Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Improving U.S. Public Schools: Evidence from San Diego Julian Betts.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Improving U.S. Public Schools: Evidence from San Diego Julian Betts."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Improving U.S. Public Schools: Evidence from San Diego Julian Betts

2 2 Symptoms of Problems in U.S. Public Education  Large achievement gaps between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups  In international tests, U.S. students hold their own nationally up to grade 4 but by grade 8 U.S. students have fallen significantly behind their peers in many other countries

3 3 Have U.S. Public Schools Improved Over Time? Inputs have Soared:

4 4 …but Test Scores Have Not Risen Much:

5 5Implications  The way we have increased public school spending has not led to large test-score gains  Similarly, overall increases in spending have left achievement gaps relatively unchanged over three decades  Federal No Child Left Behind Law requires states to boost achievement of lowest scoring groups

6 6 Agenda for this Talk  Review two books that use student-level data from San Diego to analyze “what matters” for student achievement  Our first book (2003) is a general analysis of “inputs” and outcomes  Our second book (2005) evaluates San Diego’s Blueprint for Student Success, a controversial and sweeping reform

7 7 Determinants of Student Achievement: New Evidence from San Diego Julian Betts, Andrew Zau, Lorien Rice PPIC 2003

8 8 Origins of Project  How can we most effectively improve school quality?  State-level database has severe limitations –Can’t follow students over time –Limited information on teachers –Can’t match students to peers or teachers  Urgent need for longitudinal student-level study

9 9Goals  Document variations in school resources and student achievement  Identify effects on student achievement of: –Teacher characteristics –Class size –Curriculum –Student background –Peer groups  Derive policy implications

10 10Outline  Variations across SDUSD schools  Recent patterns in test scores  Determinants of learning in SDUSD  Policy implications  Agenda for future research

11 11 Schools Serving Disadvantaged Tend to Have:  Less experienced teachers  Less educated teachers  Fewer teachers with full credential/subject authorization

12 12Outline  Variations across SDUSD schools  Recent patterns in test scores  Determinants of learning in SDUSD  Policy implications

13 13 Patterns in Test Scores  Huge achievement gap in spring 1998  Steady reduction in gaps related to race, language, poverty, spring 1998 to spring 2000

14 14 Large Variations in Test Scores Related to Socioeconomic Status Spring 1998 reading scores by SES quintile of school High SES Low SES Score Initial grade level

15 15 Large Variations in Test Scores Related to Socioeconomic Status Spring 1998 reading scores by SES quintile of school High SES Low SES Score Initial grade level

16 16Outline  Variations across SDUSD schools  Recent patterns in test scores  Determinants of learning in SDUSD  Policy implications

17 17 Statistical Approach  Models explain gains in math and reading test scores for each student –Use test scores spring 1998 to spring 2000  Link students to classroom peers, teachers  Control for unobserved but fixed aspects of each student, school, zip code  Identify effect of school resources such as class size by small changes in class size experienced by a student in different years

18 18 Interpretation of Regression Results  Simulate effect of switching from less qualified to more qualified teacher –Comparison group: Teachers with full credential, ten or more years’ experience, bachelor’s degree, and in middle / high school, full subject authorizationTeachers with full credential, ten or more years’ experience, bachelor’s degree, and in middle / high school, full subject authorization  For class size, peer group achievement, other variables, examine effect of changing between 25 th and 75 th percentile

19 19 Elementary Schools: Peer Groups, Class Size More Important Than Teacher Qualifications Predicted change in rate of learning % days absent Grade peer scores Class peer scores Class size Interns (0-1) Emerg'y (0-1) Masters Reading Math

20 20 High Schools: Peers, Absences, and Courses Taken Matter in Math Predicted change in rate of learning % days absent Grade peer scores Class peer scores # classes taken (0-1) # classes taken (>2) % Reading Math

21 21 High School: Teacher Qualifications Matter Sporadically but Importantly Predicted change in rate of learning Emerg'y MastersPhD Supple- mental Board resolution % Reading Math

22 22Outline  Variations across SDUSD schools  Recent patterns in test scores  Determinants of learning in SDUSD  Policy implications

23 23 What Do Peer Group Results Suggest?  Educational interventions: Not a “zero sum game”  Ability grouping an issue nationally  Suggests public school choice as policy lever

24 24 What Do Mixed Results on Teacher Qualifications Mean for Policy?  Paradox: Low-SES schools have least qualified teachers and largest test-score gains –Teacher qualifications matter less than some claim  Middle and high school teachers without “full” subject authorization and master’s –A problem, but not a crisis –Differential pay in subject areas with shortages  Effectiveness of teacher credentialing system?

