This is the value of the teacher, who looks at a face and says there's something behind that and I want to reach that person, I want to influence that person, I want to encourage that person, I want to enrich, I want to call out that person who is behind that face, behind that color, behind that language, behind that tradition, behind that culture. I believe you can do it. I know what was done for me. —Maya Angelou
Objectives Participants will: Gain a deeper understanding of why (as a philosophy) and how to differentiate (what to do) instruction. Brainstorm ideas and plan using differentiation strategies. Share suggestions for effectively implementing differentiation in the classroom.
Qualities of Effective Teachers The following are some of the key qualities of effective teachers: Have formal teacher preparation training. Hold certification of some kind (standard, alternative, or provisional) and are certified within their fields. Have taught for at least three years. Are caring, fair, and respectful. Hold high expectations for themselves and their students. Dedicate extra time to instructional preparation and reflection. Maximize instructional time via effective classroom management and organization. Enhance instruction by varying instructional strategies, activities, and assignments. Present content to students in a meaningful way that fosters understanding. Monitor students' learning by utilizing pre- and post assessments, providing timely and informative feedback, and reteaching material to students who did not achieve mastery. Demonstrate effectiveness with the full range of student abilities in their classrooms, regardless of the academic diversity of the students. Linking Teacher Evaluation and Student Learning by Pamela D. Tucker and James H. Stronge
What Is Differentiation? A teacher’s response to learner needs Responsive instruction An approach to teaching that advocated active planning for student differences in classrooms. The philosophy proposes that what we bring to school as learners matters in how we learn
One Size Doesn’t Fit All “Students differ from one to another in size, shape, and social development. Students also learn differently. Teachers can no longer teach “The Lesson” and hope that everyone gets it.” “Much has been researched and written about classroom climate and the need for a safe, nurturing environment with high challenge and low threat where all learners can thrive.” Everyone needs feedback. Teachers and students need to exchange constant feedback to monitor progress and to adjust learning. It has been said that assessment drives the curriculum. Teachers need pre-assessment tools to plan for learning as well as ongoing assessment tools to use during and after the learning process. After pre-assessment, teachers need to examine the data and adjust the learning based on students’ knowledge, skills, past experiences, preferences and needs. (adjusting, compacting, grouping)
Discussion Question What are the many factors you will take into account as you plan to differentiate instruction in your classroom? Turn and share at your table.
Discussion continued… Schools are like airport hubs; student passengers arrive from many different backgrounds for widely divergent destinations. Their particular take offs into adulthood will demand different flight plans (Levine, 2002, p. 336) What are the many factors you will take into account as you plan to differentiate instruction in your classroom?
ContentProductEnvironment According to Students’ Readiness Interest Learning Profile Teachers Can Differentiate Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999). Process
A Side-by-side comparison TraditionalDifferentiated Grouping—considerations include Ability levels and seating arrangementsStudent readiness, interest, and learning styles Reactive to learning or behavioral problemsProactive to enhance student learning experiences Instructional Planning and Delivery Goals and objectives are based primarily on pacing and alignment guides Goals and objectives are based on student needs Driven by coverage of textbook(s)Incorporate multiple resources, including textbook(s) Primarily whole-class instructionUtilize a variety of instructional strategies Lesson designed without knowing your students wellKnow students well enough to design instructional units/lessons Teacher-centeredStudent-centered Skills and factual information presented in isolationSkills and factual information related to key concepts and themes Whole-class assignmentsVariety of assignments Often limited to remediation of skills or additional assignments for enrichment Assignments designed to validate differences and foster self-efficacy of all students Often a variety of activities and worksheets Allow students to learn how they learn/allow them to show how they process and show their learning Assessments A single definition of student success is usedStudent success is measured by growth. Often a single correct answer Often multiple solutions and perspectives through authentic assessments Primarily occurs after the instructionOn-going assessments Used to determine gradesUsed to inform next-step instruction Single form of assessment is often used for whole classMultiple ways to assessment student mastery
Academic Learning Time (ALT) Academic Learning Time refers to that portion of engaged time that students spend working on tasks at an appropriate level of difficulty for them and experiencing high levels of success (excludes time spent engaging in tasks which are too easy or too difficult). Evidence of success includes answering questions correctly in class and completing assignments with a high degree of accuracy. Academic learning time excludes the time that students make many mistakes or appear to be confused. Review of the Literature on “Time and Learning” The Core Academic Learning Time Group, March 2002
The Cogs of Differentiated Instruction The Student Seeks: Affirmation Contribution Power Purpose Challenge The Teacher Responds: Invitation Opportunity Investment Persistence Reflection Curriculum and Instruction as the Vehicle: Important Focused Engaging Demanding Scaffolded
Because teachers want to know… How can I meet the needs of all my students? UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING A set of principles for curriculum development that applies to the general education curriculum to promote learning environments that meet the needs of all learners
Universal design for Learning UDL at a Glance UDL provides a blueprint for creating instructional goals, methods, materials, and assessments that work for everyone--not a single, one-size-fits-all solution but rather flexible approaches that can be customized and adjusted for individual needs.
K.MD.2 Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/ “less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. Multiple Means of Representation Multiple Means of Action/Expression Multiple Means of Engagement Best Bug Parade by Stuart J. Murhy Comparing teddy bears Comparing rubber snakes or bugs Label cards with snakes or bugs Caterpillar line-up MD Task 1a with Unifix cube trains Modeling with students Class search-what is longer than___? Group poster project- what is shorter or longer than___? What Why How
4.MD.3 Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. Multiple Means of Representation Multiple Means of Action/Expression Multiple Means of Engagement Spaghetti and Meatballs for All by Marilyn Burns Modeling with color tiles “A New Pool for Noah” or “Mrs. Burk Perimeter Rap” on Teacher Tube Chalkboard Splash Role play/act out area and perimeter Room Blueprint Design Design and produce own videos “Flower Bed Challenge” or other real-world purpose What Why How
Differentiation Strategies All strategies are aligned with instructional goals and objectives. Specific strategy selection based on – Focus of instruction – Focus of differentiation
Assessment in the Differentiated Classroom Ongoing Instruction-dependent Student-dependent Informative for continued instruction
Tips for Implementing Differentiated Instruction: Your Classroom Get to know your students Start slowly – One subject/one technique Organize your classroom space.
Teacher Station 1 Teacher Station 2 Group Assignments Schedule Inboxes Bookshelf
Where Do I Go From Here? Resources Collaboration PBS Teacherline Project Based Learning Assessment : Curriculum-based measurement Curriculum and Instruction UDL A-Z Integrate to Differentiate Gradual Release of Responsibility Model 21 st Century Understanding Digital Children Infographics MI For Example Interpersonal Graphics
Next Steps! What differentiation strategies will you implement in your classrooms? Turn and talk to your table.