Presentation on theme: "The Management of Change PARC Lasallian Institute Dr. Carmelita I. Quebengco AFSC."— Presentation transcript:
The Management of Change PARC Lasallian Institute Dr. Carmelita I. Quebengco AFSC
“great change dominates the world, and unless we move with change, we will become its victims” - Robert L. Ringel Purdue University Purdue University
“change or be changed…” - Alvin Toffler “The solution is not to suppress change which can’t be done, but to manage it”
“It is important to maintain a balance between continuity and change”
What is change management? “change management is proactively managing the people side of change to achieve the desired results” “…it is the people side of project/program management” “Research shows that change management is the No. 1 success factor for project teams” - Prosci Change Management
Why do we need change management? Manage employee resistance to change Build change competency into the school Increase the probability of project/program success
What are the forces that may necessitate change? Requirements of law/government agencies Competitor activity, i.e. decrease in enrollment Financial results, i.e. decrease in revenues/funding support Quality indicators, i.e. decrease in student achievement Unfavorable client feedback Employee dissatisfaction Unfavorable benchmarking results
Types of Change Organizational re-structuring Info-tech system upgrade Expansion or downsizing New ventures, i.e. industry-academe linkages Overhaul of marketing strategies Job re-design – personnel development New educational process design, i.e. transformative learning, student- centered learning, etc. Other changes that directly impact students
Enduring Principles of Effective Change Management 1/ First Law: Overcoming natural inertia in an organization requires the constant application of forces for change Second Law: The greater the inertia/ resistance to change, the greater the required forces for change Third Law: The way the change agents treat resisters is the way resisters will treat change agents 1/ Change Management Principles, Business Performance Pty. Ltd.
The Transition Curve 2/ 2/ Clive Anderson and Marianne Sheppard The Three Phases of Transition Endings Neutral Zone New Beginnings Denial Shock Fear Anger Blame Confusion Frustration Fear Optimism Discovery Creativity Realization of loss Hope Skepticism Impatience Acceptance Excitement
Seven Propositions for Successful Change 3/ Change is learning – loaded with uncertainty Change is a journey, not a blueprint Problems are our friends Change is resource-hungry Change requires the power to manage it Change is systemic All large-scale change is implemented locally (Fullan & Miles, 1992) 3/ North Central Regional Educational Laboratory
Prior to planning, it is important to have an over-all realistic assessment of the situation within which change is to be implemented 4/ 4/ Don Dippo, York University, Canada
Do teachers… 1. Want this change? 2. Have to change? 3. Understand the change? 4. Have time to learn and practice the change in a safe setting? 5. Have the needed materials? 6. Have support or pressure from somewhere?
7. Have support or pressure from peers? 8. Intuitively value the change? (meaning? fulfillment?) 9. See that everybody has to do it too? 10. Get a sincere reward for doing it?
Complexity Theory 2/ Stacey’s Agreement v Certainty Matrix
Essential activities for successful change Establish a sense of urgency Form a powerful guiding coalition Create a vision/agree on goals and objectives Empower others to act Clarify roles (work to be done, accountabilities) Build skills and systems Operationalize the new environment
Determine at what phase the school is by answering the following questions… 5/ 5/ Adapted from Change Management Model: The Change Approach
Create Urgency Is there a clear and compelling reason for adopting this change? Is this change related to and supportive of the mission-vision of the school Is it clear how, when and where this change will happen? Is the objective data needed available to convince the skeptics? Do people feel the urgency to change? Harness Support Who are the stakeholders in this change? What are the motivators for each stakeholder? Does the senior executive team support this change? Has a communication plan been developed? Are all stakeholders engaged in the change process?
Articulate Goals Do stakeholders take ownership of the vision and goals? Are change goals SMART goals? Are people involved in devolving the goals to lower levels of the organization? Are implementation plans in place supporting attainment of goals? Are performance measurement and reporting systems set up? Nominate Roles Are change management and new operational accountabilities clear? Are the right people selected for the right roles? Do people with responsibilities have the necessary skills? Are project management principles and methods being used? Is the proportion of goal and task assignment appropriate?
