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Heading Here School Workforce Reform in Victoria AN OVERVIEW.

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1 Heading Here School Workforce Reform in Victoria AN OVERVIEW

2 Why focus on workforce? The quality of the workforce is the major factor driving quality in schools and early childhood services. The most important resource that an education system possesses is the knowledge and skills of its leaders, teachers and others working for the benefit of children and young people.

3 The Research The evidence is clear that good teaching is critical to improving educational outcomes. It is vital that we attract the right people to become teachers, develop them into effective teachers and continue to improve the knowledge, skills and practice of the teaching workforce to ensure all students receive the individually tailored programs they need to succeed. McKinesy & Co Review (2007) “the quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers” The top performing systems: Get the right people to become teachers Develop them into effective instructors; and Ensure the system is able to deliver the best possible instruction for every child.

4 Critical factors in improving learning After student-related factors such as socio-economic and cultural background, teaching quality has the greatest impact on how students learn, accounting for between 23 – 30% of the variation in student scores. (Hattie 2003, Rockoff 2004) High-quality teachers tend to be effective with students at all ability levels. (Hanushek 2005) The impact of teaching is cumulative: a poor teacher leaves the student at a lower base that may impede their ability to undertake higher level work. (Sanders 1996) Leadership is a critical factor. (Barber 2007, Leithwood 2004)

5 Key takeaways from the McKinsey Report CHARATERISTCIS OF TOP-TIER EDUCATION SYSTEMS GET THE RIGHT PEOPLE Average academic calibre of teaching applicants within top 10% of age cohort Teaching profession as one of top 3 career choices among university applicants 1 in 10 applicants selected to enter teaching degree Starting salary in line with other graduate salaries and living standard DEVELOP THEM Minimum 20 weeks practical coaching in schools during degree 10% working time devoted to professional development Regular structured feedback providing teachers with knowledge of specific areas for enhanced effectiveness Teachers invited to each others’ classes to observe, learn and coach best practice The best coaches and instructors are selected as school leaders Research into effective instruction funded by annual budget of approx A$50 per student

6 Key takeaways from the McKinsey Report TARGET INTERVENTIONS AT UNDER- PERFORMANCE Clear curriculum and student standards appropriate to system performance Regular system-wide checks on school performance ensures all schools are aware of their strengths and weaknesses Underperformance tackled through effective mechanisms to support all failing students, resulting in minimum variation between schools Funding and support focussed where it can have most impact

7 The Victorian Context Partnerships with Parents & Community System Improvement Workforce Reform Every child, every opportunity - a 0-18 years framework

8 Workforce quality is central High performance, teamwork, diversity, flexibility, attracting and retaining the best The best people doing the right things

9 Victoria’s Reform Trajectory 1990s Self-managing Schools Effective Workforce HIGH LOW

10 Self-managing Schools Management devolved to schools:  Local selection of principals  Workforce management – hiring and appraisal of teachers  Curriculum programs within framework  Resource allocation – financial and facilities management

11 Self Management : Gains and Challenges Gains Responsibility and accountability improved at school level Improved administration of schools Greater response to local needs Challenges  Administrative leadership dominated  Competition rather than collaboration among schools  Administrative burden for small schools  Hands – off system approach to under – performance (market decides) Self Management set foundation for future gains

12 Victoria’s Reform Trajectory 1990s2003 Self-managing Schools Leadership and Development HIGH LOW Effective Workforce

13 Blueprint 2003 – Leadership and Development  Leadership focus – principal coaching; high potential leaders programs; performance management, balanced scorecard  School culture – ‘Performance and Development’ accreditation scheme for induction, mentoring, performance feedback and team support  Teacher skills – professional learning model; system-wide classroom improvement schemes e.g. ‘Principles of Learning and Teaching’, classroom practice guidelines; teacher coaches  Teacher registration and supply – teaching standards set for registration with ‘Victorian Institute of Teaching’; career change opportunities to boost supply

