Presentation on theme: "The Management of Change PARC Lasallian Institute"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Management of Change PARC Lasallian Institute Dr. Carmelita I. Quebengco AFSC
2 - Robert L. Ringel Purdue University “great change dominates the world, and unless we move with change, we will become its victims”- Robert L. RingelPurdue University
3 “change or be changed…” “The solution is not to suppress change which can’t be done, but to manage it”- Alvin Toffler
4 “It is important to maintain a balance between continuity and change”
5 What is change management? “change management is proactively managing the people side of change to achieve the desired results”“…it is the people side of project/program management”“Research shows that change management is the No. 1 success factor for project teams”- Prosci Change Management
6 Why do we need change management? Manage employee resistance to changeBuild change competency into the schoolIncrease the probability of project/program success
7 What are the forces that may necessitate change? Requirements of law/government agenciesCompetitor activity, i.e. decrease in enrollmentFinancial results, i.e. decrease in revenues/funding supportQuality indicators, i.e. decrease in student achievementUnfavorable client feedbackEmployee dissatisfactionUnfavorable benchmarking results
8 Types of Change Organizational re-structuring Info-tech system upgrade Expansion or downsizingNew ventures, i.e. industry-academe linkagesOverhaul of marketing strategiesJob re-design – personnel developmentNew educational process design, i.e. transformative learning, student-centered learning, etc.Other changes that directly impact students
9 Enduring Principles of Effective Change Management 1/ First Law: Overcoming natural inertia in an organization requires the constant application of forces for changeSecond Law: The greater the inertia/ resistance to change, the greater the required forces for changeThird Law: The way the change agents treat resisters is the way resisters will treat change agents1/ Change Management Principles, Business Performance Pty. Ltd.
10 The Transition Curve 2/ 2/ Clive Anderson and Marianne Sheppard The Three Phases of TransitionEndingsNeutral ZoneNew BeginningsDenialShockFearAngerBlameConfusionFrustrationFearRealization of lossHopeSkepticismImpatienceAcceptanceExcitementOptimismDiscoveryCreativity2/ Clive Anderson and Marianne Sheppard
11 Seven Propositions for Successful Change 3/ Change is learning – loaded with uncertaintyChange is a journey, not a blueprintProblems are our friendsChange is resource-hungryChange requires the power to manage itChange is systemicAll large-scale change is implemented locally (Fullan & Miles, 1992)3/ North Central Regional Educational Laboratory
12 Prior to planning, it is important to have an over-all realistic assessment of the situation within which change is to be implemented 4/4/ Don Dippo, York University, Canada
13 Do teachers… Want this change? Have to change? Understand the change? Have time to learn and practice the change in a safe setting?Have the needed materials?Have support or pressure from somewhere?
14 Have support or pressure from peers? Intuitively value the change? (meaning? fulfillment?)See that everybody has to do it too?Get a sincere reward for doing it?
