Presentation on theme: "KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS LIFE CYCLE"— Presentation transcript:
1KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS LIFE CYCLE Lecture 2
2Introduction Challenges in building KM systems Conventional vs KM System Life CycleKnowledge Management System Life Cycle (KMSLC)System specificationsRole of rapid prototypingSelecting an expertRole of knowledge developmentRole of quality assuranceUser trainingImplications for KMSummary
3Introduction KMSLC centers around 3 questions: What is the problem that warrants a solution by KM?What development strategy should be considered?What process will be used to build the system?
4Challenges in building KMS Changing Organizational CultureInvolves changing people's attitudes and behaviours.Sharing Knowledge and not hoardingKnowledge Evaluation:Involves assessing the worth of informationReward system for employees generating best knowledge
5Challenges Knowledge Processing: Knowledge Implementation: Involves the identification of techniques to acquire, store, process and distribute information.Sometimes it is necessary to document how certain decisions were reached.Knowledge Implementation:An organization should commit to change, learn, and innovate.It is important to extract meaning from information that may have an impact on specific missions.Lessons learned from feedback can be stored for future to help others facing the similar problems
6Conventional vs KMSLC Key differences Systems analysts deal with information from the user; knowledge developers deal with knowledge for company specialistsUsers know the problem but not the solution; company specialists know the problem and the solutionSystem development is primarily sequential; KMSLC is incremental and interactive; rapid prototyping important in KMSLC
7Key differencesSystem testing normally at end of cycle; KM system testing evolves from beginning of the cycleSystem development more extensive than for KMSLCConventional system life cycle is process-driven “specify then build”; KMSLC is result-oriented “start slow and grow”Conventional system life cycle does not support rapid prototyping; KMSLC does
8Rapid Prototyping Process Structurethe ProblemReformulate the ProblemRepeatedCycle(s)Structurea TaskRepeated Cycle(s)Make ModificationsBuilda Task
9Key similarities Both begin with a problem and end with a solution Both begin with information gathering or captureVerification and validation of KM resemble conventional system testingTesting is essentially the same to make sure the system is right and it is the right systemBoth developers must choose the appropriate tool(s) for designing their respective systems
10Comparison of users and experts Attribute User ExpertDependence on system High Low to nilCooperation Usually cooperative Cooperation not requiredTolerance for ambiguity Low HighKnowledge of problem High Average/lowContribution to system Information Knowledge/expertiseSystem user Yes NoAvailability for systembuilder Readily available Not readily availableComparison of users and experts
11KM System Development LC Stage Key Qs OutcomeEvaluate existing infrastructureWhat is the problem?Is system justifiable?Is system feasible?Statement of objectivesPerformance criteriaStrategic plamForm the KM teamWho should be on team?How will the team function?Standardised procedure for system developmentKnowledge captureWhat and whose K should be captured?How would K capture proceed?Acquisition of K core
12KM System Development LC Stage Key Qs OutcomeDesign KM blueprintHow will K be represented?Design of KM systemHardware/ software implementation detailsTest planSecurityTest the KM systemHow reliable is the system?Peer reviewsImplement KM systemWhat is the actual operation?How easy is it to use?User friendly systemTraining program
13KM System Development LC Stage Key Qs OutcomeManage change and reward structureDoes the system provide the intended solutions?Satisfied usersPost-system evaluationsShould the system be modified?Reliable and up-to-date system
14Evaluate existing infrastructure System justificationWill current knowledge be lost through retirement, transfer, or departure to other firms?Is the proposed KM system needed in several locations?Are experts available and willing to help in building a KM system?
15Evaluate existing infrastructure System justificationDoes the problem in question require years of experience and cognitive reasoning to solve?When undergoing knowledge capture, can the expert articulate how problem will be solved?How critical is the knowledge to be captured?Are the tasks non algorithmic?Is there a champion in the house?
16The Scope FactorConsider breadth and depth of the project within financial, human resource, and operational constraintsProject must be completed quickly enough for users to foresee its benefitsCheck to see how current technology will match technical requirements of the proposed KM system
17The Feasibility Question A feasibility study addresses several questions:Is the project doable?Is it affordable?Is it appropriate?Is it practicable?
18Feasibility issues Areas of feasibility: Economic feasibility determines to what extent a new system is cost-effectiveTechnical feasibility is determined by evaluating hardware and supportive software within company’s IT infrastructureBehavioral feasibility includes training management and employees in the use of the KM system
19Feasibility IssuesTraditional approach to conducting a feasibility study:Form a KM teamPrepare a master planEvaluate cost/performance of proposed KMQuantify system criteria and costsDetermine weight factors and ranking for criteriaGain user support throughout the process
20Role of Strategic Planning Risky to plunge with a new KM system without strategizing. Consider the following:Vision — Foresee what the business is trying to achieve, how it will be done, and how the new system will achieve goalsResources — Check on the affordability of the business to invest in a new KM systemCulture — Is the company’s political and social environment amenable to adopting a new KM system?