Grow Capability Is the training plan sufficiently scoped and adequately resourced? Are teams being developed and supported for high performance? Is support in place ensuring transfer of training to the work place? Is there a focus on soft skills an technical skills? Do information, human resource and other systems support the new operational environment? Are performance results reported and successes celebrated? Is planning sufficient to ensure some quick wins? Are remuneration, rewards, and recruitment systems aligned with the change objectives? Are new meanings provided through creating work place symbols? Do leaders lead by example? Entrench Changes
Lewin’s Change Management Model Unfreeze ChangeRe-freeze
Practical Steps for Using the Framework Unfreeze 1.Determine what needs to change Survey the organization to understand the current state Understand why change has to take place 2.Ensure there is strong support from upper management Use Stakeholder Analysis and Stakeholder management to identify and win the support of key people within the organization Frame the issue as one of organization-wide importance
3.Create the need for change Create a compelling message as to why change has to occur Use your vision and strategy as supporting evidence Communicate the vision in terms of the change required Emphasize the “why” 4.Manage and understand the doubts and concerns Remain open to employee concerns and address in terms of the need to change
Change 1.Communicate often Do so throughout the planning and implementation of the changes Describe the benefits Explain exactly how the changes will affect everyone 2.Dispel rumors Answer questions openly and honestly Deal with problems immediately Relate the need for change back to operational necessities
3.Empower action Provide plenty of options for employee involvement Have line managers provide day-to-day direction 4.Involve people in the process Generate short-term successes to reinforce the change Negotiate with external stakeholders as necessary (such as employee organizations)
Re-Freeze 1.Anchor the changes into the culture Identify what supports the change Identify barriers to sustaining change 2.Develop ways to sustain the change Ensure leadership support Create a reward system Establish feedback systems Adapt the organizational structure as necessary
3.Provide support and training Keep everyone informed and supported 4.Celebrate success!
Alternative Change Model 4/ Make decision to act Back up decision with rationale Prepare a communication strategy to share the changed vision with stakeholders Prepare goals and milestones Establish accountability and programmatic evaluation Review and revise goals and milestones Provide rewards and celebration
Alternative Change Model 6/ Create a shared vision Identify the sequence of activities necessary to realize the vision Establish the benchmarks to be used to mark progress Formalize timelines Assign responsibilities Guide resource allocation 6/ JT Waters and FD Cordell, System Change Planning
Adoption of Change 2/ Degree of Support for the Change Time Awareness Interest Trial Adaption 8. Internalization 7. Institutionalization 6.Adaption 5. Installation 4. Positive Perception 3. Understanding the Change 2. Awareness of Change 1. Contact Unawareness Confusion Negative Perception Decision Not to Attempt/Support Installation Change Aborted After Initial Utilization Change Aborted After Extensive Utilization
Team Development Phases 1/ Forming Storming Norming Performing Fundamental questions to ask: –Why are we here? –What stage are we at? –What are our objectives? –What is our game plan? –What do others expect of us? –What resources and skills do we need? we need? –What will be our rewards?
Stages of Concern 7/ 6 RefocusingKnow Something Better 5 CollaborationWorking with Others (peers) 4 ConsequenceHow Affecting Clients 3 ManagementTime, Materials, Org’n 2 PersonalHow Will It Affect Me? 1 InformationalLike to Know More 0 AwarenessNot Concerned 7/ Gene Hall, University of Florida
Goal Setting 1/ Invite and encourage stakeholders to participate in discussions and decision- making Make the goals define the success criteria Plan backwards Ask the following assessment questions: –Are they SMART goals (Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Relevant, Timeframed)
–Are they balance? (goals for each dimension – finance, process, employees concerned, information system, beneficiaries) –Are they broken down into manageable chunks? (team goals, department goals, school goals) –Have you communicated them to all concerned? –Have you set a baseline from which to compare future performance?
