2008 History and Social Science Standards of Learning Resources and Teaching Strategies
2 2008 History and Social Science Standards of Learning Resources Standards of Learning SOL Curriculum Framework SOL Enhanced Scope and Sequence Assessment Information SOL Maps and Documents for History and Social Science Web sites for: K-3, Virginia’s First People, Mali, Virginia Studies, United States History, Global Learning, Archaeology: Ice Age Discoveries, and Everyday Civics Virginia on iTunes U Professional Development Opportunities
4 The Curriculum Framework amplifies the Standards of Learning by defining the content understandings, knowledge, and skills that are measured by the Standards of Learning assessments. Each Standard of Learning includes at least one framework page divided into four columns that include: essential understandings; essential questions; essential knowledge; and essential skills. 2008 History and Social Science Standards of Learning Curriculum Framework
5 Essential Understandings: This column includes the fundamental background information necessary for answering the essential questions and acquiring the essential knowledge. Teachers should use these understandings as a basis for lesson planning. Emphasis Essential Questions: In this column are found questions that teachers may use to stimulate student thinking and classroom discussion. The questions are based on the standard and the essential understandings, but may use different vocabulary and may go beyond them. Essential Knowledge: This column delineates the key content facts, concepts, and ideas that students should grasp in order to demonstrate understanding of the standard. This information is not meant to be exhaustive or a limitation on what is taught in the classroom. Rather, it is meant to be the principal knowledge defining the standard. Essential Skills: This column enumerates the fundamental intellectual abilities that students should have—what they should be able to do—to be successful in accomplishing historical and geographical analysis and achieving responsible citizenship.
6 Assessment items may be drawn from any of the four columns and items may not and should not be a verbatim reflection of the information presented in the Curriculum Framework.
7 The Enhanced Sample Scope and Sequence provides sample instructional activities, sample assessments, follow-up extensions, and related resources.
8 Enhanced Scope and Sequence PLUS http://www.ttaconline.org/staff/sol/history.asp
9 2008 History and Social Science Standards of Learning Assessment and Blueprint Information There have been no changes to the number of items or the test format. Each test continues to include items that have a range of difficulty; however, the overall rigor of the tests has increased. Approximately 50 percent of the questions on the new tests require students to apply knowledge, compare information, or analyze and interpret information in order to respond to the item.
19 Geography Connects An Online Course Professional Development Opportunities
20 Strategies for Success on the 2008 History and Social Science Standards of Learning Assessments The following strategies have been identified by schools and school divisions as having a positive impact on their student’s success rate: teacher collaboration; multiple remediation opportunities; remediation decisions based on data; common assessments; administrative involvement; increased instructional time; subject area coaches; instructional foci; and professional development.
21 Teacher Collaboration Impact The most widespread strategy was the establishment of teacher collaboration through common planning time. While the details of the planning time differed among the schools, the effort put forth to increase collaboration among grade-level and subject-area teachers was the same. Multiple Remediation Opportunities Many schools created multiple remediation and intervention opportunities for their students. Combinations of extra assistance before school and after school, during an elective period, and in-school tutoring were specific strategies named by schools.
22 Remediation Based on Data Many schools reported that remediation efforts were directly tied to data collected through many sources such as SOL results, common quizzes, mid-terms and benchmark tests. During common planning time, teachers analyzed various sources of data, assigned students to remediation classes, and planned lessons based on the weaknesses identified by the data. Common Assessments Various forms of common assessments were used in many of the schools. Teachers collaborated on these assessments and used many types of tests including weekly common quizzes, unit tests, and teacher created benchmarks. Assessments were often created based on common lessons developed and taught by teachers.
23 Administrative Involvement A strong, involved administration contributed to SOL success in a majority of the schools. Faculty and staff in the schools reported that the entire administrative team (principals, assistants, subject area specialists) provided follow up to the teachers’ endeavors. This included attendance at teachers’ planning meetings for discussion of data and individual student needs, frequent observations of classes, meeting with at-risk students, and attending and following up on professional development related to history and social science instruction.
24 Increased Instructional Time Many schools indicated that instructional time in the content area was instrumental to the success of struggling students. Strategies included double-blocking instruction, identifying students for targeted “SOL Academies” during a study hall, and other creative ways to provide increased opportunity for learning. Subject Area Coaches Some schools hired either part-time or full-time content area coaches, also referred to as consultants or specialists. These coaches modeled lessons, met with teachers during planning time to design lessons and refine pacing guides, and provided professional development, among other duties.
25 Instructional Foci Three topics received the most attention in the area of instructional changes. These included the increased use of hands-on materials; a focus on vocabulary development specific to the content area; and and a regular review of content, particularly in a format that mirrored the SOL test design. Professional Development Nearly all of the schools reported that their teachers participated in professional development activities on both instruction and assessment, including those provided by the Department of Education at conferences and meetings, by private consultants, or within the school divisions themselves. Teachers who attended these sessions then shared what they learned with their respective faculties, either as a requirement by their administration or by the culture of collaboration in their school.
26 Additional Considerations: Strategies for Success on the 2008 History and Social Science Standards of Learning Assessments
27 Increased Emphasis on the Essential Skills in the 2008 History and Social Science Curriculum Framework Specify the focus of instruction for each standard. Indicate what the student should be able to do. Detail the fundamental intellectual abilities that the student should have – what they should be able to do to be successful in accomplishing historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship. Need to be incorporated in ALL history and social science content instruction.
28 Use a variety of instructional strategies, including those that require higher levels of thinking. Compare and contrast through classroom discussion, written response, and presentation. Focus on student-centered instruction. Use and analyze primary and secondary sources. Use reading and writing strategies with social studies content. Increase vocabulary instruction. Model the skills of historical inquiry. Connect content and activities to personal or real world experiences. Sample Best Practices
29 Asking challenging questions that require students to give evidence or reasons for their conclusions and opinions. Engaging students in organizing and interpreting content information. Encouraging active student involvement with the teacher as the facilitator of learning. Promoting and supporting interaction among students. Connecting new learning and prior knowledge. Critical Thinking Skills Developed by
30 Thank you! Please contact us if we can be of any further assistance! Betsy Barton E-mail: Betsy.Barton@doe.virginia.gov Beverly Thurston E-mail: Beverly.Thurston@doe.virginia.gov