Presentation on theme: "Over-Development to Promote Sustainable Tourism By Roselle Tenefrancia"— Presentation transcript:
1Over-Development to Promote Sustainable Tourism By Roselle Tenefrancia Boracay Island:A Case for ReversingOver-Development to Promote Sustainable TourismBy Roselle Tenefrancia10 July 2010Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2“Hardly has a last paradise been discovered than everyone converges on it so fast that it quickly becomes a paradise lost.”– A quote about Bali
7Part of Malay town in the province of Aklan AREA: 1, hectares ( sq km)
8uplifted remnants of ancient coral reef platform NAME: “BORACAY”BORAC - CottonBORA – BubblesBOCAY – WhitePhysical history:uplifted remnants of ancient coral reef platformmangrove systems and marine life and coral reef eco-systemSocio-cultural history:Atis – indigenous tribeFamilies from Malay/Aklan70s – discovered by movie “Too Late the Hero; German travel writer1. Balabag 2742. Manoc-manoc 4163. Yapak 316
9Boracay now… Remnants of unplanned mass tourism development with the factor of small-scale overdevelopmentMismanagement, lack of political will, conflicting personal business interests, politicking among the stakeholders, and the complacency of the residents and local communities
10Boracay now…what used to be a nature-destination became an island metropolis that resembles a mini urbanized city
11Impact of laws and policies and changes in political climate Boracay Island declared tourism zone and marine reserveBoracay island as an environmentally critical area – 19811983- recognition of the consequent problems incident to influx of tourists such as drug use, prostitution, illegal gathering of shells and corals and other illicit acts
12Impact of laws and policies and changes in political climate Mayor of Malay was also mandated to suspend the issuance of building permits for any structure on the Island until the Philippine Tourism Authority would promulgate a development plan1986 – People Power Revolution1990 – Development Master Plan1991 – devolution of tourism power to local governments
13Increase in tourist arrivals was the focus of the tourism authorities and the industry in recent yearsIN 2009almost 700,000 tourist arrivalsabout 8,000 room accommodations,about 300 resorts ranging from hostel-type to 5-star luxury accommodations and 500 restaurants, anda hundred different establishments, ranging from retail, transport and communication services, educational institutions, medical facilities, retail stores, supermarkets, repair shops, construction and property development companies, and many other services and establishments, 25,000 residents
14Expansion of the road network included filling up the waterway from the Dead Forest to the sea
16Construction projects are common sights on the Island all year round.
17Rapid developments in Boracay were ongoing without control or regulation from any authority.
18In 2004: New government: reiterated the 1978 proclamation and created Eminent Persons Group-Boracay One of its powers: Formulate plans for the sustainable development of tourism in BoracayLGC: assigns tourism development and promotions program to Provincial GovernmentComplementing with LGU
19In 2006Proclamation 1064controversial documentdeclared 400 hectares as forestland for protection and swamps – placing most of the existing land claimants under the mercy of the DENR and DOT rules regarding protection forests
20Introduction of the Forest Land Use Agreement for Tourism Purposes (FLAgT)
21Where is Boracay now? using the lifecycle model of Miller and Gallucci
22Tourist Arrivals in Boracay Year% of increase from previous year200516.49200610.9620077.6720086.2920092.41* the number of foreign tourists has declined beginning 2008 by 5%, while local tourists increased in number. In 2009, the number of foreign tourists also lowered by 2%.By 2018, DOT anticipates 27,600 residents living and Boracay and 2million tourist arrivals.
231997 Study on Carrying Capacity of Boracay Island (W 1997 Study on Carrying Capacity of Boracay Island (W.Trousdale) 16indicators using 5 parametersParameters IndicatorsPhysical Ground Water Quality - ExceededGround Water Quantity – UnsustainableMarine Water Quality – UnsustainableLand – Not exceeded Sewage – ExceededSolid Waste - ExceededTourist Perceptions Crowding – White Beach - UnsustainableCrowding – All Beaches - UnsustainableGeneral Perceptions – Unsustainable
241997 Study on Carrying Capacity of Boracay Island (W 1997 Study on Carrying Capacity of Boracay Island (W.Trousdale) 16indicators using 5 parametersResidents’ Perceptions General perceptions Unsustainable Transport Air Access – Not exceeded Boat Transport from Mainland – Not exceeded Roads and road system on the island Unsustainable; possible exceeded Vehicles - Exceeded Governance LGU Implementation of laws is a problem. Others (DENR, DOT, Regional government)
25Government Initiatives National CLUP – (15 years)strategic and specific measures on population management, education, health, housing, social welfare, protection and sports and recreation. The plan will serve as a blueprint for the development and management of Boracay in the next 15 years.National Boracay Environmental Master Plan – (25 years)examines the current state of the island as an ecosystemattempts to ensure the over-all sustainability of development in the Island,addresses environmental issues, andprescribes participatory governance
262009 Marine Parks: Angol Point Reef Tambisaan and Crocodile Reef Tulubhan ReefIlig-Iligan ReefBalinghai ReefLapus-Lapus ReefSa-Id Point ReefPunta-Bunga Reef (recently declared in 2009)Bunyugan Reef (recently declared in 2009)
27Private Sector Initiatives The Boracay Beach Management Plan (BBMP)offshoot of a coral restoration project that was started five years ago;“holistic” – from hill to coral reefscomprehensive management of resources to rehabilitate the coral reefsimplementation with the LGU and national enforcement agencies
30Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay CLUP, Boracay Environmental Master Plan, and Marine Parks, and TEZBack to Naturemanaging the marine protected areas (marine parks)rehabilitation of the mangrove systems
34Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay Large-scale sustainable tourism development over small-scale overdevelopment.the Boracay experience has shown that in aggregate, a number of small-scale developments had more damaging power to the island.more sustainable in terms of efficiency and monitoring capabilities to lessen or mitigate impact of tourism activities within an area
35Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay Community Action Greenpeace: Save the Climate Save Boracay
36Boracay Young Professionals (YUPPIES) Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay Community ActionBoracay Young Professionals (YUPPIES)Weekly Beach Clean up and Awareness Campaign in schools- Dutch Bikes
37Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay Community Action Recycled Art in Boracay
38Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay Community Action A printed and online community newspaper by Boracay for the world.
39Laws and Governance mechanisms in place Environmental Impact Assessment System for Environmentally Critical Projects and AreasThe Tourism Act of 2009 that governs the Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Authority and the Tourism Enterprise Zonesthe Proclamation 1064 vis-à-vis the Guidelines for the Forest Land Use Agreement for Tourism Purposesthe Boracay Environmental Master Planthe Comprehensive Land Use Planthe local ordinances declaring Marine Parksand the rules and regulations being implemented by the various enforcement groups on Boracay Island