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2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Systeemiälykurssi s2004 MIKSI ASIAT TAPAHTUVAT? TEORIOIDEN KEHITTÄMINEN.

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Presentation on theme: "2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Systeemiälykurssi s2004 MIKSI ASIAT TAPAHTUVAT? TEORIOIDEN KEHITTÄMINEN."— Presentation transcript:

1 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Systeemiälykurssi s2004 MIKSI ASIAT TAPAHTUVAT? TEORIOIDEN KEHITTÄMINEN SYSTEEMIÄLYN PERSPEKTIIVISTÄ NÄHTYNÄ GALILEO’S FINGER – THE TEN GREAT IDEAS OF SCIENCE ATKINS, PETER (2003); Oxford University Press. ANSSI TUULENMÄKI Helsinki University of Technology BIT Research Centre Decode Group

2 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Evoluutioteoria selittää miksi maailmassa on miljoonia erilaisia lajeja... eli luonnon äärimmäisen monimutkainen systeemi voidaan pelkistää yksinkertaiseen logiikkaan: variaatio, valinta ja säilyminen! Kuinka Darwin tajusi systeemin? --havainnoimalla systeemin ilmentymiä järjestelmällisesti --saariolosuhteet pelkistivät systeemiä ja toivat lajien erot selvemmin esiin --kirjaa lukemalla hän tajusi systeemin kaikkein olennaisimman piirteen: olemassaolosta taistellaan, koska systeemissä on koko ajan liikaa toimijoita, jotta kaikki uudet ja vanhat voisivat säilyä

3 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Input systeemiälykeskusteluun: havainnoimme enemmän kuin huomaamme (jaksamme prosessoida) havainnoissa on enemmän potentiaalia kuin yleensä oletamme vaikka havainnoimme koko ajan havaitsemme systeemejä (vaikutussuhteita) suhteellisen harvoin

4 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDYING STRATEGY PROCESS: A RESEARCH NOTE II (VAN DE VEN, ANDREW H [1992], SMJ 13, ) FAMILYLIFE CYCLETELEOLOGYDIALECTICEVOLUTION MembersDevelopmentalismFunctionalismConflictDarwinian evolution BiogenesisReligions/ utopiasDeconstructionPunctuated equilibrium OntogenesisGoal/ planning modelsPluralismSaltationism Stage theoriesEnactment theoriesBifurcation theoriesGradualism Rational choicePolyphonic themesLamarckian evolution PioneersNisbet, Piaget, LevinsonWeber, ParsonsMarx, FreudDarwin, Gould, Campbell Logic: imminence, envisioned end statecontradictory forces thesis,natural selection of organisms and prefigured programsocial constructionantithesis, synthesisspecies continuityequifinality >- -> - ->- - >- -> - ->T  X  AVar  Sel  Ret (synthesis) - - -> > Eventunitary sequence of stagesmultiple cumulativerecurrent convergence ofrecurrent, cumulative & conjunctive moving to a progressivesequence of planning,multiple divergentsequence of variation, selection & differentation of entityimplementation, andprogression mediated byretention events. regulated by natural oradaptation of alternativepartisan struggle between institutional laws.means to reach desiredcontradictory values or events. end state. Conditions:programs/routines or rulespurposeful, adaptivepluralistic, diversescarcity prescribed by nature, logicinteractive choice, contradictory, collidingcommensalism or institutionscollective action andsequences of events orpopulation dynamics learning.values. Rakennusaineita havaintoihin: Selityksiä miksi muutosta tapahtuu...

5 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t What is this thing called energy?...Euclids five axioms for the formation of geometry summarize the structure of space, so through them we know where we are. Newton’s three laws summarize motion in that space, so through them we know where we are going. In a slightly simplified form they are as follows: 1)a body continues it state of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is subject to a force (law of inertia). 2)the acceleration of the body is proportional to the force applied (force = [inertial] mass x acceleration) 3)to every action there is always opposed an equal reaction....The third law is deeper than it looks....The real significance... is that it implies a conservation law....conservation law is a consequence of the symmetry of space... space stays exactly the same; everywhere it is smooth and unvarying....Newton’s third law is telling us... that space is uniform wherever we go.

6 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Systeemiäly on tapahtumien vastavoimien, edellytysten ja seurauksien näkemistä

7 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t What is this thing called energy?...work is done whenever an object is moved against an opposing force....Energy is capacity to do work. That in fact, is all that energy really is. Even though an object is stationary, it may still possess energy by its virtue of its position... As far as energy stored in matter is concerned, it is entirely composed of just two forms of energy – kinetic energy (the capacity to do work by virtue of motion) and potential energy (the capacity to do work by virtue of position). Potential energy is potential because it can be converted into kinetic energy....terms like ”electrical energy”, ”chemical energy”, and ”nuclear energy”...are just handy shorthand terms for special and particular combinations of kinetic and potential energy. For example, electrical energy is essentially the potential energy of negatively charged electrons in the presence of positive charges.