14 Gains Strong leadership and leadership teams Shift to educational leadership New systems consolidated e.g. registration, induction, performance and development Shift to school-based professional learning; value of coaching New data available on teacher attitudes and school culture

15 Challenges remained  Variation in student outcomes remained – largely unexplained  Increasing teacher knowledge and skills  Supports and interventions not sufficiently targeted And in the base structure:  Ageing workforce and declining status of teachers  Difficulty finding leaders

16 Victoria’s Reform Trajectory 1990s20032008 Self-managing Schools Leadership and Development Workforce Reform and Teacher Quality HIGH LOW Effective Workforce

17 Blueprint for Education and Early Childhood Development Excellent service provision can only happen when the right people are attracted, recruited and supported to do their jobs as effectively as possible. Modern Careers and Workplaces Increasing competition in the labour market for talented people Must provide career structures and working arrangements that are appealing and rewarding Ensure that working arrangements offer clear, rewarding and flexible career pathways and allow staff to focus on what they do best

18 Blueprint 2008 – workforce reform and teacher quality Modern careers and workplaces – investigate rewards and incentives; attraction of new graduates; new pre- service models; links strengthened with outcomes – high performance recognised; trial innovative approaches to work organisation Strong leadership and professional learning – establish the Victorian Institute of Educational Leadership; variation in salary and status for principals; high performing principals as mentors; instructional model for teacehers

19 Government School Workforce Principal class Teacher class - leading, expert, accomplished, graduate Student Support Services Officers (SSSOs) – speech pathologists, psychologists, social workers, guidance officers, and visiting teachers Primary and Secondary School Nurses School Services Officers (SSOs) - administration, HR, finance, facilities, maintenance, library, laboratory, IT, out-of-school hours care, canteen, integration, multicultural education

20 School Workforce Characteristics 2007 Disparity between supply and demand for teachers A surplus of approx 500 primary teachers Shortage of approx 470 secondary teachers Unmet demand for teachers in particular subject areas and locations 454 difficult to fill vacancies 307 secondary – Maths, Science, Technology, English 92 primary – LOTE, ESL, Music 55 special education

21 School Workforce Characteristics 2007 Average age of teachers increased significantly in recent years 37.8% teachers aged 50 and over 17.6% teachers aged 30 -39 years Drop in number teachers aged between 30 and 45 years From 1997 to 2007 number of teaching staff increased by 15% number of SSOs almost doubled to over 10,000

22 What are the key current workforce issues? Pool of primary teachers exceeds demand Insufficient secondary teachers Insufficient primary teachers prepared to teach in specific locations Insufficient primary teachers qualified LOTE, ESL Music Insufficient secondary teachers qualified Maths Science Technology English Status of teaching barrier in attracting Maths Science Technology graduates Pre-service teaching numbers increasing, post-grad increasing more rapidly Limited number of teaching and non-teaching staff prepared to work in rural and specific metropolitan schools Pay differentials between government and non-government school systems barrier in attracting, and retaining, staff in government system

23 Workforce for 21st century learning Attraction of the best to teaching Retention of the best in teaching Workforce diversity and flexibility – eg paraprofessionals, clinicians, teachers, early childhood, youth workers – all with one focus: student outcomes Salaries and links to contribution – eg difficult to staff schools, principals as mentors, improvement in student outcomes, achievements in professional learning Widespread adoption of best professional practices – eg higher quality teacher training, rigorous in-school performance feedback, valued leadership preparation

24 The Blueprint has signalled a range of investigations and trials to move us along the improvement path. For example, we will be trying out the recruitment program for high performing graduates from wider areas than education, encouraging new models of pre-service training, investigating rewards and incentives for effective teaching and setting up a leadership institute. Another initiative signalled in the Blueprint is to trial innovative approaches to work organisation. We will explore models for teachers to work with other professionals and paraprofessionals to deliver a wider range of learning experiences and allow teachers to focus on areas where they have unique skills.


