Presentation on theme: "Montessori secondary schools: opportunities and obstacles Michael Rubinstein Mirjam Stefels."— Presentation transcript:
Montessori secondary schools: opportunities and obstacles Michael Rubinstein Mirjam Stefels
part 1 Secondary Montessori schools in the Netherlands
1930: Montessori Lyceum Amsterdam The first secondary Montessori school 2009: - 20 schools - 11.000 pupils
Educational system in The Netherlands Age 4-12 : Primary schools In Montessori schools: - group 1 and 2 - group 3, 4 and 5 - group 6, 7 and 8
Educational system in The Netherlands Age 12 – 18: Secondary schools Pre-vocational education: 4 years Senior general secondary education: 5 years Pre-university education: 6 years
Lycea combine streams and usually have two years of basic education in mixed streams Gymnasia are either part of pre- university education in lycea or separate schools Schools take part in a final examination, consisting of a nationwide part and specific school exams
Legal status of schools Public-authority education Private education: denominational and non-denominational All recognized schools receive (lump- sum) state funding - for teachers - educational materials - school buildings
Secondary Montessori schools in The Netherlands Main goal: create an environment in which children can develop themselves into independent adults No blueprint, but general Montessori principles e.g.: freedom in restraint freedom of choice independent learning
No Erdkinder schools, because: Boarding schools don’t fit in concept of family upbringing and contemporary pedagogical perspectives on growing up (youth culture; peer groups; work experience) Emphasis on relevance of pedagogical triangle child/family/school
Need for a shared perspective - General principles: ‘Montessori education for the 21 st century’ - Six characteristics of secondary Montessori education - Profile secondary Montessori teacher
‘Montessori education for the 21 st century’: modern translation of Montessori principles
6 characteristics Head, heart and hands Learning how to make choices Reflection Social learning Cohesion in subject matter In school and outside school
Learning how to make choices Choices: When? Where? With whom? How? What?
Reflection What have I learned? How do I tackle things?
Social learning Adolescence as sensitive period for social learning Difference between unintentional social learning and intentional social learning (for instance: cooperative learning)
Cohesion in subject matter Instead of cutting things up into subjects: attention for the big picture and relation (Montessori: ‘Cosmic education’) Cooperation between subjects
In school and outside school Authentic education, realistic assignments Link with motivation
Profile secondary Montessori teacher Knowledge of Montessori education Pedagogical attitude Designing the learning environment Coaching learning processes Concord between - role as teacher - role as member of the school organisation - handler of external contacts
Pedagogical attitude Trust Respect Involvement Dealing with differences Self-discipline Role model
Designing the learning environment A learning environment that fits all pupils A challenging environment Selecting and/or making materials Maintaining the learning environment
All houses are exactly alike; you may not change anything
The houses share a common ground Within the regulations of the community you have freedom in building your house
Time-out In buzz groups: What struck you as remarkable? Questions for panel discussions?
Part 2 Starting a secondary Montessori school Who takes the initiative? Who supports the initiative?
Parents Sometimes parents take the initiative to start a secondary school Parents need to trust the quality of the new school Involve parents right from the start
Teachers Teachers need knowledge and skills both in their subject and as Montessori teachers To set up a new school (or part of a school) requires facilities in time, materials and support School management needs to lend full support to teachers, otherwise opposition may arise
School management School managers need basic knowledge of Montessori education School managers need a supportive attitude towards teachers (empathy, patience, willingness to facilitate)
School board The school board needs the willingness to invest
Government Government (central or local) needs to give room for alternative education: - curriculum regulation - examination - finances
Finally: Organisation: - school or part of school? - separate building? Number of pupils required Support for teachers