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SWITCH ON WEBEX 1. How To Do Things With Diagrams September 13, 2012 Barry Smith 2.

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Presentation on theme: "SWITCH ON WEBEX 1. How To Do Things With Diagrams September 13, 2012 Barry Smith 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 SWITCH ON WEBEX 1

2 How To Do Things With Diagrams September 13, 2012 Barry Smith 2

3 How to do things, with diagrams 3 Wiggers Diagram, Cardiac Cycle, Left Ventricle

4 4

5

6 Two directions of fit world-to-mind and mind-to-world direction of fit what begins as a plan, ends as a record (whose truthmaker – if it is a true record – is: the journey you took) 6

7 Create an intellectual property right from original Danish Patent DK92683C for Leggo bricks (Legetøjsbyggeelement) 7

8 How to do things with diagrams create a real estate parcel 8

9 Create a country Sykes-Piqyot agreement, 16 May

10 10 Some more examples musical score blueprint, building plan organizational chart military operations plan

11 11 Overview speech acts vs. document acts –speech acts are evanescent –documents endure, and so can be used in multiple ways in succession documents can tie people together in complex endeavors (often: via diagrams) the different types of institutional systems to which documents belong more on time series graphs

12 12 Types of Speech Act 1.We tell people how things are (assertives) 2.We try to get them to do things (directives) 3.We commit ourselves to doing things (commissives) 4.We bring about changes in the world through utterances (declarations) (“I name this ship...”) 5.We express our feelings and attitudes (expressives)

13 Directions of fit mind-to-world: an assertion is about something in the world world-to-mind: a request is designed to change the world to conform to the mind of the requester automatic mind-to-world-and-world-to- mind: I say “I promise to pay you $1000 dollars” and thereby make it true that I promise to pay you $1000 dollars 13

14 14 The Searle thesis claims and obligations and deontic powers* are brought into existence by the performance of speech acts (acts of promising, marrying, accusing... ) The Construction of Social Reality (1989) * rights, relations of authority, debts, property-relations, permissions,...

15 15 Speech acts and document acts can create new kinds of entities such as organizations, rules, prices, debts, standardized transactions Searle: We make it the case by Declaration that a Y status function exists in a context C (Making the Social World, 2010, p. 13). Standing declaration: “ I declare (by posting this notice in my café) that the price for Kronenbourg demi today will be 10 Belgian Francs”

16 16

17 17 One-off, one-person obligations One-off obligation-creations: I request that you bring me a beer. By signing this IOU note I commit myself to paying you $1000 next Tuesday.

18 Group obligations 18

19 Obligation-creations can form networks signatures link to persons and acts of acceptance stamps link to administrative offices alphanumeric IDs link to multiple other documents 19 Diagram with deontic powers

20 Obligation-creations can form series 20

21 Diagram-vehiculated question series 21

22 the line between diagrams and documents and between both of these is not sharp increasingly, too, we will need to deal also with algorithmically enhanced diagrams / documents

23

24

25 Blueprint 25

26 Diagrams as continuants time 1: blueprint as plan (world-to-mind direction of fit) time 2: blueprint as record of process of building of product (mind-to-world direction of fit) 26

27 Diagrams with deontic powers chain of commitments  from order  to blueprint creation  to acceptance of blueprint  to process of building in accordance with blueprint  to acceptance of finished building 27

28 Diagrams create, but they also can be used to amend, e.g. an organization 28 =====

29 and also to annul 29 ΑΚΥΡΟΣ

30 Obligation series distributed across large groups 30

31 and can be steered by diagrams e.g. by those sorts of diagrams and nested sub- diagrams we call musical scores 31

32 scores and subscores plans and subplans 32

33 33 Hector Berlioz, Le corsaire, Overture, H 101

34 How to do things, with diagrams An orchestral musical work (as something that can be rehearsed, performed and reperformed) –could not exist without a score –could not be rehearsed without scores and subscores –could not be performed without (either) scores or rehearsal 34

35 How to do things with scores 1.the author authors the score, thereby creates a possibility of performance 2.he thereby creates, and at the same time baptizes, the work 3.conductor and orchestra use the score to form a plan (including subplans) and commit themselves to its execution 4.they use the score as a set of instructions to rehearse execution of their plan (develop score-coordinated expertise) 5.they may mark up their copies of the score to add instructions 6.they schedule a concert, thereby committing themselves to a prospective audience to perform that work 7.they perform that work 8.they may mark up their copy of the score to record errors in that performance 35

36 Directions of fit automatic score-to-world-and-world-to-score: Berlioz completes the score and thereby brings into being a work that is precisely in conformance to the score world-to-score: the score tells the world how to shape itself to create a performance that is in conformance with the score score-to-world: the score, when the performance is completed, serves as a record of the performance 36

37 The role of shared practice This sort of coordinated activity is impossible without shared expertise, developed –through training and individual practice –through practice and rehearsal in small group, yielding –reusable, recombinable expertise modules 37

38 training in how to execute diagrams 38

39 Army uses big diagrams 39

40 40 US military operations center in Afghanistan and elaborately nested subdiagrams

41 41 Warfighters’ Information Sharing Environment Fire Support LogisticsAir Operations Intelligence Civil-Military Operations Targeting Maneuver & Blue Force Tracking

42 military plan (map overlay)

43 Military Symbology Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology Symbols for Military Organizations Depict functions/capabilities Depict Roles: Friend, Adversary, Neutral

