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1 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Welcome to Basic Ergonomics.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Welcome to Basic Ergonomics."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Welcome to Basic Ergonomics

2 2 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Objectives Increase awareness of basic ergonomics concepts and principles Identify occupational risk factors for strains, sprains, and cumulative trauma Learn to use various tools for identifying ergonomic concerns and analyzing jobs Understand basic control measures for improving ergonomic job design

3 3 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Ergonomics - What is it?

4 4 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Ergonomics - What is it? Design Error Most people look like this...

5 5 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Ergonomics Design Error Most people look like this... Some designers think that people look like this...

6 6 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Definitions Fitting the task to the person rather than forcing him/her to adapt to his working environment. Designing the workplace to prevent occupational injury and illness. Discovering the capabilities and limitations of the human body.

7 7 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Working Definition A Balance for Optimization Job Demands Worker Capabilities

8 8 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Supporting Sciences ERGONOMICS Physical Sciences Biomechanics Work Physiology Engineering Psychology Anthropometry Engineering Sciences Behavioral Sciences Biological Sciences

9 9 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Acute Vs. Cumulative Disorders Acute: –Result from a one time event Cumulative: –Result from repeated wear and tear; however, a specific event may have been “the last straw” upon a previously weakened system and thus given the appearance that the problem is acute rather than chronic. {Stephen Konz. “Work Design; Industrial Ergonomics”, Third edition. 1990}

10 10 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene CTDs Term assigned to identify a group of injuries that classically result from long-term and repeated “wear and tear” on the musculoskeletal system. CUMULATIVE indicates injuries that develop gradually over time, and result from many repeated stresses on a particular body part. TRAUMA signifies bodily insult or injury from mechanical stresses. DISORDERS describes the adverse health effects that arise from chronic exposure to repeated trauma.

11 11 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene CTD Trauma Bucket Balanced Your Job Your Body Trauma Healing Valve

12 12 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Your Job Your Body Trauma Healing Valve CTD CTD Trauma Bucket Unbalanced

13 13 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Material Handling Operations

14 14 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene VDT / Computer Operators

15 15 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Control / Display Design

16 16 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Workplace / Workstation Layout D E C B A

17 17 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Assembly / Repetitive Hand Intensive Tasks

18 18 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene All Other Work/Play/Life

19 19 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Why Ergonomics ?

20 20 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Win/Win Higher Production Higher Quality Compliance Lower Compensation Costs Careers/Employment Longevity Safe Working Conditions Quality of life Morale

21 21 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Employee Benefits Quality of Life Fewer Aches, Pains, & Injuries Career / Employment Protection & Longevity Jobs More Intuitive Less Fatigue

22 22 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Production Benefits Less Fatigue Eliminates Unnecessary Handling Reduces Bottlenecks Increases Throughput Optimization Cycle Time Helps In Meeting Deadlines Well Designed Jobs Increase Profitability & Competitiveness

23 23 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Quality Benefits Less Scrap & Re-Work Increased efficiency Reduction of rushing and shortcuts Less Fatigue Improves Customer Satisfaction Better accuracy

24 24 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Compliance General Duty Clause Guidelines –NIOSH Elements of Ergonomics Process,1997 –OSHA Meatpacking Guidelines, 1990 –BSR/HFES-100/2002: VDT’s –Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) and Workplace Factors – 1997 –OSHA.GOV Ergonomics e-tools

25 25 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene “General Duty Clause” OSHA Act 1970 Section 5.(a) (1) Each Employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employee. Compliance

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28 28 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Workers’ Compensation / Loss Prevention Prevent Injuries/Illnesses from Occurring in the first place Reduction of the frequency of claims Reduction of Worker’s Compensation Costs Reduction absenteeism Reduced turnover

29 29 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Lost Time Injuries By Type of Cause NSC Injury Facts 2004

30 30 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene U.S. Injury and Illness Trends Numbers of injuries Percentage of Recorded injuries that involve Backs U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

31 31 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene U.S. Repeated Trauma Cases U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

32 32 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Claim Cost By POB NSC Accident Facts and 2002 Costs

33 33 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene High-Risk Jobs CTD Incident Rates Meat packing Motor vehicles & car bodies Male trouser & slacks Motorcycles, bicycles, & parts Poultry processing Engine electric equipment Men’s footwear, except athletic Motor vehicle parts Silverware & plated ware Ophthalmic goods Household appliances, n.e.c Incidence rates = No. of illnesses per 10,000 workers U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

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41 41 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene CTD Costs NSC Injury Facts 2004 The average cost for Cumulative Trauma related Workers Compensation Claims filed in 2001 and 2002 equals $15,865

42 42 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene Iceberg Analogy Accident Cost Medical Payments Compensation Supervisor time to investigate Breaking in substitute Efficiency due to break-up of crew Damaged tools/equipment Down-time Overhead $ while work disrupted Failure to meet deadline/fill orders Loss of production Loss of good will Overtime to make up production Hiring costs Lost time by fellow workers Direct Costs Indirect or Hidden Costs

43 43 Ergonomics INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BWC Div. Of Safety & Hygiene How much business does ABC Company need to generate to recover this Loss? What amount of business volume do you need to offset the costs of the next accident in your organization? C = Direct Injury Cost = $ 10,000 M = Profit Margin = 3 % V = Business Volume required to break even from Injury (C) = (C) / (M / 100) = = ( 10,000) / (_3_ / 100) = $ 333, Or, including estimated indirect costs: 4X total costs = $ 40,000 Business volume needed= $ 1,333,333

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