25 25 How to Handle Current Budget Cutbacks Statewide  Some areas of spending may deserve protection –Smaller classes in elementary schools (especially for English Learner students) –Adjust pay to retain highly qualified teachers in upper grades, especially high school

26 26 From Blueprint to Reality: San Diego’s Education Reforms Julian Betts Andrew Zau Kevin King PPIC 2005

27 27Outline  Overview of “Blueprint for Student Success”  Effects of interventions on gains in reading achievement  Concluding observations

28 28 Large Differences in Student Achievement  Across nation: Large achievement gaps between races, socioeoconomic groups, language groups  Betts, Zau, Rice (2003) demonstrate this in context of San Diego Unified School District (SDUSD)  Growing recognition that broad reforms that do not focus on low-performers ─ such as increased overall spending ─ do little to narrow gaps

29 29 SDUSD in Forefront of Reforms  SDUSD among several of largest districts in nation undertaking reforms to narrow achievement gap  “Blueprint for Student Success” implemented in summer 2000  Massive redeployment of resources to students lagging behind, especially in reading

30 30 Blueprint: A High-Profile Program  National attention in press  Tens of millions of dollars in funding from foundations around nation (e.g., Hewlett, Gates, Atlantic Philanthropies)  “This really is the most important urban school reform effort in the country…. If the reforms work here, they will have a national impact because ideas travel.” – Marshall Smith, former U.S. Undersecretary of Education; currently Program Director for Education, the Hewlett Foundation

31 31 Goals of Project  Provide first student-level analysis of effect of Blueprint on reading achievement (levels and gaps)  Analyze which elements of Blueprint are most effective –Impossible with earlier school-level analysis  Describe student participation  Study first two years of Blueprint

32 32 Elements of Blueprint  Three main strategies to help students –Prevention –Interventions (for those lagging behind, based on test scores) –Grade retention (in extreme cases)  Initial emphasis on reading, although district later implemented some math interventions  Significant spending on teacher professional development

33 33 Prevention Strategies  Peer coaches in schools to train teachers  Elementary level –API 2 schools – additional resources / second peer coach –Focus schools – same as API 2 schools plus extended school year –Enhanced classes – all K and grade 1  First year of middle school / junior high –Genre studies – two-period English class

34 34Interventions  Literacy block –Double-length English class in middle / high school, with class size of 20 in entry grade  Literacy core –Triple-length English class for those significantly below grade level in grade 9 and those Blueprint-retained in grades 6 / 7  Extended-Day Reading Program (EDRP)  Summer school / intersession  Retention

35 35 Interventions Are Quite Targeted  About 1 in 3 students participated in interventions in and  Majority of those participating were involved in only one intervention per year

36 36 Are the “Right” Students Participating?  Based on two separate reading tests: those deemed below or significantly below grade level are eligible for intervention  District uses test scores as publicized, but some flexibility –Not all eligible students participate –Some ineligible students participate

37 37Outline  Overview of “Blueprint for Student Success”  Effects of interventions on gains in reading achievement  Concluding observations

38 38 Statistical Approach  Models explain gains in reading test scores for each student –Use test score gains from spring 1999 to spring 2002  As in earlier study, control for characteristics of each student, teacher, class, school, and for unobserved but fixed aspects of each student, school, home zip code

39 39 Overview of Results  Some preventive measures worked (API2 and Focus Schools) and some did not (peer coaches)  Interventions generally worked well – except for extended English classes in high school

40 40 Elementary Schools: Blueprint Greatly Boosted Average Gain in Reading Scores Elementary School Students API 2 school Focus school EDRP Summer school Inter- session Change (%)

41 41 Middle Schools: Many Blueprint Elements Raised Scores Change (%) Summer school Inter- session Literacy block Literacy core EDRP Middle School Students

42 42 High Schools: Summer School the Only Element That Improved Reading Scores High School Students Change (%) Summer school Block / core for EL students Peer coach as % of enrollment Literacy block

43 43 How Big Are Gains for Individual Participants Over Time?  For students in grades 3, 6, and 9 in fall 2000 (participating in at least one intervention): What is predicted two-year cumulative effect of participation? What is predicted two-year cumulative effect of participation?  As a percentage of a standard deviation in their cohorts’ test scores in spring 2002: –Elementary + 23% –Middle + 6% –High School – 12%

44 44 Grade 3: Blueprint Shifts Participants’ Location in Distribution of Reading Scores District Test-Score Decile % of Blueprint participants If no Blueprint Elementary Schools

45 45 Grade 3: Blueprint Shifts Participants’ Location in Distribution of Reading Scores District Test-Score Decile % of Blueprint participants Actual If no Blueprint Elementary Schools

46 46 Grade 6: Similar but Weaker Improvement Grade 9: Small Negative Effects Middle Schools Decile % High Schools Decile Actual No Blueprint

47 47 Participation Patterns Imply Reductions in Ethnic Test Score Gaps, Except in High School Two-Year Reduction in Ethnic Test Score Gaps Attributable to Blueprint Elementary school Middle school High school % Black -White Hispanic-White

48 48Outline  Overview of “Blueprint for Student Success”  Effects of interventions on gains in reading achievement  Concluding observations

49 49 Overall, Blueprint Boosted Reading Achievement: But Large Variations  Blueprint most successful in elementary schools, least successful in high schools  High schools: Better off without Blueprint? –Summer school worked, pullout classes failed Issues of stigma among high school students?Issues of stigma among high school students? Lack of experience with these reforms at high school level?Lack of experience with these reforms at high school level?

50 50 Overall Summary of What Works  3 key elements: diagnosis, intervention, professional development  Student time on task: Matters tremendously for reading (EDRP, summer school, double and triple length English classes) –All of these activities are supervised by teachers trained in approaches to literacy

51 51 Proof of Concept  Achievement gaps not insurmountable after all


Download ppt "1 Improving U.S. Public Schools: Evidence from San Diego Julian Betts."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google