8 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Systeemiäly on kykyä luoda ja muuttaa käsitteitä

9 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t What is this thing called energy?..two great foundations of science are causality, the influence of one event on a subsequent event, and energy. Causality is essentially the coherence and consistency of the chain of commands that keeps the universe moving and which we disentangle to achieve understanding; energy is ever watchful quardian of propriety, ensuring that causality causes only legitimate actions. As we shall see, energy is truly the currency of cosmic accountancy....Potential energy and kinetic energy are freely interconvertible...Also, total energy, the sum of the kinetic and potential energies... is constant....Whereas the conservation of momemtum (linear, angular) stems from the shape of the space, the conservation of energy stems from the shape of time.

10 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Heat had long been a mysterious phenomenon..heat nor work is a form of energy: both are ways of transferring energy from one location to another....Everything becomes clear when we consider events on molecular scale....Work is the transfer of energy that stimulates uniform motion of atoms in the surroundings (e.g. in piston)... the transfer of energy as heat is the transfer of energy that stimulates random motion of atoms in surroundings. The random jiggling motion of atoms is called thermal motion. It is not heat. Heat is the mode of transfer of energy...Heat, in fact, is better regarded as a verb than a noun...This atomic distinction between work and heat had a major influence on the development of civilization. It is quite easy to to extract energy as heat: the energy just has to tumble out in radom jumble of atomic motion. As such, early humans were soon able to achieve it. It is far more difficult to extract energy as work, for the energy has to emerge as orderly atomic motion....energy is conserved both in the domain of dynamics, the motion of individual bodies and the interconversion of kinetic and potential energy, and also in thermodynamics, the interconversion of heat and work.

11 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Systeemiäly on kykyä vähentää tai lisätä käsitteitä tarpeen mukaan

12 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t How much energy is there now? There certainly seems to be a lot of energy: volcanoes and hurricanes, brilliance of stars, all matter is a form of energy (through E = mc2)....masses of all the stars in all galaxies.. we would get a huge total mass and therefore a huge total energy....There is another contribution to the energy, the gravitational attraction between matter. Attraction lowers the energy of the interacting bodies, so the more there is of it, the lower the energy...Because of its negative contribution, as we add in all the gravitational interactions between the stars... our original huge total energy gets whittled away. Does it whittled away completely? It is beginning to look like it. We can judge the net total energy of the universe by examining its rate of expansion... The misleading impression that there is a lot of energy in the universe stems from the fact that we see the visible signs of energy in one form but we ignore it in another of its forms (gravitation). It is this differentation of energy that endows the universe with its spectacular dynamism, not the total.

13 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Vaatii systeemiälyä ymmärtää milloin kokonaisuuden ymmärtäminen ei tarkoita kokonaisuuden ymmärtämistä

14 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Why anything happens at all? Hot source Cold sink Work Heat Abstraction of a steam engine – more generally, a heat engine. There is a hot source from which energy is withdrawn at a high temperature, a device for converting heat into work (piston etc) and a cold sink into which ”waste” heat is discarded....To appreciate Kelvin’s contibution, we can imagine standing in front of a typical nineteenth-century steam engine. On casual inspection.. we would probably conclude that the piston in its cylinder is the essential component... alternatively, we might conclude that the hot reservoir is the crucial component... Kelvin, however... the essential component of a steam engine is the cold sink – the surroundings into which waste heat is discarded...Albert Szent-Györgyi ( ) expressed this aspect of science particularly well, when he said that scientific research consists of seeing what everyone else has seen but thinking what no one else has thought.

15 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Systeemit voivat toimia hyvin ilman, että kukaan on koskaan ymmärtänyt systeemin kaikkein olennaisinta puolta Systeemin olennaisin osa voi olla jotain, jota kukaan ei ole koskaan systeemiin rakentanut

16 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t the energy of the universe is constant....However, just as two libraries may contain the same number of books, one in order and the other as a random pile...so energy has a qualitative face that affects its efficacy. The quality of stored energy is measured by... the entropy...Entropy, loosely, is a measure of the quality of energy in the sense the lower the entropy the higher the quality....The energy of the world is constant; the entropy strives towards a maximum....We have to think in terms of the total entropy change, which means the total entropy change of the object of interest and the rest of the universe...The statement that entropy never decreases in any natural change is the same as saying that molecular order never increases on its own accord....Atoms in their random jiggling tend to migrate into new niches; the energy of random jiggling is passed on as atoms jostle their neighbours. Why anything happens at all?

