INDEX: Basic concepts of DNA Origin of DNA Computing Problems with Adleman’s Experiment Advantages of DNA Computing Conclusion
Deepthi Bollu3 What is DNA ?
What is DNA? What is DNA? Deepthi Bollu4 All organisms on this planet are made of the same type of genetic blueprint. Within the cells of any organism is a substance called DNA which is a double-stranded helix of nucleotides. DNA carries the genetic information of a cell. This information is the code used within cells to form proteins and is the building block upon which life is formed.
Deepthi Bollu5 Introduction Introduction Ever wondered where we would find the new material needed to build the next generation of microprocessors???? HUMAN BODY (including yours!)…….DNA computing. “Computation using DNA” but not “computation on DNA” Initiated in 1994 by an article written by Dr. Adleman on solving HDPP using DNA.
DNA Computing A relatively new form of computing that, instead of using silicon-based technology, utilizes the abilities of the DNA molecule and biochemistry. A DNA computer is based on the fact the information is “encoded” within deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as patterns of molecules known as nucleotides.
The DNA Molecule The DNA is a double stranded molecule. Each strand is based on 4 bases: ◦ Adenine (A) ◦ Thymine (T) ◦ Cytosine (C) ◦ Guanine (G)
The DNA Molecule Those bases are linked through a sugar (desoxyribose) IMPORTANT: ◦ The linkage between bases has a direction. ◦ There are complementarities between bases (Watson-Crick). (A) (T) (C) (G)
Deepthi Bollu9 Dense Information Storage This image shows 1 gram of DNA on a CD. The CD can hold 800 MB of data. The 1 gram of DNA can hold about 1x10 14 MB of data. The number of CDs required to hold this amount of information, lined up edge to edge, would circle the Earth 375 times, and would take 163,000 centuries to listen to.
DNA Memory A string composed of a series of four types of units (nucleotides), DNA may be viewed as logic memory or gate. Number System (Base 4): Nucleotide A C T G Complement Nucleotide DNA binding process Two strings of DNA are bonded by paired nucleotides A-T and C-G which may be considered as complements. Example: Number TTACAG has a complement AATGTC
DNA Memory DNA memory strands a t c g g t c a t a g c a c t 000 a t c g g t c a t a 101 t a g c c c g t g a Making DNA Sequences
GATCGACTAC DNA Computing
Adleman’s Hamilton path problem In 1994, Leonard M. Adleman solved an unremarkable computational problem with a remarkable technique. The type of problem that Adleman solved is a famous one. It's formally known as a directed Hamiltonian Path (HP) problem Hamiltonian Path
The Adleman’s experiment The Adleman’s experiment Specifically, the method based on Adleman’s experiment would be as follows: Generate all possible routes. Select itineraries that start with the proper city and end with the final city. Select itineraries with the correct number of cities. Select itineraries that contain each city only once. Examples of cities with directed path
How DNA Computers Will Work Strands of DNA represent the seven cities. In genes, genetic coding is represented by the letters A, T, C and G. Some sequence of these four letters represented each city and possible flight path. These molecules are then mixed in a test tube, with some of these DNA strands sticking together. A chain of these strands represents a possible answer.
How DNA Computers Will Work Within a few seconds, all of the possible combinations of DNA strands, which represent answers, are created in the test tube. Adleman eliminates the wrong molecules through chemical reactions, which leaves behind only the flight paths that connect all seven cities.
DNA computer DNA-based computersMicrochip-based computers slow at individual operationsfast at individual operations can do billions of operations simultaneously can do substantially fewer operations simultaneously can provide huge memory in small space smaller memory Require considerable preparations before Immediate setup DNA is sensitive to chemical deterioration electronic data are vulnerable but can be backed up easily Conventional computer Vs.
Development Scale Israel’s First DNA computer Trillion could fit in a test tube Billions of ops/sec 99.8% accuracy First programmable autonomous computing machine Input, output, software, and hardware all made of DNA DNA comp inside cells to monitor cell vitals. It uses enzymes as a program that processes on the input data (DNA molecules).
Development Scale Research 1950’s … R.Feynman’s paper on sub microscopic computers 1994 L.Adleman solves Hamiltonian path problem using DNA Field started 2000 Self powered DNA computer Commercial 1970’s … DNA used in bio application 1996 Human Genome Sequenced Olympus computers Affymetrix sells Gene Chip DNA analyzer 2018 Commercial computer ? 2003 Lucent builds DNA “motor”
Development Scale Olympus Computer First practical DNA Computer Tokyo (July 3rd, 2002) Olympus Optical Co. Ltd. First commercially practical DNA computer Specializes in gene analysis
Applications of DNA Computer Applications of DNA Computer Massively Parallel Processing Perform millions of operations simultaneously Generate a complete set of potential solutions Conduct large parallel searches Efficiently handle massive amounts of working memory The synthesized DNA inside the chip generates DNA signals which only the company's readers can detect and authenticate in two seconds. -The DNA chip can also be used on passports, credit cards, debit cards, membership cards, driver's licenses, a automobile license plates, CDs, VCDs, DVDs, notebooks, PDAs, computer software.
Future possibilities a) Self-replication: Two for one b) Self-repair: c) DNA computer mutation/evolution or d) New meaning of a computer virus ?
Advantages of DNA Computing Extremely dense information storage. -The 1 gram of DNA can hold about 1x1014 MB of data. Enormous parallelism. - A test tube of DNA can contain trillions of strands. Each operation on a test tube of DNA is carried out on all strands in the tube in parallel !
Advantages of a DNA Computing Deepthi Bollu24 Parallel Computing- DNAcomputers are massively parallel. Incredibly light weight- With only 1 LB of DNA you have more computing power than all the computers ever made. Low power- The only power needed is to keep DNA from denaturing. Solves Complex Problems quickly- A DNA computer can solve hardest of problems in a matter of weeks
Limitations DNA is redundant. The process required much human intervention. Automation would be required for a real computer. The computation time required to solve problems with a DNA computer does not grow exponentially, but amount of DNA required DOES.
Conclusion DNA computers showing enormous potential, especially for medical purposes as well as data processing applications. Still a lot of work and resources required to develop it into a fully fledged product.
Thank You ! It will take years to develop a practical,workable DNA computer. But…Let’s all hope that this DREAM comes true!!!