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1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS LIFE CYCLE Lecture 2.

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Presentation on theme: "1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS LIFE CYCLE Lecture 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS LIFE CYCLE Lecture 2

2 2 Introduction Challenges in building KM systems Conventional vs KM System Life Cycle Knowledge Management System Life Cycle (KMSLC) System specifications Role of rapid prototyping Selecting an expert Role of knowledge development Role of quality assurance User training Implications for KM Summary

3 3 Introduction KMSLC centers around 3 questions: What is the problem that warrants a solution by KM? What development strategy should be considered? What process will be used to build the system?

4 4 Challenges in building KMS Changing Organizational Culture Involves changing people's attitudes and behaviours. Sharing Knowledge and not hoarding Knowledge Evaluation: Involves assessing the worth of information Reward system for employees generating best knowledge

5 5 Challenges Knowledge Processing: Involves the identification of techniques to acquire, store, process and distribute information. Sometimes it is necessary to document how certain decisions were reached. Knowledge Implementation: An organization should commit to change, learn, and innovate. It is important to extract meaning from information that may have an impact on specific missions. Lessons learned from feedback can be stored for future to help others facing the similar problems

6 6 Conventional vs KMSLC Key differences Systems analysts deal with information from the user; knowledge developers deal with knowledge for company specialists Users know the problem but not the solution; company specialists know the problem and the solution System development is primarily sequential; KMSLC is incremental and interactive; rapid prototyping important in KMSLC

7 7 Key differences System testing normally at end of cycle; KM system testing evolves from beginning of the cycle System development more extensive than for KMSLC Conventional system life cycle is process-driven “specify then build”; KMSLC is result-oriented “start slow and grow” Conventional system life cycle does not support rapid prototyping; KMSLC does

8 8 Rapid Prototyping Process Build a Task Structure a Task Structure the Problem Make Modifications Reformulate the Problem Repeated Cycle(s) Repeated Cycle(s)

9 9 Key similarities Both begin with a problem and end with a solution Both begin with information gathering or capture Verification and validation of KM resemble conventional system testing Testing is essentially the same to make sure the system is right and it is the right system Both developers must choose the appropriate tool(s) for designing their respective systems

10 Attribute User Expert Dependence on system High Low to nil Cooperation Usually cooperative Cooperation not required Tolerance for ambiguity Low High Knowledge of problem High Average/low Contribution to system Information Knowledge/expertise System user Yes No Availability for system builder Readily available Not readily available Comparison of users and experts

11 11 KM System Development LC Evaluate existing infrastructure What is the problem? Is system justifiable? Is system feasible? Statement of objectives Performance criteria Strategic plam Form the KM teamWho should be on team? How will the team function? Standardised procedure for system development Knowledge captureWhat and whose K should be captured? How would K capture proceed? Acquisition of K core Stage Key Qs Outcome

12 12 KM System Development LC Design KM blueprintHow will K be represented? Design of KM system Hardware/ software implementation details Test plan Security Test the KM systemHow reliable is the system? Peer reviews Implement KM systemWhat is the actual operation? How easy is it to use? User friendly system Training program Stage Key Qs Outcome

13 13 KM System Development LC Manage change and reward structure Does the system provide the intended solutions? Satisfied users Post-system evaluationsShould the system be modified? Reliable and up-to- date system Stage Key Qs Outcome

14 14 Evaluate existing infrastructure System justification Will current knowledge be lost through retirement, transfer, or departure to other firms? Is the proposed KM system needed in several locations? Are experts available and willing to help in building a KM system?

15 15 Evaluate existing infrastructure System justification Does the problem in question require years of experience and cognitive reasoning to solve? When undergoing knowledge capture, can the expert articulate how problem will be solved? How critical is the knowledge to be captured? Are the tasks non algorithmic? Is there a champion in the house?

16 16 The Scope Factor Consider breadth and depth of the project within financial, human resource, and operational constraints Project must be completed quickly enough for users to foresee its benefits Check to see how current technology will match technical requirements of the proposed KM system

17 17 The Feasibility Question A feasibility study addresses several questions: Is the project doable? Is it affordable? Is it appropriate? Is it practicable?

18 18 Feasibility issues Areas of feasibility: Economic feasibility determines to what extent a new system is cost-effective Technical feasibility is determined by evaluating hardware and supportive software within company’s IT infrastructure Behavioral feasibility includes training management and employees in the use of the KM system

19 19 Feasibility Issues Traditional approach to conducting a feasibility study: Form a KM team Prepare a master plan Evaluate cost/performance of proposed KM Quantify system criteria and costs Determine weight factors and ranking for criteria Gain user support throughout the process

20 20 Role of Strategic Planning Risky to plunge with a new KM system without strategizing. Consider the following: Vision — Foresee what the business is trying to achieve, how it will be done, and how the new system will achieve goals Resources — Check on the affordability of the business to invest in a new KM system Culture — Is the company’s political and social environment amenable to adopting a new KM system?