Examples of SMART Goals: By 2011, 20% of mainstream students in the school will be on a 100% financial aid scholarship. By 2014, the full-integration of the Lasallian Guiding Principles of Education (LGPE) will be completed and implemented in all the subjects of the academic program. By 2012, all teachers will have completed the 3-phase training on the integration and implementation of the LGPE in all the subjects they teach
Change Program Roles The principal cause and motivator of change Change Driver Identification of change management responsibilities of those concerned: Top level line administrators Manages and performs tasks to bring about change Change Implementors Mid-level line administrators and teachers Sets up environment so change can happen Change Enablers Mid-level staff administrators Expected to behave differently in a changed organization Change Recipients Teachers, Students
Change Program Roles 8/
Change Program Training Plan Focus on what learners will be required to do differently in the workplace Alert learners on what they are to be expected to do at the end of the program Make the training practical – develop skills, rehearse change in behavior Provide coaching in the actual workplace Provide on the job aids
Ensure immediate support from administration Integrate training with workplace practice (never send a changed personnel in an unchanged workplace) Identify soft skills needed for success such as effective communication, conflict resolution, teamwork, leadership, etc.
Ask the following question to assess the appropriateness and adequacy of the training program: Are all those concerned included? Does it address the 5 key requirements for successful training? –Right learners –Right learning –Right method –Right time –Right environment How comprehensive is the training plan? Are resources adequate?
Sample Worksheet Action Plan 1/
Transformation and change will require a movement 9/ : From rewarding good intentions to rewarding performance results From a system where people follow rules to one in which people chase a sense of purpose From a system of territorial service monopolies to one of choice among competing providers 9/ Nelson, N.W., June 2007
From control over inputs to accountability for outcomes From an organization steeped in bureaucracy to one challenged by the imperatives of service From an ethic of distrust to a culture of high expectation
13 Tips for Managing Change 10/ 1. Educate the leaders of change, including both administrators and teachers 2. Use a “systems” approach to ensure that all aspects of the school organization are considered when planning and implementing change 3. Use a team approach that 4. involves many stakeholders 5. in the change process 10/ Dennis Sparks, National Staff Development Council
4. Share power with teachers and others to encourage the implementation of the change efforts 5. Make plans, but “hold your plans loosely.” Develop plans, but know that they will have to be adapted to change as needs change
6. Realize that there is a tension between establishing readiness for change and the need to get people implementing the new approaches quickly. While getting people intellectually ready for change is something to be considered, it should not take so much time and effort that people lose interest and motivation
7. Provide considerable amounts of training and staff development for those involved. These activities can include everything from holding study groups to “on-the-dash” coaching. 8. Choose innovative practices for and with teachers that are research-based and “classroom friendly.” Picking approaches that have been used or researched can help the implementation of those approaches.
9. Recognize that change happens only through people. The emotional effects of change on educators need to be considered and understood by all involved in the changes process. Understanding resistance and working with is key. 10. Be prepared for “Implementation dip.” Fullan (1993) and others note that things often get worse temporarily before improvement begins to appear.
11. Help educators and others develop an “intellectual understanding” of the new practices. While the outcomes are important to assess, people also need to understand the underlying meanings and functions of the practices. 12. Seek out “paradigm shifters” and “Idea champions” who are interested in making substantial changes in practice.
13. Take the long view; realize that change takes time and should not be forced to occur too quickly
The 5Cs – Strategies for Success Core – clarify purpose, roles, and direction of service Client – put the one to be served in the driver’s seat Consequences – pay the price in partnerships and resources Control – focus on results… empower, decentralize, collaborate Culture – appropriate change in mind set, expectations, habits
Given the nature of your project, the culture of your organization, and where the project will be implemented, –what problems or difficulties do you anticipate? –How do you propose to address each of them? Question: