Presentation on theme: "Boracay Island: A Case for Reversing Over-Development to Promote Sustainable Tourism By Roselle Tenefrancia 10 July 2010 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia."— Presentation transcript:
Boracay Island: A Case for Reversing Over-Development to Promote Sustainable Tourism By Roselle Tenefrancia 10 July 2010 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
“Hardly has a last paradise been discovered than everyone converges on it so fast that it quickly becomes a paradise lost.” – A quote about Bali “Hardly has a last paradise been discovered than everyone converges on it so fast that it quickly becomes a paradise lost.” – A quote about Bali
The distinct presence of the “flying foxes” is certainly an added feature that makes this famed island even more special.
BORACAY ISLAND, MALAY,, AKLAN CENTRAL PHLIPPINES
AREA: 1, hectares ( sq km) Part of Malay town in the province of Aklan
NAME: “BORACAY” BORAC - Cotton BORA – Bubbles BOCAY – White Physical history: uplifted remnants of ancient coral reef platform mangrove systems and marine life and coral reef eco-system Socio-cultural history: Atis – indigenous tribe Families from Malay/Aklan 70s – discovered by movie “Too Late the Hero; German travel writer 1. Balabag Manoc-manoc Yapak 316
Boracay now… Remnants of unplanned mass tourism development with the factor of small-scale overdevelopment Mismanagement, lack of political will, conflicting personal business interests, politicking among the stakeholders, and the complacency of the residents and local communities
Boracay now… what used to be a nature-destination became an island metropolis that resembles a mini urbanized city
Impact of laws and policies and changes in political climate Boracay Island declared tourism zone and marine reserve Boracay island as an environmentally critical area – recognition of the consequent problems incident to influx of tourists such as drug use, prostitution, illegal gathering of shells and corals and other illicit acts
Impact of laws and policies and changes in political climate Mayor of Malay was also mandated to suspend the issuance of building permits for any structure on the Island until the Philippine Tourism Authority would promulgate a development plan 1986 – People Power Revolution 1990 – Development Master Plan 1991 – devolution of tourism power to local governments
Increase in tourist arrivals was the focus of the tourism authorities and the industry in recent years IN 2009 almost 700,000 tourist arrivals about 8,000 room accommodations, about 300 resorts ranging from hostel-type to 5-star luxury accommodations and 500 restaurants, and a hundred different establishments, ranging from retail, transport and communication services, educational institutions, medical facilities, retail stores, supermarkets, repair shops, construction and property development companies, and many other services and establishments, 25,000 residents
Expansion of the road network included filling up the waterway from the Dead Forest to the sea
Bay walk along the new road
Construction projects are common sights on the Island all year round.
Rapid developments in Boracay were ongoing without control or regulation from any authority.
In 2004: New government: reiterated the 1978 proclamation and created Eminent Persons Group-Boracay One of its powers: Formulate plans for the sustainable development of tourism in Boracay LGC: assigns tourism development and promotions program to Provincial Government Complementing with LGU
In 2006 Proclamation 1064 controversial document declared 400 hectares as forestland for protection and swamps – placing most of the existing land claimants under the mercy of the DENR and DOT rules regarding protection forests
Introduction of the Forest Land Use Agreement for Tourism Purposes (FLAgT)
Where is Boracay now? using the lifecycle model of Miller and Gallucci
By 2018, DOT anticipates 27,600 residents living and Boracay and 2million tourist arrivals. Year % of increase from previous year Tourist Arrivals in Boracay * the number of foreign tourists has declined beginning 2008 by 5%, while local tourists increased in number. In 2009, the number of foreign tourists also lowered by 2%.
1997 Study on Carrying Capacity of Boracay Island (W.Trousdale) 16indicators using 5 parameters Parameters Indicators PhysicalGround Water Quality - Exceeded Ground Water Quantity – Unsustainable Marine Water Quality – Unsustainable Land – Not exceeded Sewage – Exceeded Solid Waste - Exceeded Tourist PerceptionsCrowding – White Beach - Unsustainable Crowding – All Beaches - Unsustainable General Perceptions – Unsustainable
1997 Study on Carrying Capacity of Boracay Island (W.Trousdale) 16indicators using 5 parameters Residents’ PerceptionsGeneral perceptions Unsustainable TransportAir Access – Not exceeded Boat Transport from Mainland – Not exceeded Roads and road system on the island Unsustainable; possible exceeded Vehicles - Exceeded GovernanceLGU Implementation of laws is a problem. Others (DENR, DOT, Regional government)
Government Initiatives National CLUP – (15 years) strategic and specific measures on population management, education, health, housing, social welfare, protection and sports and recreation. The plan will serve as a blueprint for the development and management of Boracay in the next 15 years. National Boracay Environmental Master Plan – (25 years) examines the current state of the island as an ecosystem attempts to ensure the over-all sustainability of development in the Island, addresses environmental issues, and prescribes participatory governance
2009 Marine Parks: Angol Point Reef Tambisaan and Crocodile Reef Tulubhan Reef Ilig-Iligan Reef Balinghai Reef Lapus-Lapus Reef Sa-Id Point Reef Punta-Bunga Reef (recently declared in 2009) Bunyugan Reef (recently declared in 2009)
Private Sector Initiatives The Boracay Beach Management Plan (BBMP) offshoot of a coral restoration project that was started five years ago; “holistic” – from hill to coral reefs comprehensive management of resources to rehabilitate the coral reefs implementation with the LGU and national enforcement agencies
Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay CLUP, Boracay Environmental Master Plan, and Marine Parks, and TEZ Back to Nature – managing the marine protected areas (marine parks) – rehabilitation of the mangrove systems
Protecting Marine Life
Rehabilitation of the Forests
Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay Large-scale sustainable tourism development over small-scale overdevelopment. – the Boracay experience has shown that in aggregate, a number of small-scale developments had more damaging power to the island. – more sustainable in terms of efficiency and monitoring capabilities to lessen or mitigate impact of tourism activities within an area
Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay Community Action Greenpeace: Save the Climate Save Boracay
Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay Community Action Boracay Young Professionals (YUPPIES) – Weekly Beach Clean up and Awareness Campaign in schools - Dutch Bikes
Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay Community Action Recycled Art in Boracay
Ecotourism Options and Sustainable Tourism for Boracay Community Action A printed and online community newspaper by Boracay for the world.
Laws and Governance mechanisms in place Environmental Impact Assessment System for Environmentally Critical Projects and Areas The Tourism Act of 2009 that governs the Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Authority and the Tourism Enterprise Zones the Proclamation 1064 vis-à-vis the Guidelines for the Forest Land Use Agreement for Tourism Purposes the Boracay Environmental Master Plan the Comprehensive Land Use Plan the local ordinances declaring Marine Parks and the rules and regulations being implemented by the various enforcement groups on Boracay Island