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Sorting in linear time Comparison sort: –Lower bound: (nlgn). Non comparison sort: –Bucket sort, counting sort, radix sort –They are possible in linear time (under certain assumption).

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Bucket Sort Assumption: uniform distribution –Input numbers are uniformly distributed in [0,1). –Suppose input size is n. Idea: –Divide [0,1) into n equal-sized subintervals (buckets). –Distribute n numbers into buckets –Expect that each bucket contains few numbers. –Sort numbers in each bucket (insertion sort as default). –Then go through buckets in order, listing elements,

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BUCKET-SORT(A) 1.n length[A] 2.for i 1 to n 3. do insert A[i] into bucket B[ nA[i] ] 4.for i 0 to n-1 5. do sort bucket B[i] using insertion sort 6.Concatenate bucket B[0],B[1],…,B[n-1]

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Example of BUCKET-SORT

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Analysis of BUCKET-SORT(A) 1.n length[A] (1) 2.for i 1 to nO(n) 3. do insert A[i] into bucket B[ nA[i] ] (1) (i.e. total O(n)) 4.for i 0 to n-1O(n) 5. do sort bucket B[i] with insertion sort O(n i 2 ) ( i=0 n-1 O(n i 2 )) 6.Concatenate bucket B[0],B[1],…,B[n-1]O(n) Where n i is the size of bucket B[i]. Thus T(n) = (n) + i=0 n-1 O(n i 2 ) = (n) + nO(2-1/n) = (n). Beat (nlg n)

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19 March 20161 More on Sorting CSE 2011 Winter 2011.

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