44 Military Symbology Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

45 Military Symbology Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

46 Military Symbology Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology Buildings, Structures, Vehicles, Formations, Geographic Areas, and People can all be in a Target_Role for a period of time These symbols designate Targets on a map A Target_Role is created by way of the targeting process A Role is a Temporal Property of some entity

47 Military Symbology Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

48 Military Symbology Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

49 Map Overlays

50 Task Organizing Ontological methods are used in the process of Task-Organizing A Task-Organization is the Output (Product) of Task Organizing A Task-Organization is a Plan or part of a Plan A Plan is an Information Content Entity Task-Organizing — The act of designing an operating force, support staff, or logistic package of specific size and composition to meet a unique task or mission. Characteristics to examine when task-organizing the force include, but are not limited to: training, experience, equipage, sustainability, operating environment, enemy threat, and mobility. (JP 3-05)

51 Operational Design Source: FM 3-0 Operations Military Ontologies help planners and operators “see” and understand the relations between Entities and Events in the area of operations. Military Ontologies are prerequisites of military innovations such as Airborne Operations, Combined Fires and Joint Operations. Military Ontologies are prerequisites for the creation of effective information systems. Operational Design — The conception and construction of the framework that underpins a campaign or major operation plan and its subsequent execution. See also campaign; major operation. (JP 3-0)

52 part of D-Day invasion plan

53 Military doctrine 53 Creates training modules to create expertise modules and operational modules to be turned into operational plans and nested subplans

54 54

55 Targeting Ontology 55

56 OODA Loop The Terrain Modeling process is a doctrinally endorsed way of representing (i.e. ontologizing) the Warfighters’ operational environment Terrain Models represent the entities and events that make up the area of operations

57 Protected Targets 57

58 Target Data 58 Target Report A Report which contains information used in the Targeting Process. (FM 3-60 The Targeting Process) Target Number Designative Information ContentEntity which denotes some object considered for possible engagement or other action (derived from Field Manual 3-60 The Targeting Process) " Target Description A Descriptive Information Content Entity which describes the characteristics of some object that is in a Target Role (FM 3-60 The Targeting Process) "

59 59

60 60 what is a target?

61 61 Amazai and Nawagai Sura Road Intersection ?

62 62 Lat: Long: ?

63 63 Data and physical locations

64 64

65 65 Information Content Entity Geospatial Entity Entity Road Intersection Property Physical Property Geospatial Reference Point Designative Information Content Entity Physical Location Key: Ontology Elements Relations Data Elements is_a String: Amazai and Nawagai Sura Road Intersection TRP: AB 001WPT: EZ497 Lat: Long: MGRS: TF is_a denotes Common Upper Ontology Data Model Elements has_role has_property

66 Targeting Organizations Joint Targeting Steering Group A group formed by a combatant commander to assist in developing targeting guidance and reconciling competing requests for assets from multiple joint task forces. (This term and its definition are approved for inclusion in the next edition of JP 1-02.) Joint Targeting Coordination Board A group formed by the joint force commander to accomplish broad targeting oversight functions that may include but are not limited to coordinating targeting information, providing targeting guidance and priorities, and refining the joint integrated prioritized target list.

67 Targeting Events Act of Targeting An Act Of Planning which is the process of selecting and prioritizing targets and matching the appropriate responses to them, considering operational requirements and capabilities (Joint Publication 1-02 DoD Dictionary) Act of Target Development An Act Of Planning consisting of the systematic examination of potential targets--and their components, individual targets, and even elements of targets--to determine the necessary type and duration of the action the must be exerted on each target to create an effect that is consistent with the commander's specific objectives (JP 1-02 DoD Dictionary)

68 Targets exist because of Target Roles Area Target: A target consisting of an area rather than a single point. Intelligence Target: A country, area, installation, agency, or person against which intelligence operations are directed. Target Role: A Role wherein some entity or object is considered for possible engagement or other action.

69 Symbols on map overlays create targets Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology Buildings, Structures, Vehicles, Formations, Geographic Areas, and People can all be in a Target_Role for a period of time These symbols designate Targets on a map A Target_Role is created by way of the targeting process A Role is a Temporal Property of some entity

70 Target Shapes

71 ‘Target’ is a phase sortal Area Target: A target consisting of an area rather than a single point. Intelligence Target: A country, area, installation, agency, or person against which intelligence operations are directed. Target Role: A Role wherein some entity or object is considered for possible engagement or other action.

72 Targeting is possible because of plans and nested subplans of targeting organizations Act of Targeting An Act Of Planning which is the process of selecting and prioritizing targets and matching the appropriate responses to them, considering operational requirements and capabilities (Joint Publication 1-02 DoD Dictionary) Act of Target Development An Act Of Planning consisting of the systematic examination of potential targets--and their components, individual targets, and even elements of targets--to determine the necessary type and duration of the action the must be exerted on each target to create an effect that is consistent with the commander's specific objectives (JP 1-02 DoD Dictionary)

73 Michael Bratman’s theory of Joint Intentional Activities (JIAs) From Titus Stahl. Beyond Plans and Practices: Law as Collective Intentional Institutions

74 Expanding Bratman’s theory through the idea of diagrammatic nesting of plans authorities intentions obligations expertise modules cf. Scott Shapiro, “Massively Shared Agency”, in M. Vargas and G. Yaffe, eds., Rational and Social Agency: Essays on the Philosophy of Michael Bratman (New York: Oxford University Press, in press)

75 ontology of law as a theory of diagrammatically mediated phase sortals

76 End 76


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