= DNA → mRNA (nucleus) = DNA serves as the template for the synthesis of mRNA = RNA polymerase travels along the DNA strand and copies the gene from DNA to mRNA = base pairing rule in RNA is C…G and A..U Transcription
The gene of interest (template strand of DNA) is copied. DNA (gene of interest) 5’ ATGGCCTGGACTTCA 3’ 3’ TACCGGACCTGAAGT 5’ (TEMPLATE STRAND) Transcribed mRNA 5’ AUGGCCUGGACUUCA 3’ mRNA http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/T/Transcription.html
The genetic code consists of 64 triplets of nucleotides. There are three nucleotides (triplet) In the code for one amino acid. These triplets are called codons. The genetic code can be expressed as either RNA codons or DNA codons. mRNA codons are actually "read" during the synthesis of proteins...translation.
DNA 5’ ATGGCCTGGACTTCA 3’ 3’ TACCGGACCTGAAGT 5’ (TEMPLATE STRAND) 5’ AUGGCCUGGACUUCA 3’ mRNA Remember Transcription occurs in the nucleus… mRNA diffuses into the cytoplasm to begin the process of Translation… 5’ AUGGCCUGGACUUCA 3’ mRNA Amino Acids Assemble MetAlaTrpThrSer
In a gene, the specific sequence of the nucleotides specifies for a specific sequence of amino acids. In the cytoplasm, rRNA reads the mRNA codons. Transfer RNA molecules are specific for one amino acid and for a particular triplet of nucleotides in the mRNA codon. The family of tRNA molecules enables the codons in a mRNA molecule to be translated into the sequence of amino acids in the protein.
Analogy: Forming three lettered words (amino acids) into a sentence (protein) The DNA gene for the sentence: “The Dog Sat.” is located in the reference section of the library. Since you are NOT allowed to take the reference materials out of the reference area, you have to sit down and copy the entire sentence DNA code…thedogsat…then take it to a new place for translating it into a sentence.
Copying the DNA gene “thedogsat” is a process like transcription in which mRNA is made from the blueprint code in DNA. The three letters code for a word just like the three nucleotide bases code for an amino acid. Reading these three letters as words and organizing the words into a sentence is similar to what occurs during translation.
G-cap …THE DOG SAT… poly-A tail mRNA = ready to diffuse into the cytoplasm for the second part of protein synthesis. mRNA codes Protein Three Lettered Words Sentence
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/T/Translation.html G-cap …THE DOG SAT… poly-A tail This mRNA diffuses out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm.
G-cap …THE DOG SAT… poly-A tail A ribosome (rRNA) attaches—reading the mRNA codons (the triplet nucleotide sequence). nucleus rRNA cytoplasm THE DOG SAT
G-cap …THE DOG SAT… poly-A tail nucleus rRNA cytoplasm THE DOG SAT Specific tRNAs grab the specific amino acid needed by the rRNA the molecule that reads the mRNA codons. tRNA
G-cap …THE DOG SAT… poly-A tail nucleus rRNA cytoplasm THE DOG SAT Specific tRNAs grab the specific amino acid to match the specific codon in the mRNA. tRNA
G-cap …THE DOG SAT… poly-A tail nucleus rRNA cytoplasm THE DOG SAT Peptide (covalent) bonds are formed between the amino acids (words in the sentence). tRNA DOG
G-cap …THE DOG SAT… poly-A tail nucleus rRNA cytoplasm THE DOG SAT Once the ribosome reaches the end of the mRNA it will read the stop codon (the period at the end of the sentence) and then, it will release the protein into the cytoplasm. tRNA DOG tRNA SAT
G-cap …THE DOG SAT… poly-A tail nucleus rRNA cytoplasm THE DOG SAT The newly assembled “protein”… “THE—DOG—SAT”…is released into the cytoplasm. DOG SAT rRNA