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Welcome to Basic Ergonomics

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1 Welcome to Basic Ergonomics

2 Objectives Increase awareness of basic ergonomics concepts and principles Identify occupational risk factors for strains, sprains, and cumulative trauma Learn to use various tools for identifying ergonomic concerns and analyzing jobs Understand basic control measures for improving ergonomic job design

3 Ergonomics - What is it?

4 Ergonomics - What is it? Design Error Most people look like this...

5 Ergonomics Design Error Most people look like this...
Some designers think that people look like this...

6 Definitions Fitting the task to the person rather than forcing him/her to adapt to his working environment. Designing the workplace to prevent occupational injury and illness. Discovering the capabilities and limitations of the human body.

7 A Balance for Optimization
Working Definition Job Demands Worker Capabilities A Balance for Optimization

8 Supporting Sciences ERGONOMICS Biomechanics Engineering Anthropometry
Physical Sciences Engineering Psychology ERGONOMICS Anthropometry Behavioral Sciences Biological Sciences Work Physiology

9 Acute Vs. Cumulative Disorders
Result from a one time event Cumulative: Result from repeated wear and tear; however, a specific event may have been “the last straw” upon a previously weakened system and thus given the appearance that the problem is acute rather than chronic. {Stephen Konz. “Work Design; Industrial Ergonomics”, Third edition. 1990}

10 CTDs Term assigned to identify a group of injuries that classically result from long-term and repeated “wear and tear” on the musculoskeletal system. CUMULATIVE indicates injuries that develop gradually over time, and result from many repeated stresses on a particular body part. TRAUMA signifies bodily insult or injury from mechanical stresses. DISORDERS describes the adverse health effects that arise from chronic exposure to repeated trauma.

11 CTD Trauma Bucket Balanced
Your Job Trauma Your Body Healing Valve

12 CTD Trauma Bucket Unbalanced
Your Job Trauma Your Body CTD Healing Valve CTD

13 Material Handling Operations

14 VDT / Computer Operators

15 Control / Display Design

16 Workplace / Workstation Layout

17 Assembly / Repetitive Hand Intensive Tasks

18 All Other Work/Play/Life

19 Why Ergonomics ?

20 Win/Win Higher Production Higher Quality Compliance
Lower Compensation Costs Careers/Employment Longevity Safe Working Conditions Quality of life Morale

21 Employee Benefits Quality of Life Fewer Aches, Pains, & Injuries
Career / Employment Protection & Longevity Jobs More Intuitive Less Fatigue

22 Production Benefits Less Fatigue Eliminates Unnecessary Handling
Reduces Bottlenecks Increases Throughput Optimization Cycle Time Helps In Meeting Deadlines Well Designed Jobs Increase Profitability & Competitiveness

23 Quality Benefits Less Scrap & Re-Work Increased efficiency
Reduction of rushing and shortcuts Less Fatigue Improves Customer Satisfaction Better accuracy

24 Compliance General Duty Clause Guidelines
NIOSH Elements of Ergonomics Process,1997 OSHA Meatpacking Guidelines, 1990 BSR/HFES-100/2002: VDT’s Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) and Workplace Factors – 1997 OSHA.GOV Ergonomics e-tools

25 Compliance “General Duty Clause” OSHA Act 1970 Section 5.(a) (1) Each Employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employee.



28 Workers’ Compensation / Loss Prevention
Prevent Injuries/Illnesses from Occurring in the first place Reduction of the frequency of claims Reduction of Worker’s Compensation Costs Reduction absenteeism Reduced turnover

29 Lost Time Injuries By Type of Cause
NSC Injury Facts 2004

30 U.S. Injury and Illness Trends
Numbers of injuries Percentage of Recorded injuries that involve Backs U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

31 U.S. Repeated Trauma Cases
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

32 Claim Cost By POB 2001 and 2002 Costs NSC Accident Facts 04

33 High-Risk Jobs CTD 2000-2001 Incident Rates
Meat packing Motor vehicles & car bodies Male trouser & slacks Motorcycles, bicycles, & parts Poultry processing Engine electric equipment Men’s footwear, except athletic Motor vehicle parts Silverware & plated ware Ophthalmic goods Household appliances, n.e.c. 812.0 726.9 224.8 123.8 374.0 258.2 256.7 221.1 144.3 132.5 170.8 711.0 691.9 448.4 389.0 320.2 312.6 250.5 218.9 214.6 205.4 201.1 2000 2001 Incidence rates = No. of illnesses per 10,000 workers U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics








41 CTD Costs The average cost for Cumulative Trauma related Workers Compensation Claims filed in 2001 and 2002 equals $15,865 NSC Injury Facts 2004

42 Iceberg Analogy Accident Cost
Direct Costs Medical Payments Compensation Breaking in substitute Down-time Efficiency due to break-up of crew Overhead $ while work disrupted Supervisor time to investigate Indirect or Hidden Costs Loss of production Overtime to make up production Loss of good will Damaged tools/equipment Hiring costs Failure to meet deadline/fill orders Lost time by fellow workers

43 How much business does ABC Company need to generate
to recover this Loss? What amount of business volume do you need to offset the costs of the next accident in your organization? C = Direct Injury Cost = $ 10,000 M = Profit Margin = 3 % V = Business Volume required to break even from Injury (C) = (C) / (M / 100) = = ( 10,000) / (_3_ / 100) = $ 333,333.33 Or, including estimated indirect costs: 4X total costs =$ 40,000 Business volume needed= $ 1,333,333


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