Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Harlin. 4.1.1 Compare the structures and functions of the major biological molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) as related."— Presentation transcript:
4.1.1 Compare the structures and functions of the major biological molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) as related to the survival of living organisms.
1. Carbohydrates composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Ratio 1:2:1 Function: quick energy. Units are simple sugars called monosaccharides, such as glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). Disaccharides are double sugars such as sucrose (table sugar). Polysaccharides- starch (energy storage in plants), glycogen (energy storage in animals), cellulose (forms cell walls of plants).
Carbohydrates Heterotrophs- eat to obtain Autotrophs- make during photosynthesis in the chloroplast of their cells
Diabetes People who have diabetes do not produce enough insulin or cannot use insulin properly to regulate the amount of glucose in the blood.
2. Lipids Function- energy storage and structural component of plasma membrane (phospholipids). made of carbon and hydrogen with small amounts of oxygen. Subunits: triglycerides (3 fatty acid tails and a glycerol molecule) nonpolar, meaning not soluble in water. Ex: fats, oils, waxes, and steroids.
Clogged Arteries A diet with a lot of lipids will result in plaque deposits in your bloodstream which can cause heart disease.
3. Proteins Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. Function- growth and repair of cells; catalyzes reactions Building blocks or units are amino acids. 20 basic amino acids bonds between amino acids are called peptide bonds. Made at ribosomes in cells Ex: insulin, enzymes, hemoglobin
4. Nucleic Acids Function- genetic blueprint Complex; store information in the form of a code. Units are called nucleotides Types: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA Found in nucleus of cell.
Tests for Macromolecules Test NameChecking For?Color Change if Positive Iodine Test (Lugol's Test); (yellow soln)Starch (carbs)Blue/Black Brown Paper Bag TestLipids (fats)Leaves a translucent spot Benedict's Test (blue soln)Monosaccharides (carbs)Red, orange Biuret's Test (blue soln)ProteinViolet