15 Stacey’s Agreement v Certainty Matrix Complexity Theory 2/Stacey’s Agreement v Certainty Matrix
16 Essential activities for successful change Establish a sense of urgencyForm a powerful guiding coalitionCreate a vision/agree on goals and objectivesEmpower others to actClarify roles (work to be done, accountabilities)Build skills and systemsOperationalize the new environment
17 Determine at what phase the school is by answering the following questions… 5/ 5/ Adapted from Change Management Model: The Change Approach
18 Create Urgency Harness Support Is there a clear and compelling reason for adopting this change?Is this change related to and supportive of the mission-vision of the schoolIs it clear how, when and where this change will happen?Is the objective data needed available to convince the skeptics?Do people feel the urgency to change?CreateUrgencyWho are the stakeholders in this change?What are the motivators for each stakeholder?Does the senior executive team support this change?Has a communication plan been developed?Are all stakeholders engaged in the change process?HarnessSupport
19 Articulate Goals Nominate Roles Do stakeholders take ownership of the vision and goals?Are change goals SMART goals?Are people involved in devolving the goals to lower levels of the organization?Are implementation plans in place supporting attainment of goals?Are performance measurement and reporting systems set up?ArticulateGoalsAre change management and new operational accountabilities clear?Are the right people selected for the right roles?Do people with responsibilities have the necessary skills?Are project management principles and methods being used?Is the proportion of goal and task assignment appropriate?NominateRoles
20 Grow Capability Entrench Is the training plan sufficiently scoped and adequately resourced?Are teams being developed and supported for high performance?Is support in place ensuring transfer of training to the work place?Is there a focus on soft skills an technical skills?Do information, human resource and other systems support the new operational environment?GrowCapabilityAre performance results reported and successes celebrated?Is planning sufficient to ensure some quick wins?Are remuneration, rewards, and recruitment systems aligned with the change objectives?Are new meanings provided through creating work place symbols?Do leaders lead by example?EntrenchChanges
21 Lewin’s Change Management Model UnfreezeChangeRe-freeze
22 Practical Steps for Using the Framework UnfreezeDetermine what needs to changeSurvey the organization to understand the current stateUnderstand why change has to take placeEnsure there is strong support from upper managementUse Stakeholder Analysis and Stakeholder management to identify and win the support of key people within the organizationFrame the issue as one of organization-wide importance
23 Create the need for change Create a compelling message as to why change has to occurUse your vision and strategy as supporting evidenceCommunicate the vision in terms of the change requiredEmphasize the “why”Manage and understand the doubts and concernsRemain open to employee concerns and address in terms of the need to change
24 Change Communicate often Dispel rumors Do so throughout the planning and implementation of the changesDescribe the benefitsExplain exactly how the changes will affect everyoneDispel rumorsAnswer questions openly and honestlyDeal with problems immediatelyRelate the need for change back to operational necessities
25 Involve people in the process Empower actionProvide plenty of options for employee involvementHave line managers provide day-to-day directionInvolve people in the processGenerate short-term successes to reinforce the changeNegotiate with external stakeholders as necessary (such as employee organizations)
26 Re-Freeze Anchor the changes into the culture Identify what supports the changeIdentify barriers to sustaining changeDevelop ways to sustain the changeEnsure leadership supportCreate a reward systemEstablish feedback systemsAdapt the organizational structure as necessary
27 Provide support and training Celebrate success! Keep everyone informed and supportedCelebrate success!
28 Alternative Change Model 4/ Make decision to actBack up decision with rationalePrepare a communication strategy to share the changed vision with stakeholdersPrepare goals and milestonesEstablish accountability and programmatic evaluationReview and revise goals and milestonesProvide rewards and celebration
29 Alternative Change Model 6/ Create a shared visionIdentify the sequence of activities necessary to realize the visionEstablish the benchmarks to be used to mark progressFormalize timelinesAssign responsibilitiesGuide resource allocation6/ JT Waters and FD Cordell, System Change Planning
30 Adoption of Change 2/ 8. Internalization Adaption Degree of Support for the ChangeTimeAwarenessInterestTrialAdaption8. Internalization7. Institutionalization6.5. Installation4. Positive Perception3. Understanding the Change2. Awareness of Change1. ContactUnawarenessConfusionNegativePerceptionDecision Not toAttempt/SupportInstallationChange AbortedAfter InitialUtilizationAfter Extensive
31 Team Development Phases 1/ FormingStormingNormingPerformingFundamental questions to ask:Why are we here?What stage are we at?What are our objectives?What is our game plan?What do others expect of us?What resources and skills dowe need?What will be our rewards?
32 Stages of Concern 7/ Management Time, Materials, Org’n Refocusing Know Something BetterCollaboration Working with Others(peers)4 Consequence How Affecting ClientsManagement Time, Materials, Org’nPersonal How Will It Affect Me?Informational Like to Know More0 Awareness Not Concerned7/ Gene Hall, University of Florida
34 Team Success Factors: Clear, accepted goals Appropriate motivation AuthorityEQSkills
35 Goal Setting 1/Invite and encourage stakeholders to participate in discussions and decision-makingMake the goals define the success criteriaPlan backwardsAsk the following assessment questions:Are they SMART goals (Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Relevant, Timeframed)
36 Are they balance? (goals for each dimension – finance, process, employees concerned, information system, beneficiaries)Are they broken down into manageable chunks? (team goals, department goals, school goals)Have you communicated them to all concerned?Have you set a baseline from which to compare future performance?
