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© Hoy, 2003 Shared Decision Making: The Hoy-Tarter Simplified Model
© Hoy, 2003 Question Should you involve subordinates in the decision- making process? Natural systems --human relations Answer-- “Of Course!” Rational systems-scientific management Answer-- Only if they have expertise. Open systems-social science Answer-- “It Depends!”
© Hoy, 2003 Under what conditions should the leader involve subordinates in decision making? To what extent should subordinates be involved? How should the decision making group be structured and function? What is the role of the leader in participative leadership? Four Critical Questions
© Hoy, 2003 Assumptions of the Hoy-Tarter Model As subordinates are involved in decision making located within their ZONE OF ACCEPTANCE, participation will be less effective. As subordinates are involved in decision making outside their ZONE OF ACCEPTANCE, participation will be more effective. As participants are involved in decision making for which they have MARGINAL EXPERTISE, their participation will be marginally effective. As subordinates are involved in decision making for which they have MARGINAL INTEREST, their participation will be marginally effective.
© Hoy, 2003 Zone of Acceptance Do subordinates have a personal stake in the outcome? YES NO Do subordinates have expertise? YES NO Outside Zone of Acceptance (Definitely include) Marginal with Expertise (Occasionally include) Marginal with Relevance (Occasionally include) Inside Zone of Acceptance (Definitely exclude)
© Hoy, 2003 Another Important Question Can you trust subordinates to make a decision in the best interest of the organization? Thus there are three critical questions: 1.Do subordinates have a personal stake in the outcomes of the decision? [The Relevance Question] 2. Do subordinates have the expertise to make a knowledgeable contribution? [The Expertise Question] 3. Can you trust subordinates to make a decision in the best interest of the organization? [The Trust Question]
© Hoy, 2003 Situations for Participative Decision Making Relevance? Yes Yes Yes No No Expertise? Yes Yes No Yes No Trust? Yes No Yes/No Yes/No N/A Democratic Conflictual Stakeholder Expert Noncollaborative
© Hoy, 2003 Decision Situations: Review Democratic Conflictual Stakeholder Expert Noncollaborative
© Hoy, 2003 Democratic--Maximum Involvement. Conflictual--Limit Involvement (until trust is developed). Stakeholder--Occasional Involvement (to educate). Expert--Occasional Involvement (for better decisions). Noncollaborative--No Involvement. Decision Situations and Degree of Involvement
© Hoy, 2003 Decision-Making Groups and Their Functions Group Consensus Group Majority Group Advisory Individual Advisory Unilateral Who is Leader Leader Leader Leader and Leader Involved? and Group and Group and Group Selected Individuals Nature of Group shares Group shares Group shares Individuals No subordinate Involvement? information, information, information, provide data, involvement analyzes and deliberates, analyzes and discuss, and reaches and votes on recommends. recommend. consensus. action. Who makes Group by Group by Leader with Leader with Leader Alone the decision? Consensus Majority Rule Advice Advice
© Hoy, 2003 Five Leadership Roles 1.The integrator brings subordinates together for consensus decision-making. Here the task is to reconcile divergent opinions and positions. 2.The parliamentarian facilitates open communication by protecting the opinions of the minority and leads through a democratic process to a group decision. 3.The educator reduces resistance to change by explaining and discussing with group members the opportunities and constrains of the decisional issues. 4.The solicitor seeks advice from subordinate-experts. The quality of decisions is improved As the administrator guides the generation of relevant information. 5.The director makes unilateral decisions in those instances where the subordinates have no expertise or personal stake. Here the goal is efficiency.
© Hoy, 2003 Administrative Roles for Decision Making RoleFunction Aim IntegratorBrings together divergent positions To achieve consensus ParliamentarianFacilitates open discussion To support reflective deliberation EducatorExplains and discusses issues To assure acceptance of decisions SolicitorSolicits advice from teachers To improve quality of decisions DirectorMakes unilateral decisions To attain efficiency
© Hoy, 2003 A Normative Model for Participative Decision Making Relevance Outside Zone Marginal with Expertise Marginal with Relevance Inside Zone YESNO YES NO Expertise 1. Situation? Democratic Conflictual Stakeholder Expert Noncollaborative 2. Involvement? Yes and extensive Yes but limited Occasionally Occasionally None and limited and limited 3. Decision- Group Group Group Group Individual Unilateral Making Consensus Majority Advisory Advisory Advisory Structures 4. Role of Integrator Parliamentarian Educator Educator Solicitor Director Superior? Trust YESNO
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