17 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t The thermodynamic analysis of the operation of a steam engine (or any heat engine): Energy leaves the hot source as heat and thereby reduces its entropy. Some of that energy is converted into work, which has no effect on the entropy. The rest of the energy is deposited into the cold sink, so generating a lot of entropy. Provided the temperature of the cold sink is lower than that of the hot source, the overall entropy will increase even if the energy discarded as heat is less than that extracted from the hot source. The difference in energy extracted and discarded can be extracted as work. Why anything happens at all?

18 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Is matter continuous or discrete? In other words, can the elements de divided ad infinitium into ever smaller pieces or is it discrete, in which case cutting world bring us finally to the further uncuttable, the atom? We have seen the outer manifestations of change in the emergence of the biosphere, and the inner mechanisms of that change in molecular basis of genetics. We have seen what doesn’t change, energy, and we have seen why things change, in terms of entropy. Now we examine the material basis of change in greater detail, so making the transition from elephants to elements. What does science expose the nature of matter, the stuff from which evertyrhing tangible is made? Greeks and chinese elements... fire, air, water, earth, metal... all this was quite wrong, of course... But the formulation and elaboration of the concept that complexity is fabricated from simplicity was a profoundly important conceptual step, and this attitude still lies at the core of modern science.

19 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Systeemiäly on tietoista abstraktiotason vaihtelua riippumatta ilmiön monimutkaisuudesta, koosta tai eri ilmenemismuodoista

20 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t The number of protons in an atomic nucleus is called the atomic number of the element, so the atomic number of hydrogen 1, helium 2 and so on....the periodicity of the elements, the realization that matter is not a random collection of disjoint members, but families of members with similar chemical characteristics and similar electronic structures....We now know about 110 elements, and there are no gaps in the bulk of the table.... Periodic table summarizes the properties of the elements... density, diameters, number and type of bonds etc. The periodic table is mathematics made material. With two simple ideas – that electrons organize themselves so as to achieve the lowest possible energy, and that no more than two electrons can occupy any given orb – the pattern of matter becomes understandable. Chemistry is at the heart of understanding matter, and at the very heart of chemistry lies its currency of discourse, atoms. Kaikki materia on järjestäytynyt systeemin mukaan

21 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Maailma on systeemisempi kuin pystymme ajattelemaan sen olevan

22 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t In a certain refined sense, everything is symmetrical (even the most unsymmetrical object we can examine looks the same when we open our eyes after doing nothing to it)....We need to distinguish groups of symmetry operations that leave one point of an object unchanged (point groups) from groups that involve motion through space (space groups). All the symmetry operations of a sphere, and those of a cube, leave the point at its centre in the same location as it was initially. Space groups... patterns that extend effectively for ever in one dimension are called frieze patterns....Frieze is any horizontal decorated band with a motif that is repeated regularly thoroughout its length... There are only five possible varietes of frieze (motifs may be different of course)....By taking colossal intellectual leap we can perhaps begin to accept that just as symmetry limits the number of possible patterns in space, it may be the case that the symmetry of spacetime – whatever that means – limits the number of types of elementary particle that can exist. Symmetry limits

23 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Kaikki havainnoissamme on merkityksellistä (vrt symmetria)

24 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Group theory reveals an awesome truth: there are only seventeen varieties of wallpaper pattern. We can be a little more precise. By a net we mean an array of dots that represents the location of the the motif. The wallpaper pattern is a combination of the motif and the net....Group theory shows that there are only five types of net and seventeen combinations of net and motif. In 3D, space-filling periodic designs corresponds to 230 space groups...There are 4783 space groups in 4D... Atoms and molecules pack together to give one of the 230 possible arrangements allowed by symmetry...

25 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t The symmetry of a unit cell affects the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of solids. For instance, the rigidity of a metal depends on the presence of slip planes, which are planes of atoms that can slip over each other when subjected to stress, such as a hammer blow....it turns out that hexagonal form has only one set of slip planes, whereas the cubic form has eight sets of slip planes in different directions...thus, metals with the hexagonal structure (e.g. zinc) are brittle, whereas metals with the cubic structure (e.g. copper and iron) are mallable – they can be bent, flattened... relatively easy. Symmetry guides... it is the source of laws...Noether’s theorem: where there is symmetry, there is always corresponding conservation law....if two arrangements (of particles) are related by a symmetry operation, then the energy of those two arrangements is the same....

