Presentation on theme: "Generic Business Strategies Cost-based and Differentiation-based Competitive Strategies."— Presentation transcript:
Generic Business Strategies Cost-based and Differentiation-based Competitive Strategies
Competitive Advantages (Sources of Rates of Profit in Excess of the Competitive Level) Avoid Competitors Be Better Than Competition Attractive Industry Attractive Niche Cost Advantage Differentiation Advantage Attractive Strategic Group Entry Barriers Mobility Barriers Isolating Mechanisms Sources of Competitive Advantage
Competitive Advantages as the Source of Superior Profitability Competitive advantages work in two basic ways avoiding competitors (ie. lock-outs/valuable resources) outperforming competitors (ie. productivity and efficiency/distinctive competencies) Best-practice and empirical research has identified two internally-consistent competitive business strategies: Low Cost Leadership Differentiation Successful businesses use their competitive advantages and resources to develop one of these generic business strategies
Sources of Superior Profitability A business can achieve a higher rate of profit (or potential profit) over a rival in one of two ways: supplying an identical product/service at a lower cost (cost-based advantage) supplying a differentiated product/service in such a way that the customer is willing to pay a price premium that exceeds the cost of the differentiation (differentiation-based advantage) These two sources of competitive superiority define fundamentally different approaches to business strategy A firm that attempts to achieve both or attains neither is “stuck in the middle”.
Market Share (Quantity) Low High Profitability Low High Differentiation- based Strategies Low Cost Leadership Strategies Stuck-in-the-Middle Market Share-Profitability Relationship: “Porter’s Bucket”
Strategic Advantage Uniqueness Perceived by the Customer Low Cost Position Industrywide Strategic Target DIFFERENTIATION OVERALL COST LEADERSHIP FOCUS Particular Segment Only Target and Advantage of Porter’s Generic Strategies Source: Porter (1980)
The Sources of Cost Advantages Scale Experience Capacity Utilization Product Design/Process Fit Location Integration/Purchasing Organizational Skills
Drivers of Cost Advantages ECONOMIES OF SCALE-Indivisibilities -Specialization & division of labor ECONOMIES OF LEARNING-Increased dexterity -Improved coordination/organization CAPACITY UTIIZATION-Ratio of fixed to variable costs PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES-Mechanization and automation -Efficient utilization of materials -Increased precision PRODUCT DESIGN -Design for automation -Designs to economize on materials INPUT COSTS -Location advantages -Ownership of low-cost inputs -Bargaining power -Supplier cooperation MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY-Organizational slack
Products in the Differentiation Hall of Fame Ford Mustang VW Beetle Honda Accord Dodge Caravan Sony Walkman McDonalds restaurants Apple Macintosh IBM PC Lotus 123 IBM 370 series Federal Express Timex watches Louis Vuitton bags Holiday Inns hotels Disneyland Boeing 747 Polaroid Land camera Alcort Sunfish sailboat Xerox photocopier American Express credit cards and travelers checks Numbered Swiss bank accounts Products in the Differentiation Hall of Fame
Understanding customer needs and preferences Commitment to customers Knowledge of company's capabilities Innovation Source: Robert M. Grant,Contemporary Strategy Analysis, Basil Blackwell, 1991. Keys to Successful Differentiation
TANGIBLE DIFFERENTIATION Observable product characteristics: size, color, materials, etc. performance packaging complementary services INTANGIBLE DIFFERENTIATION Unobservable and subjective characteristics relating to image status, exclusively, identity. TOTAL CUSTOMER RESPONSIVENESS: Differentiation not just about the product, it embraces the whole relationship between the supplier and the customer. The Nature of Differentiation “Differentiation means providing something unique that is valuable to the buyer beyond simply offering a low price.” (M. Porter) THE KEY IS CREATING VALUE FOR THE CUSTOMER
Achieving Differentiation Advantage Observable Goods : the buyers can easily form accurate judgments about the quality of a product. Experience Goods : the buyers finds it difficult and/or costly to determine the quality of the product prior to purchase and use. Communication Goods : the value to the buyer rises as the number of buyers and users increases. How one goes about obtaining a differentiation advantage depends upon whether or not a product is an observable good, an experience good, or a communication good.