21Matching Business Strategy With KM Strategy StrategicPlanBusinessEnvironmentCompetitive threats; government regulations; customer threatsImpactsRegarding products or services, market, customers, suppliersEnablesImpactsDrivesKMTechnologyKMStrategyQuality and reliability of the infrastructure and IT staff and resourcesEnablesFocus on competitive advantage, role of IT, and level of creativity and knowledge innovation
22Forming the KM teamIdentify the key stakeholders in the prospective KM system.Identify factors of team success:Caliber of team membersTeam sizeComplexity of the projectLeadership and team motivationPromising more than can be realistically delivered
23Knowledge captureExplicit knowledge captured in repositories from various mediaTacit knowledge captured from company experts using various tools and methodologiesKnowledge developers capture knowledge from experts in order to build the knowledge baseKnowledge capture and transfer often carried out through teams, not just individuals
24Knowledge Capture and Transfer Through Teams Evaluate relationship between action and outcomeOutcome AchievedTeam performsa specialized taskKnowledge DeveloperKnowledge stored in a form usable by others in the organizationKnowledge transfer method selectedFeedback
25Knowledge capture activities in KMSLC KMSLC stepDetermine feasibilityCapture KDesign KM blueprintVerify & validate KM systemImplement KM systemManage change & reward structureEvaluate postsystemKCapture activitySeek out championLocate cooperative expertApply tools to capture expert’s KDesign KM architectureCorrect for K integrity and work closely with expert for rapid prototypingWork with userReinforce change
26Role of rapid prototyping Spontaneous, iterative building of knowledge base: rapid prototypingBenefits include:Documents progress madeMistakes easily correctedYields tangible product earlySystems grows with user understandingPromotes accelerated K captureDemonstrates capabilities of resulting KB
27Selecting an ExpertKnowledge base should represent expertise rather than the expertQuestions facing knowledge developer:How does one know the expert is in fact an expert?How would one know that the expert will stay with the project?What backup should be available in case the project loses the expert?How would the knowledge developer know what is and what is not within the expert’s area of expertise?
28Role of the Knowledge Developer The architect of the systemJob requires excellent communication skills, knowledge capture tools, conceptual thinking, and a personality that motivates peopleClose contacts with the championRapport with top management for ongoing support
29Central Role of the Knowledge Developer KNOWLEDGE WORKERCHAMPIONProgressReportsPrototypesDemosSupportFeedbackSolutionsInteractiveInterfaceKNOWLEDGE DEVELOPERUserAcceptanceRulesKnowledgeTestingKNOWLEDGE BASEKNOWER
30Design of the KM Blueprint The KM system design (blueprint) addresses several issues:System interoperability and scalability with existing company IT infrastructureFinalize scope of proposed KM system with realized net benefitsDecide on required system components
31Design the KM blueprint Develop the key layers of the KM architecture to meet company requirements. Key layers are:User interfaceAuthentication/security layerCollaborative agents and filteringApplication layerTransport Internet layerPhysical layer
32Testing the KM SystemVerification procedure: ensures that the system is rightValidation procedure: ensures that the system is the right systemValidation of KM systems is not foolproof
33Implementing the KM System Converting a new KM system into actual operationThis phase includes conversion of data or filesThis phase also includes user trainingQuality assurance is paramount, which includes checking for:Reasoning errorsAmbiguityIncompletenessFalse representation (false positive and false negative)
34Resisting Change Experts Regular employees (users) Troublemakers Narrow-minded superstarsResistance via projection, avoidance, or aggression
35Postsystem evaluation How has KM system changed accuracy and timeliness of decision making?Has the new system caused organisational changes? How constructive have they been?How has the new KM system affected the attitude of the end users? In what way?How has the new KM changed the cost of operating the business?In what way KM affected relationships between end users in the organisation?
36Summary Building a KM system can be viewed as a life cycle Conventional and KM systems’ development life cycles differConventional and KM systems’ development life cycles are also similarK capture involves elicitation, analysis, and interpretation of the K that a human expert usesRapid prototypingVerification and validation after KM blueprintUpdate and modify system as new K is capturedMost barriers to KM are non technical
37References Read Chapter 3; E.M. Awad Davenport, T.H. & Prusak, L. (2000) Working Knowledge, Boston, M.A. Harvard Business School Press, pp