26 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Scientists believe there is only one force acting in the universe but that this force manifests itself in five different ways. Three of these manifestations - electrical, magnetic, and gravitational – are familiar to us from everyday life. The two others – the weak and strong forces – are totally unfamiliar....C.Maxwell.. electric and magnetic forces are best thought of as the two faces of a single electromagnetic force...M.Faraday introduced the concept of field into physics as the region of influence of a force. Broadly speaking, the electrical force acts between all charged particles and the magnetic force acts between charged particles in motion. One of the hugely important fruits of this unification of two previously disparate forces was elucidation of the nature of light: it was electromagnetic radiation. This realization was confirmed in 1888 when H. Hertz produced and detected radio waves. A second, intellectual fruit was the theory of relatively... A third fruit... concept of the photon – a packet of electromagnetic energy by Einstein in First of messenger particles... that carry a force between the originating and responding particles. YKSI voima?

27 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t...Cube analogy: the electroweak force is like the cube, the electromagnetic force is like seeing a square in one orientation of the cube, and the weak force is like seeing a hexagon when the cube is rotated into a different orientation. Most of the human population is right-handed. No one really knows why (it may be connected with the heart being slightly on the left of the body)....Universe is not perfectly symmetrical... it turns out that the universe is symmetrical (as far as we know) if simultaneously we change particles for antiparticles (C), reflect the universe in a mirror (P), and reverse the direction of time (T). That is, according to a theorem proposed by W.Pauli, the universe is CPT invariant. So the universe is lop-sided under individual changes, but perfectly formed if we think in terms of this composite action.

28 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t Vaatii systeemiälyä huomata kuinka hyvin erilaisilta näyttävissä asioissa voi olla kyse samoista vaikutussuhteista. Vaatii systeemiälyä huomata kuinka samalta näyttävissä asioissa voi olla kysymys hyvin erilaisista asioista. Yksi voima voi näyttäytyä eri systeemeissä samalla lailla ja kuitenkin yhden systeemin eri osissa eri lailla

29 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t QUANTA – waves behave like particles and particles behave like waves. Wavelength... frequency... electromagnetic spectrum (gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, microwaves, radiowaves)...M.Planck 14 Dec official birthday of quantum theory...He proposed that the energy of each oscillator could be changed only in discrete steps, a staircase of energy rather than a ramp...A stepwise variation of energy – its quantization – is now an established fact....Principle of stationary time: the time to traverse the path may be either a minimum or, as in certain cases, a maximum....Light tries all paths, but only paths very close to the path of least time do not eliminate each other. Destructive and constructive interference become much more stringent the shorter the wavelength of the light, and only geometrically straight lines survive in the limit of infinitely short wavelengths, which is the limit at which physical (wave) optics becomes geometrical optics. Total freedom of action has resulted in an apparent rule.

30 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t By examining this analogy, De Broglie was able to deduce an expression for the wavelenghts of his matter waves: wavelength = h/ momentum, where h is Planck’s constant and the momentum of a particle is the product of its mass and velocity. Notice that the mass appears in the denominator... so large masses (balls, people, planets) can be expected to have exceedingly short wavelengths. Your motion can be treated according to Newton’s dynamics and you can travel with little fear of being diffracted. It is hardly surprising that the waves with wavelenghts so short went unnoticed and that Newtonian dynamics was so successful when applied to visible, macroscopic bodies. When electrons are considered we enter different world, for they are so light that their momenta are low and their wavelengths correspondingly long. Electrons are the lightest of the common particles.. but there is no particle or collection of particles (incl balls, people, planets) that in principle does not have a wave character associated with it...An orbital is a special case of a wavefunction...

31 2004 d e s i g n c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t..Heisenberg set to show that.. there are limitations on the knowledge that we can have about a particle. For instance, if we want to measure the location of a particle with a microscope, then we have to use at least one photon to observe the particle, and the more precise the location we require, the shorter the wavelenght of the photon that we must use. Broadly speaking, we can’t pinpoint anything more precisely than the wavelenght of the radiation we are using to locate it; so with visible light, we can’t pinpoint anything less than about 5 ten-thousandths of a millimetre. Sound – with wavelenghts close to 1 m, doesn’t let us locate the source with greater precision than about 1 m, which is why bats have to use very high frequency, short wavelenght sounds for their echo location. There is a price to pay for using short wavelenght electromagnetic radiation to locate a particle. When a photon strikes a particle, it imparts some of its momentum to it...Thus, as we sharpen our knowledge about the position of the particle, we blur our knowledge of its momentum...Because we cannot know the position and momentum simultaneuosly, we cannot be confident that each term is exactly... Position x momentum – momentum x position = h. Tiedämme ettemme voi tietää täysin tarkasti


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