Presentation on theme: "Biology of the Individual"— Presentation transcript:
1Biology of the Individual Objective 2: demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems.Biology of the Individual
2The Very Basics, CellsKnow that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions.
3Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules.
6ChromosomesA chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells.It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences.Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions.The chromosomes are located in the nucleus.Humans have 23 pairs.
7Gene A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism. All living things depend on genes.Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to offspring.Genes are located on the chromosomes.
8OrganellesIn cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid membrane.A very small organ. It has a specific job to do.
9NucleolusThe nucleolus is a non- membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus.
10Nucleusthe nucleus is sometimes referred to as the "control center“ of the cell, is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins to form chromosomes.It holds the instructions for the cell.
11RibosomesRibosomes are the components of cells that make proteins from amino acids.They are located outside the nucleus.mRNA travels to the ribosomes to meet with tRNA to make amino acids and then proteins.
12Vesicle A vesicle is a bubble of liquid within a cell. More technically, a vesicle is a small, intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances within a cell.
13Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an eukaryotic organelle that forms an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles, and cisternae within cells.Cisternae may also refer to flattened regions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.ER is like the plumbing.
14Golgi ApparatusThe Golgi apparatus (also called the Golgi bodies, Golgi complexThe primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package macromolecules, such as proteins and lipids, after their synthesis and before they make their way to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion. The Golgi apparatus forms a part of the cellular endomembrane system.
15CytoskeletonThe cytoskeleton (also CSK) is a cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained within the cytoplasm that is made out of protein.The cytoskeleton is present in all cells.It gives the cell form, support, and structure.
16CytoplasmThe cytoplasm is the part of a cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane.
17Cell MembraneThe cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane) is one biological membrane separating the interior of a cell from the outside environment.The cell membrane surrounds all cells and it is semi- permeable, controlling the movement of substances in and out of cells.
18Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) has functions in several metabolic processes, including synthesis of lipids and steroids, metabolism of carbohydrates, regulation of calcium concentration, drug detoxification, attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins, and steroid metabolism.
19MitochondriaA mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane- enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of (ATP) adenosine triphosphate, used as a source of the chemical energy.In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.
20Lysosomes Lysosomes are the cells' garbage disposal system. Lysosomes are spherical organelles that contain enzymes (acid hydrolases).They break up food so it is easier to digest.They are found in animal cells.Lysosomes digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.
22Plant CellPlant cells have the same organelles as animal cells with the addition of a cell wall and chloroplasts.Cell walls give structure, connections and support.Chloroplasts are what make plants green and produce food for the plant through photosynthesis.
24Chloroplasts (only in Plant Cells) Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis.Chloroplasts capture light energy to conserve free energy in the form of ATP through a complex set of processes called photosynthesis.The word chloroplast is derived from the Greek words chloros, which means green, and plast, which means form or entity
25Cell Wall (only in Plant Cells) A cell wall is a tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells.It is located outside the cell membrane and provides these cells with structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism.A major function of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel, preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell.Animals and protozoa do not have cell walls.
26VirusesViruses are not considered living things because they lack the ability to reproduce on their own.They must attach to a host cell and use its DNA to reproduce.Viruses look like space ships that have spikes and receptors sticking out.
27DNA & RNAKnow the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics
28Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA.Explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA).Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations and evaluate the significance of these changes.
29DNA - DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID DNA is sometimes called "the blueprint of life" because it contains the code, or instructions for building and organism and ensuring that organism functions correctly.Just like a builder uses a blueprint to build a house, DNA is used as the blueprint, or plans, for the entire organism.
30It is the chemical component of chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of every cell. Segments of DNA (or bands on chromosomes) code for genes.Gene - a segment of DNA that codes for a protein, which in turn codes for a trait (skin tone, eye color..etc), a gene is a segment of DNA.The structure of DNA was established by James Watson, Francis Crick & Maurice Wilkins.
31Basic Shape of DNAThe shape of the DNA molecule is a double-helix (like a twisted ladder).The sides of the ladder are composed of alternating sugars (deoxyribose) and phosphates.The rungs of the ladder are composed of nitrogen base pairs.The rungs of the ladder can occur in any order (as long as the base-pair rule is followed)For instance, a segment of DNA could be AATGACCAT - which would code for a different gene than a segment that read: GGGCCATAG.All in all, there are billions of (nitrogen base, phosphate deoxyribose) groups in cells, which code for all the things an organism needs to function.
32Parts: The rungs of the ladder, the base where you stand. Nucleotides (3 part structure:nitrogen base, phosphate,deoxyribose)Adenine, Thymine, Guanine,Cytosine or A, T, G, CBases pair in a specific way - called the Base-Pair RuleAdenine pairs to Thymine: T & AGuanine pairs to Cytosine: G & C
39DNA REPLICATIONReplication is the process where DNA makes a copy of itself.Why does DNA need to copy? Simple: Cells divide for an organism to grow or reproduce, every new cell needs a copy of the DNA or instructions to know how to be a cell.DNA replicates right before a cell divides.DNA replication is semi-conservative. That means that when it makes a copy, one half of the old strand is always kept in the new strand. This helps reduce the number of copy errors.
40Replication The way DNA makes exact copies. It splits down the bases and makes exact copies of itself.
