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Black Politics Civil Rights - things to keep in mind Long history of the movement.

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Presentation on theme: "Black Politics Civil Rights - things to keep in mind Long history of the movement."— Presentation transcript:


2 Black Politics

3 Civil Rights - things to keep in mind Long history of the movement

4 Pre-1877 Timeline 1861-1865 Civil War 1862 Homestead Act 1863 Emancipation Proclamation 1863-1877 Reconstruction 1866 Civil Rights Bill passed over President Johnson’s veto 1866 Ku Klux Klan established 1868 14th Amendment to the Constitution ratified (equal protection under law) 1870 15th Amendment ratified (right to vote) 1877 Compromise between President Hayes and Southern Democrats

5 Civil War Constitutional Amendments 13th 1865 Abolishes Slavery 14th 1868 Guarantees federal protection of citizenship but also protected corporations during the Gilded Age 15th 1870 Prohibits voting restrictions based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude (literacy tests and other restrictions deny these rights to black citizens in the South)

6 The Land Distribution Question Homestead Act offered “federal” land to settlers and dispossessed Indians Slaves expected “40 acres and a mule” but instead became sharecroppers

7 The Land Distribution Question


9 Jim Crow Timeline 1883 Supreme Court: the Civil Rights Act (1875) does not apply to individuals 1890 “ The Mississippi Plan ” (Democrats overthrew Republicans via suppression of black vote) and the “ Purity Clause” (denied blacks the vote) 1895 Booker T. Washington ’ s Atlanta Compromise speech 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson - "separate but equal" doctrine 1898 Louisiana ’ s “ Grandfather Clause” (exempted whites from voting restrictions) 1903 W.E.B. DuBois responds to Booker T. Washington

10 Editorial cartoon on Plessy v. Ferguson

11 Jim Crow, a minstrel theater character used to name the practice of segregation

12 Separate water fountains and coolers, 1939

13 Separate movie theater entrance, 1939

14 Violence as instrument of social control Slave whippings (Barrow plantation): 0.7 per black per year Every 4,5 days - a slave saw one of their number whipped Lynchings (155 in 1893s): 0.00002 per black per year Consider word of mouth, newspapers, and postcards

15 Lynching postcard

16 Booker T. Washington

17 Booker T. Washington ’ s Atlanta Compromise Speech A ship lost at sea for many days suddenly sighted a friendly vessel. From the mast of the unfortunate vessel was seen a signal: “ Water, water. We die of thirst. ” The answer from the friendly vessel at once came back: “ Cast down your bucket where you are. ” A second time, the signal, “ Water, send us water! ” went up from the distressed vessel. And was answered: “ Cast down your bucket where you are. ” A third and fourth signal for water was answered: “ Cast down your bucket where you are. ” The captain of the distressed vessel, at last heeding the injunction, cast down his bucket and it came up full of fresh, sparkling water from the mouth of the Amazon River. To those of my race who depend on bettering their condition in a foreign land, or who underestimate the importance of preservating friendly relations with the southern white man who is their next door neighbor, I would say: “ Cast down your bucket where you are. ” Cast it down, making friends in every manly way of the people of all races, by whom you are surrounded.

18 W. E. B. DuBois “ Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others, ” 1903 The other class of Negroes who cannot agree with Mr. Washington … feel in conscience bound to ask of this nation three things. 1. The right to vote. 2 Civic equality. 3 The education of youth according to ability.

19 Harlem Renaissance > NAACP Anti-Lynching Ad in the New York Times

20 Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters est. by A Phillip Randolph in 1925

21 Harlem Renaissance > Marcus Garvey ’ s Supporters Parade in Harlem (Jamaican, founder of Back to Africa movement and Universal Negro Improvement Association)

22 Klan in the 1920s > Timeline of Klan History founded during Reconstruction, collapsed in 1870s revived in 1915 (in part because of the movie Birth of a Nation) resurgence of popularity in the 1920s, but collapsed again by the 1930s again reappears in the 1950s

23 KKK Membership 1920 4,000,000 1924 6,000,000 1930 30,000 1980 5,000 2008 6,000

24 Double V > Poster for a Double V campaign of 1942

25 Double V > Members of the United Retail, Wholesale, and Department Store Employees Union, Detroit, 1942

26 Double V > March on Washington Movement Flyer, ca. 1941 and a photograph of March on Washington, 1963

27 Double V > Policemen arresting women during the riots in Harlem, 1943

28 Double V > The Detroit Riot, June 21, 1943

29 W. E. B. DuBois on his 95th birthday in Ghana, with Kwame Nkrumah, 1963

30 Maya Angelou on visiting Ghana

31 Civil Rights - things to keep in mind Long history of the movement Actions were carefully organized Religion was important - Martin Luther King Non-violence was important - influence of international anticolonial movements, Ghandi Violence also important - police agains peaceful demonstrators, black riots, later militant phase of the movement Grass-roots opposition important - leaders and the middle class responded to demands from below Movement in the South and the North were different (S. earlier, nonviolent, white middle-class supports, focused on legislation; N. later, violent, “black nationalist,” focused on urban segregation and economy which could not be fixed by law alone) Role of the state - civil rights legislation but also FBI surveillance and smear campaigns Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society - LBJ was more receptive to the civil rights movement