21 21 Matching Business Strategy With KM Strategy Competitive threats; government regulations; customer threats Focus on competitive advantage, role of IT, and level of creativity and knowledge innovation Quality and reliability of the infrastructure and IT staff and resources Regarding products or services, market, customers, suppliers Business Environment Strategic Plan KM Strategy KM Technology Impacts Enables Drives Enables

22 22 Forming the KM team Identify the key stakeholders in the prospective KM system. Identify factors of team success: Caliber of team members Team size Complexity of the project Leadership and team motivation Promising more than can be realistically delivered

23 23 Knowledge capture Explicit knowledge captured in repositories from various media Tacit knowledge captured from company experts using various tools and methodologies Knowledge developers capture knowledge from experts in order to build the knowledge base Knowledge capture and transfer often carried out through teams, not just individuals

24 24 Knowledge Capture and Transfer Through Teams Team performs a specialized task Knowledge transfer method selected Evaluate relationship between action and outcome Outcome Achieved Knowledge Developer Knowledge stored in a form usable by others in the organization Feedback

25 25 Knowledge capture activities in KMSLC KMSLC step 1. Determine feasibility 2. Capture K 3. Design KM blueprint 4. Verify & validate KM system 5. Implement KM system 6. Manage change & reward structure 7. Evaluate postsystem KCapture activity 1. Seek out champion 2. Locate cooperative expert 3. Apply tools to capture expert’s K 4. Design KM architecture 5. Correct for K integrity and work closely with expert for rapid prototyping 6. Work with user 7. Reinforce change

26 26 Role of rapid prototyping Spontaneous, iterative building of knowledge base: rapid prototyping Benefits include: Documents progress made Mistakes easily corrected Yields tangible product early Systems grows with user understanding Promotes accelerated K capture Demonstrates capabilities of resulting KB

27 27 Selecting an Expert Knowledge base should represent expertise rather than the expert Questions facing knowledge developer: How does one know the expert is in fact an expert? How would one know that the expert will stay with the project? What backup should be available in case the project loses the expert? How would the knowledge developer know what is and what is not within the expert’s area of expertise?

28 28 Role of the Knowledge Developer The architect of the system Job requires excellent communication skills, knowledge capture tools, conceptual thinking, and a personality that motivates people Close contacts with the champion Rapport with top management for ongoing support

29 29 Central Role of the Knowledge Developer KNOWLEDGE WORKER KNOWER CHAMPION KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPER KNOWLEDGE BASE Interactive Interface Solutions User Acceptance Rules Testing Knowledge Support Feedback Prototypes Progress Reports Demos

30 30 Design of the KM Blueprint The KM system design (blueprint) addresses several issues: System interoperability and scalability with existing company IT infrastructure Finalize scope of proposed KM system with realized net benefits Decide on required system components

31 31 Design the KM blueprint Develop the key layers of the KM architecture to meet company requirements. Key layers are: User interface Authentication/security layer Collaborative agents and filtering Application layer Transport Internet layer Physical layer

32 32 Testing the KM System Verification procedure: ensures that the system is right Validation procedure: ensures that the system is the right system Validation of KM systems is not foolproof

33 33 Implementing the KM System Converting a new KM system into actual operation This phase includes conversion of data or files This phase also includes user training Quality assurance is paramount, which includes checking for: Reasoning errors Ambiguity Incompleteness False representation (false positive and false negative)

34 34 Resisting Change Experts Regular employees (users) Troublemakers Narrow-minded superstars Resistance via projection, avoidance, or aggression

35 35 Postsystem evaluation How has KM system changed accuracy and timeliness of decision making? Has the new system caused organisational changes? How constructive have they been? How has the new KM system affected the attitude of the end users? In what way? How has the new KM changed the cost of operating the business? In what way KM affected relationships between end users in the organisation?

36 36 Summary Building a KM system can be viewed as a life cycle Conventional and KM systems’ development life cycles differ Conventional and KM systems’ development life cycles are also similar K capture involves elicitation, analysis, and interpretation of the K that a human expert uses Rapid prototyping Verification and validation after KM blueprint Update and modify system as new K is captured Most barriers to KM are non technical

37 37 References Read Chapter 3; E.M. Awad Davenport, T.H. & Prusak, L. (2000) Working Knowledge, Boston, M.A. Harvard Business School Press, pp


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