41Transcription When DNA untwists and separates and produces mRNA RNA is formed by bonding to DNA
43RNA Ribonucleic AcidDNA remains in the nucleus, but in order for it to get its instructions translated into proteins, it must send its message to the ribosomes, where proteins are made.The chemical used to carry this message is Messenger RNA mRNA
44RNA is similar to DNA except: 1. has one strand instead of two strands.2. has uracil instead of thymine3. has ribose instead of deoxyribose, a different sugarmRNA has the job of taking the message from the DNA to the nucleus to the ribosomes.
46Types of RNASeveral types of RNA are synthesized in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Of particular interest are:messenger RNA (mRNA). This will later be translated into a polypeptide.transfer RNA (tRNA). RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the growing polypeptide.There are some others that you do not need to know now.
47DNA mRNA tRNA Translation Translation - Proteins are made from the message on the RNADNAmRNAtRNATranslationTranscription
48TranslationThe mRNA goes to the ribozones and tRNA makes amino acids then proteins.
49Proteins are MademRNA has the job of taking the message from the DNA to the nucleus to the ribosomes.
50Gene Transcription: DNA → mRNA DNA serves as the template for the synthesis of mRNA.
51Messenger RNA (mRNA)Messenger RNA comes in a wide range of sizes reflecting the size of the polypeptide it encodes. Most cells produce small amounts of thousands of different mRNA molecules, each to be translated into a peptide needed by the cell.Many mRNAs are common to most cells, encoding "housekeeping" proteins needed by all cells (e.g. the enzymes of glycolysis).Other mRNAs are specific for only certain types of cells. These encode proteins needed for the function of that particular cell (e.g., the mRNA for hemoglobin in the precursors of red blood cells).
52Transfer RNA (tRNA)Each tRNA carries one of the 20 amino acids (thus most amino acids have more than one tRNA responsible for them).Base pairing between tRNA with its amino acid and its corresponding mRNA brings the correct amino acid into the growing polypeptide chain which forms a protein.
53Summary Gene expression occurs in two steps: transcription of the information encoded in DNA into a molecule of RNA.translation of the information encoded in the nucleotides of mRNA into a defined sequence of amino acids in a protein.DNA mRNA tRNA Proteins
58Gene A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism. All living things depend on genes.Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to offspring.Genes are located on the chromosomes.
59Heterozygous ; Homozygous Genes: Units of heredity information that consist of DNA and are located on chromosomes.Genes can exist in alternative forms called alleles.An allele is an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome.Heterozygous refers to having two different alleles for a single trait.Homozygous refers to having identical alleles for a single trait.
62ClassificationKnow applications of taxonomy and can identify its limitations.
63Taxonomy means top classify or put into like groups. Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans (bacteria), protists, fungi, plants, and animals.The classification names are usually in Latin, so you will see some funny names.
64Classification Kingdom King Phylum Phillip Class Came Order Over Families ForGeneis GreatSpecies Spaghettimore specificmore alike
65Kingdoms Archaebacteria Live in harsh environments Eubacteria Protista FungiPlantaeAnimaliaViruses are not included because they cannot reproduce without a host.
66SystemsKnow that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits.
67Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune.Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole.
68Body Systems The structure of everything: Atom Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organisms Populations Communities Ecosystems BiomesLife starts with the cell and moves upward becoming more connected and more complicated.
69The Human Body must maintain homeostasis (a balance) The Human Body must maintain homeostasis (a balance). The organs of the body work together in organ systems to perform specific functions.Organ systems are connected and work together to allow the body to function.Homeostasis: to keep the same.
70Integumentary System The skin, hair, and nails. Keeps the insides in and the outsides out.Protects, prevents infection, and maintains body temperature by sweating and goose bumps.
71Skeletal System The structural framework of the body. Protects the vital organs.Produces red blood cells.The muscles are attached to them so they can pull.
72Muscular System Gives the body movement through contractions. Makes the body organs work:the heart pumps blood through the body;the lungs breath in and out; the digestive system moves food in and out.Forms simple machines with the bones so the body can do work through mechanical advantage.
73Nervous System The brain, spinal cord, the senses. It controls the other body systems.It gathers information and reacts to it.It maintains homeostasis.
74Endocrine System The chemical plant of the body. It produces the hormones and other chemicals that your body needsto grow and mature.Your glands.It causes puberty.
75Reproductive System To make babies; To keep the species going. Female: ovaries: ovumMale: testis: spermatozoa (sperm)Sex cells are called gametes, a fertilized egg is called a zygote.
76Circulatory SystemTo move blood around the body that carries nutrition (food) and oxygen to the cells and to remove waste and carbon dioxide from them.The blood carries the waste to other systems for removal and goes to other systems to get more good stuff.Includes: Heart, blood cellsveins, and arteries.
77Respiratory SystemBreathing. In with the oxygen (O2) and out with the carbon dioxide (CO2).Gas exchange with bloods help..Nose and mouth, throat, lungs.
78Immune System Your body’s defenses. Fights infection, white blood cells, fever.Helper T Cells macrophages turn on the immune response and start attaching invaders.The AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus attaches the Helper T Cells so they cannot fight off infection.
79Digestive System Eating food, nutrition. Food in, chew, swallow, into the stomach, stomach churns and with acid digests it, into small intestines where the nutrients are passed to the red blood cells and taken to other cells, the waste from the other cells are deposited into the large intestines by the red blood cells where it is mixed with fluids and eliminated.It’s the food in and out system.
80Excretory System The body’s liquid waste removal system. Red blood cells pass through the kidneys where the blood is filtered removing the waste.Kidneys ureter blatter urethra out flush.
81Body Systems You must know how they work together. How one helps the other.