Triangulation with surveys with participant observation
Funnel Method let respondent do all the talking can be a diagnostic interview the idea is to let the subject direct the interview.
Inverted funnel method Inverted funnel: Specific to general –You want to jog the interviewees memory –You want to motivate a reluctant participant –You want to get specific facts before general impressions
INTERVIEW ISSUES avoid leading questions avoid ritual agreement monitor the universe of discourse observe body language
INTERVIEW ISSUES avoid leading questions avoid ritual agreement monitor the universe of discourse observe body language convey expectation of cooperation
INTERVIEW ISSUES avoid leading questions avoid ritual agreement monitor the universe of discourse observe body language convey expectation of cooperation avoid unprofessional statements
To Tape or Not to Tape Advantages –more accurate and less distracting –better than relying on your memory –excellent training tool for interviewer Disadvantage –one thing to tell you, another to go on permanent record –worry about sound of their voice –worry who will hear tape
IF Using a Tape Recorder tell respondent who will have access to tape erase tape as soon as transcribed place recorder in obvious place –you can turn off/on; confirm working... –no question of subterfuge
IF Using a Tape Recorder check recorder before you show up –tape blank? –bring extra tape –check batteries –confirm that it is working! –move tape past leader –check volume control –practice with tape recorder
Who does this person have access to information that you want? approaching interviewees & their organizations
When schedule when no competing demands approach with attitude that their time is more important than yours do not schedule too closely together –45 minutes typical; 90 minutes longest sequencing
Where respondent’s place of business respondent’s home neutral spot
What interview blueprint –list research objective or research question, actual question and sample prompts (listing any specifics you would like to elicit) in table/chart form
The interview blueprint should guide you, not confine you
The interview blueprint and interview guides should serve as a road map. They can be used when you feel you are getting lost and to keep you focused on your destination….
But, remember, that sometimes the scenic route provides surprising discoveries. But, remember, that sometimes the scenic route provides surprising discoveries.
Transcription Standard verbatim Timed Journalistic Other… postmodern CODING
Interview Procedure phone ahead to confirm appointment when you arrive –reintroduce yourself and your study –explain how they were picked for study –confirm use of tape recorder –explain confidentiality and explain that they can end interview at any point –start tape (if using)
Interview Procedure when tape is rolling –say, “I’ve prepared some questions, but if they don’t seem to be hitting at the core of the issue, feel free to correct me” –start questions if ask tape be turned off for one question, remember to start again after –after last question, always ask “Is there anything else you’d like to add? Anything you think I’m missing?”
Interview Procedure after interview is over –don’t bolt…. –thank them for their participation –say into tape recorder “the foregoing was an interview with Jane Doe (D-o-e) for project 43, date, time, location, by your name –turn off tape, but hang around making small talk — will often get best stuff yet, now that formal interview is over once out of sight, debrief
Interview Procedure Debrief –check that tape has recorded properly tape is blank background noise obscures portions of tape reconstruct missing data — but distinguish in transcript between verbatim and reconstructed paraphrasing –record details (such as body language) not recorded on tape while still fresh in your memory –note your own preliminary interpretations and ideas
Transcription choose a format –standard dialog format –timed format (e.g., Discourse of Medicine by Mishler) –“postmodernist format” (e.g., Rebecca Luce Keplar) choose verbatim vs journalistic standard choose coding conventions
Analysis impressionistic vs coding –present all raw data and let reader decide? voice of respondents come through clearly but very tedious to read –present researcher’s interpretation easy to read but open to researcher’s bias –have several observers code objective attempt to reduce interview data for statistical analysis