot, brown- stem-rot, powdery-mildew, downy-mildew, brown-spot, bacterial-blight, bacterial- pustule, purple-seed-stain, anthracnose, phyllosticta-leaf-spot, alternarialeaf-spot, frog-eye-leaf-spot, diaporthe-pod-&-stem-blight, cyst-nematode, 2-4-d-injury, herbicide-injury

15 Soybean data 1. date: april,may,june,july,august,september,october,?. 2. plant-stand: normal,lt-normal,?. 3. precip: lt-norm,norm,gt-norm,?. 4. temp: lt-norm,norm,gt-norm,?. 5. hail: yes,no,?. 6. crop-hist: diff-lst-year,same-lst-yr,same-lst-two-yrs, same-lst-sev-yrs,?. 7. area-damaged: scattered,low-areas,upper-areas,whole-field,?. 8. severity: minor,pot-severe,severe,?. 9. seed-tmt: none,fungicide,other,?. 10. germination: %,80-89%,lt-80%,?. … 32. seed-discolor: absent,present,?. 33. seed-size: norm,lt-norm,?. 34. shriveling: absent,present,?. 35. roots: norm,rotted,galls-cysts,?. 19 Classes diaporthe-stem-canker, charcoal-rot, rhizoctonia-root-rot, phytophthora-rot, brown-stem-rot, powdery-mildew, downy-mildew, brown-spot, bacterial-blight, bacterial-pustule, purple- seed-stain, anthracnose, phyllosticta-leaf-spot, alternarialeaf-spot, frog-eye-leaf-spot, diaporthe-pod-&-stem-blight, cyst-nematode, 2-4-d-injury, herbicide-injury

16 Types  Nominal, categorical, symbolic, discrete  only equality (=)  no distance measure  Numeric  inequalities (, =)  arithmetic  distance measure  Ordinal  inequalities  no arithmetic or distance measure  Binary  like nominal, but only two values, and True (1, yes, y) plays special role.

17 ARFF files % % ARFF file for weather data with some numeric features outlook {sunny, overcast, temperature humidity windy {true, play? {yes, sunny, 85, 85, false, no sunny, 80, 90, true, no overcast, 83, 86, false, yes...

18 Other data representations 1  time series  uni-variate  multi-variate  Data streams  stream of discrete events, with time-stamp  e.g. shopping baskets, network traffic, webpage hits

19 Other representations 2  Multiple-Instance Learning  n (labeled) examples  each example consist of multiple instances  e.g. handwritten character recognition

20 Other representations 3  Database of graphs  Large graphs  social networks

21 Other representations 4  Multi-relational data

22 Assignment  Direct Marketing in holiday park  Campaign for new offer uses data of previous booking:  customer id  price  number of guests  class of housedata from previous booking  arrival date  departure date  positive response? (target)  Question: what alternative representations for the 2 dates can you suggest? The (multiple) new attributes should make explicit those features of a booking that are relevant (such as holidays etc).


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