32 Historical precedents for civil rights actions Sit-ins: The Congress of Racial Equality sponsored sit-ins in Chicago in 1942, St. Louis in 1949 and Baltimore in 1952. On August 19, 1958, the Oklahoma City NAACP Youth Council began a six-year long campaign of sit-ins at segregated lunch counters, restaurants, and cafes in Oklahoma City. Bus boycott: August 1943, black passengers ring a bell for several blocks and refuse to leave the bus after the bus driver refused to pick up black passenger and ejected another, drew a gun; 1946 Women’s Political Council formed after several blacks were arrested on buses 1947 Jackie Robinson - first black major league baseball player 1948 Truman signs order desegregating the armed forces

33 Civil Rights organizations CORE - Congress on Racial Equality, 1942 (inspired by a 1939 book describing Mohandas Ghandi’s nonviolent resistance organization strategies) SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference, 1957 (inspired by Montgomery bus boycott, 1955-1956) SNCC - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, 1960 (inspired by Greensboro, North Carolina, sit-ins) NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1919 (Rosa Parks worked at NAACP as a secretary for 12 years before the bus boycott)

34 Thurgood Marshall, who won the “whites-only” Democratic primaries case in 1944 and Brown v. Board of Education in 1954

35 School Segregation protest

36 Little Rock, Ark., 1957

37 Norman Rockwell painting of Ruby Bridges, New Orleans, 1964

38 James Meredith, first black student at Ole Miss, 1962

39 Before 18-month bus boycott started by Rosa Parks, 1955-1956

40 After bus boycott

41 Martin Luther King, Montgomery, AL, September 5, 1955 “We are here, we are here this evening because we're tired now. And I want to say, that we are not here advocating violence. We have never done that. I want it to be known throughout Montgomery and throughout this nation that we are Christian people. We believe in the Christian religion. We believe in the teachings of Jesus. The only weapon that we have in our hands this evening is the weapon of protest. That's all.”

42 Martin Luther King speaking at the March on Washington, August 28, 1963

43 A sit-in at a lunch counter in Jackson, Mississippi, May 28, 1963 - the mass sit-in movement began in Greensboro, North Carolina in 1960

44 Map of Freedom Rides organized by CORE in May 1961

45 Birmingham, Alabama, Spring 1963 (Bull Connor – Commissioner for Public Safety

46 Birmingham, Alabama, 1963


48 Results of Birmingham protests Move from demand for desegregation to more for fundamental economic and social change (to mark, King changes from suit to farm overalls) Protesters reached white Northerners through media

49 Freedom Summer goals in Mississippi, SNCC, Summer 1964 To expand black voter registration in the state To organize legally constituted “Freedom Democratic Party” that would challege whites-only Mississippi Democratic pary To establish “freedom schools” to teach reading and math to black children To open community centers where indigent blacks could obtain legal and medical assistance

50 Freedom Summer images, 1964

51 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibited racial discrimination in employment, hospitals, schools, restaurants, hotels, theaters, etc. Banned discrimination on the basis of sex Many whites opposed

52 Selma to Montgomery (Alabama) march, last fully integrated civil rights event, 1965

53 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Made literacy tests illegal Federal election supervisors in areas of low minority registration Black voter registration more than doubled in the South, now very important

54 Watts riot of 1965

55 Movement Soul, 1964 “You can pray until you faint, but if you don’t get up and try to do something, God is not gone to put it in your lap.” Fannie Lou Hamer, mass meeting, Indianola, Mississippi, August 1964 Have you got religion, certainly Lord Certainly, certainly, certainly Lord God’s gonna trouble the water Will you vote today for freedom (etc.) Will you picket for justice (etc.) Hattiesburg, Mississippi, February 1964 Mass meeting, Lead singer Fannie Lou Hamer

56 Nina Simone and the Civil Rights Movement

57 March on Washington Movement Flyer, ca. 1941 and a photograph of March on Washington, 1963

58 Malcolm X (assassinated February 21, 1965) and Martin Lulther King, Jr. (assassinated April 4, 1968)

59 The Black Panther Magazine

60 The Murder of Fred Hampton, 1969

61 James Baldwin in San Francisco in the spiring of 1963: "There will be a Negro president of this country but it will not be the country that we are sitting in now." (KQED, 44 min doc; the president discussion is at 8:44) Barack Obama’s 2008 Race Speech: I can no more disown [Jeremiah Wright] than I can disown the black community. I can no more disown him than I can my white grandmother — a woman who helped raise me, a woman who sacrificed again and again for me, a woman who loves me as much as she loves anything in this world, but a woman who once confessed her fear of black men who passed by her on the street, and who on more than one occasion has uttered racial or ethnic stereotypes that made me cringe. These people are a part of me. And they are a part of America, this country that I love.[2][18]

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