26 Understanding Innovation There is increasing evidence that innovation can create substantial economic and social value Innovation is notoriously difficult to define, develop and sustain Innovation can stem from entirely new ideas Innovation also results from revising and repurposing existing ideas in new ways so that the outcome is different Innovation ranges from evolutionary or incremental to revolutionary and disruptive VPS Innovation Statement 2009 Problems cannot be solved by the same level of thinking that created them. Albert Einstein Creativity is thinking up new things. Innovation is doing new things. Theodore Levitt

27 What drives innovation in education? Increasing global integration and interdependence, as well as increased mobility and migration, are driving the need for greater religious tolerance, an appreciation of cultural diversity and a sense of global citizenship and commitment to peaceful conflict resolution India, China and other Asia-Pacific nations are growing and strengthening their impact on the world, representing a huge shift in geopolitical power – need to be “Asia literate”. Globalisation and technological change place an ever increasing premium on successful education and skill development, so that opportunities for fulfilling and rewarding lives for young people who do not complete secondary education, and also proceed into further training or education, are becoming few and far between. Increasingly complex environmental pressures that extend beyond national borders – such as climate change – pose unprecedented challenges, requiring countries with different priorities to work together in ways never before achieved. They also demand all Australians engage with science and approach problem solving in new and creative ways. Rapid and continuing advances in ICT are changing the way we share, use, develop and process information and technology, and there has been a massive shift in power – to consumers in general, and to learners specifically. MCEETYA September 2008

28 Changed Context Schooling must not only deal with these remarkable changes but also to some extent anticipate futures that are distant and seen only dimly. We expect almost all young Australians who begin primary school in 2011 will continue their initial education until 2022. Many will go on to post-secondary education and not complete their education until the mid-2020s and later. The Shape of the National Curriculum A Proposal for Discussion National Curriculum Board 2008

29 Questions confronting contemporary public services Innovation is a priority, so what are its sources to be? How are the insights and imagination of practitioners and users to be used in a powerful, disciplined way to generate innovation? How blend a relentless drive to spread good practice across systems, whilst enabling the design of the new?

30 A balancing act for educators Attending to the immediate, short term, mandated agenda AND addressing longer term horizons Delivering on the basis of knowledge about best practice AND enabling experimentation with unproven, promising possibilities

31 Disciplined Innovation Progressive improvements and transformational ideas both matter Innovation starts locally and thrives on fresh perspectives Innovate locally, but think system-wide Prudent boldness leads to sustainable benefits Innovation requires active support from leaders at all levels All parts of DEECD and its wider community can innovate DEECD values innovative people

32 The changing context provides the need to innovate. We also need to create a culture of innovation where practitioners themselves, in partnership with users, drive the search for new and improved approaches to education.

33 Practitioner-led Innovation Government-led reform From research, to prototype, to evaluation and subsequently to “roll-out” and “scale-up” Practitioners on receiving end Restricts the sources of innovative ideas and energy Practitioner-led innovation Connecting a supply of workable and transferable ideas and practices with the demand from users, investors and policy makers Finding what works and why, linking experimentation with evaluation

34 Blueprint Next Practice Field Trials Purpose Identify and evaluate practitioner led innovation that has system value Outputs and outcomes Policy and practice options Increased innovation capability Accelerated adoption of innovative practice Focus – Wider Workforce Models of workforce organisation that increase capacity to improve student outcomes Models of employment of paraprofessionals/experts

35 Blueprint Next Practice Field Trials Identification, collaboration and networking of innovative practitioners Establishing a research focus Accessing experts beyond education Stimulating futures thinking Developing site charters and action plans Testing of innovative processes and practices Professional learning and capacity building for site participants Capturing and dissemination of field trial findings INNOVATION ON BEHALF OF THE SYSTEM

36 Further information

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