4What is DNA?All organisms on this planet are made of the same type of genetic blueprint.Within the cells of any organism is a substance called DNA which is a double-stranded helix of nucleotides.DNA carries the genetic information of a cell.This information is the code used within cells to form proteins and is the building block upon which life is formed.Deepthi Bollu
5IntroductionEver wondered where we would find the new material needed to build the next generation of microprocessors????HUMAN BODY (including yours!)…….DNA computing.“Computation using DNA” but not “computation on DNA”Initiated in 1994 by an article written by Dr. Adleman on solving HDPP using DNA.Deepthi Bollu
6DNA ComputingA relatively new form of computing that, instead of using silicon-based technology, utilizes the abilities of the DNA molecule and biochemistry.A DNA computer is based on the fact the information is “encoded” within deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as patterns of molecules known as nucleotides.
7The DNA Molecule The DNA is a double stranded molecule. Each strand is based on 4 bases:Adenine (A)Thymine (T)Cytosine (C)Guanine (G)
8The DNA Molecule Those bases are linked through a sugar (desoxyribose) IMPORTANT:The linkage between bases has a direction.There are complementarities between bases (Watson-Crick).(A) (T)(C)(G)
9Dense Information Storage This image shows 1 gram of DNA on a CD. The CD can hold 800 MB of data.The 1 gram of DNA can hold about 1x1014 MB of data.The number of CDs required to hold this amount of information, lined up edge to edge, would circle the Earth 375 times, and would take 163,000 centuries to listen to.Deepthi Bollu
10DNA MemoryA string composed of a series of four types of units (nucleotides), DNA may be viewed as logic memory or gate.Number System (Base 4):NucleotideACTGComplementDNA bindingprocessTwo strings of DNA are bonded by paired nucleotides A-T and C-G which may be considered as complements. Example:Number TTACAG has a complement AATGTC
11DNA Memory Making DNA Sequences 1 a t c g g t c a t a g c a c t DNA strandsa t c g gt c a t ag c a c t1t a g c cc g t g aMaking DNA Sequences
13Adleman’s Hamilton path problem In 1994, Leonard M. Adleman solved an unremarkable computational problem with a remarkable technique.The type of problem that Adleman solved is a famous one. It's formally known as a directed Hamiltonian Path (HP) problemHamiltonian Path
14The Adleman’s experiment Specifically, the method based on Adleman’s experiment would be as follows:Generate all possible routes.Select itineraries that start with the proper city and end with the final city.Select itineraries with the correct number of cities.Select itineraries that contain each city only once.Examples of cities with directed path
15How DNA Computers Will Work Strands of DNA represent the seven cities. In genes, genetic coding is represented by the letters A, T, C and G. Some sequence of these four letters represented each city and possible flight path.These molecules are then mixed in a test tube, with some of these DNA strands sticking together. A chain of these strands represents a possible answer.
16How DNA Computers Will Work Within a few seconds, all of the possible combinations of DNA strands, which represent answers, are created in the test tube.Adleman eliminates the wrong molecules through chemical reactions, which leaves behind only the flight paths that connect all seven cities.
17Microchip-based computers Conventional computerVs.DNA computerDNA-based computersMicrochip-based computersslow at individual operationsfast at individual operationscan do billions of operations simultaneouslycan do substantially fewer operations simultaneouslycan provide huge memory in small spacesmaller memoryRequire considerable preparations beforeImmediate setupDNA is sensitive to chemical deteriorationelectronic data are vulnerable but can be backed up easily
18Development Scale Israel’s First DNA computer •Trillion could fit in a test tube•Billions of ops/sec 99.8% accuracy•First programmable autonomous computing machine•Input, output, software, and hardware all made of DNA•DNA comp inside cells to monitor cell vitals.•It uses enzymes as a program that processes on the input data (DNA molecules).The smallest programmable DNA computer
19Development Scale Research Commercial 1950’s … 1994 2000 2002 2003 R.Feynman’spaper on sub microscopiccomputersL.Adleman solves Hamiltonian path problem using DNAField startedSelf powered DNA computerOlympus computersLucentbuilds DNA“motor”Commercial1970’s …199620002018DNA usedin bio applicationAffymetrix sells Gene ChipDNA analyzerHumanGenomeSequencedCommercial computer ?
20Development Scale Olympus Computer • First practical DNA Computer • Tokyo (July 3rd, 2002)• Olympus Optical Co. Ltd.• First commercially practical DNAcomputer• Specializes in gene analysis•Standard gene analysis approach very time consuming (3 days)•Now done in 6hrs•Two sections ––Molecular Calculation component»DNA combination of molecules»Implements chemical reactions»Searches»Pulls out right DNA results–Electronic Calculation component»Executes processing programs»Analysis these results
21Applications of DNA Computer Massively Parallel ProcessingPerform millions of operations simultaneouslyGenerate a complete set of potential solutionsConduct large parallel searchesEfficiently handle massive amounts of working memoryThe synthesized DNA inside the chip generates DNA signals which only the company's readers can detect and authenticate in two seconds.-The DNA chip can also be used on passports, credit cards, debit cards, membership cards, driver's licenses, a automobile license plates, CDs, VCDs, DVDs, notebooks, PDAs, computer software.
22Future possibilities a) Self-replication: Two for one b) Self-repair: c) DNA computermutation/evolutiond) New meaning of acomputer virus ?or
23Advantages of DNA Computing Extremely dense information storage.-The 1 gram of DNA can hold about 1x1014 MB of data.Enormous parallelism.-A test tube of DNA can contain trillions of strands. Each operation on a test tube of DNA is carried out on all strands in the tube in parallel !
24Advantages of a DNA Computing Parallel Computing- DNAcomputers are massively parallel.Incredibly light weight- With only 1 LB of DNA you have more computing power than all the computers ever made.Low power- The only power needed is to keep DNA from denaturing.Solves Complex Problems quickly- A DNA computer can solve hardest of problems in a matter of weeksDeepthi Bollu
25Limitations DNA is redundant. The process required much human intervention.Automation would be required for a real computer.The computation time required to solve problems with a DNA computer does not grow exponentially, but amount of DNA required DOES.DNA in vitro decays through time,so lab procedures should not take too long.
26ConclusionDNA computers showing enormous potential, especially for medical purposes as well as data processing applications.Still a lot of work and resources required to develop it into a fully fledged product.DNA computing research remains active and holds many promises in the future in fields such as biochemical sensing, genetic engineering, and medical diagnosis.Algorithm used by Adleman for the traveling salesman problem was simple. As technology becomes more refined, more efficient algorithms may be discovered.DNA Manipulation technology has rapidly improved in recent years, and future advances may make DNA computers more efficient.The University of Wisconsin is experimenting with chip-based DNA computers.DNA computers are unlikely to feature word processing, ing and solitaire programs.Instead, their powerful computing power will be used for areas of encryption, genetic programming, language systems, and algorithms or by airlines wanting to map more efficient routes. Hence better applicable in only some promising areas.
27Thank You ! But…Let’s all hope that this DREAM comes true!!! It will take years to develop a practical,workable DNA computer.But…Let’s all hope that this DREAM comes true!!!