37 Examples of SMART Goals: By 2011, 20% of mainstream students in the school will be on a 100% financial aid scholarship.By 2014, the full-integration of the Lasallian Guiding Principles of Education (LGPE) will be completed and implemented in all the subjects of the academic program.By 2012, all teachers will have completed the 3-phase training on the integration and implementation of the LGPE in all the subjects they teach
38 Change Program RolesIdentification of change management responsibilities of those concerned:Change DriverTop level line administratorsThe principal cause and motivator of changeMid-level line administrators and teachersChange ImplementorsManages and performstasks to bring about changeChange EnablersMid-level staff administratorsSets up environment so change can happenChange RecipientsTeachers, StudentsExpected to behave differently in a changed organization
40 Change Program Training Plan Focus on what learners will be required to do differently in the workplaceAlert learners on what they are to be expected to do at the end of the programMake the training practical – develop skills, rehearse change in behaviorProvide coaching in the actual workplaceProvide on the job aids
41 Ensure immediate support from administration Integrate training with workplace practice (never send a changed personnel in an unchanged workplace)Identify soft skills needed for success such as effective communication, conflict resolution, teamwork, leadership, etc.
42 Ask the following question to assess the appropriateness and adequacy of the training program: Are all those concerned included?Does it address the 5 key requirements for successful training?Right learnersRight learningRight methodRight timeRight environmentHow comprehensive is the training plan?Are resources adequate?
44 Transformation and change will require a movement 9/ : From rewarding good intentions to rewarding performance resultsFrom a system where people follow rules to one in which people chase a sense of purposeFrom a system of territorial service monopolies to one of choice among competing providers9/ Nelson, N.W., June 2007
45 From control over inputs to accountability for outcomes From an organization steeped in bureaucracy to one challenged by the imperatives of serviceFrom an ethic of distrust to a culture of high expectation
46 13 Tips for Managing Change 10/ Educate the leaders of change, including both administrators and teachersUse a “systems” approach to ensure that all aspects of the school organization are considered when planning and implementing changeUse a team approach thatinvolves many stakeholdersin the change process10/ Dennis Sparks, National Staff Development Council
47 Share power with teachers and others to encourage the implementation of the change efforts Make plans, but “hold your plans loosely.” Develop plans, but know that they will have to be adapted to change as needs change
48 Realize that there is a tension between establishing readiness for change and the need to get people implementing the new approaches quickly. While getting people intellectually ready for change is something to be considered, it should not take so much time and effort that people lose interest and motivation
49 Provide considerable amounts of training and staff development for those involved. These activities can include everything from holding study groups to “on-the-dash” coaching.Choose innovative practices for and with teachers that are research-based and “classroom friendly.” Picking approaches that have been used or researched can help the implementation of those approaches.
50 Recognize that change happens only through people Recognize that change happens only through people. The emotional effects of change on educators need to be considered and understood by all involved in the changes process. Understanding resistance and working with is key.Be prepared for “Implementation dip.” Fullan (1993) and others note that things often get worse temporarily before improvement begins to appear.
51 Help educators and others develop an “intellectual understanding” of the new practices. While the outcomes are important to assess, people also need to understand the underlying meanings and functions of the practices.Seek out “paradigm shifters” and “Idea champions” who are interested in making substantial changes in practice.
52 Take the long view; realize that change takes time and should not be forced to occur too quickly
53 The 5Cs – Strategies for Success Core – clarify purpose, roles, and direction of serviceClient – put the one to be served in the driver’s seatConsequences – pay the price in partnerships and resourcesControl – focus on results… empower, decentralize, collaborateCulture – appropriate change in mind set, expectations, habits
54 Question:Given the nature of your project, the culture of your organization, and where the project will be implemented,what problems or difficulties do you anticipate?How do you propose to address each of them?